Arne K Andreassen

Oslo University Hospital, Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway

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Publications (94)405.65 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heart failure patients with reduced and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) show reduced exercise capacity. We explored the relationship between exercise capacity and systolic and diastolic myocardial function in heart failure patients. Exercise capacity, by peak oxygen uptake (VO2), was assessed in 100 patients (56 ± 12 years, NYHA functional class: 2.5 ± 0.9, EF: 42 ± 19%). LV systolic function, as EF and global longitudinal strain (GLS), and right ventricular function were assessed by echocardiography. Left atrial volume index and the ratio of peak early diastolic filling velocity (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') were measures of diastolic function. Thirty-seven patients had heart failure with preserved EF (HFpEF), defined as EF ≥50% and echocardiographic diastolic dysfunction. LV GLS and peak pulmonary arterial systolic pressure were independently correlated to peak VO2 in the total study population and in HFpEF separately. LV GLS was superior to EF in identifying patients with impaired peak VO2 <20 mL/kg/min as shown by receiver operating characteristic analyses [areas under curves 0.93 (0.89-0.98) vs. 0.85 (0.77-0.93), P < 0.05]. In patients with HFpEF, GLS was reduced below normal (-17.5 ± 3.2%) and correlated to E/e' (R = 0.45, P = 0.005) and left atrial volume index (R = 0.48, P = 0.003), while EF did not. GLS correlated independently to peak VO2 in patients with reduced and preserved EF and was superior in identifying patients with reduced exercise capacity. In HFpEF, systolic function by GLS was impaired. There was a significant relationship between diastolic function and GLS, confirming a coupling between diastolic and longitudinal systolic function in HFpEF. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 12/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of soluble ST2 (sST2) are associated with adverse outcome in heart failure. A change in sST2 levels has also been shown to presage outcome. In vitro, ST2 expression is induced by myocardial stress and pro-inflammatory stimuli. The determinants of sST2 levels in vivo, and how they vary with clinical status over time, have not been well described. In a cohort of patients with non-ischemic heart failure, we aimed to assess the association between sST2-levels and hemodynamic parameters reflecting right and left ventricular pre- and afterload, and how these vary with time and clinical status.Methods We prospectively recruited 102 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 26 ± 10% and a diagnosis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy based on patient history, clinical examination, echocardiography and coronary angiography. Patients went through extensive baseline work-up and were re-examined after one year. Subsequently, heart transplantations and deaths were recorded. Determinants of sST2 were analyzed at baseline and after one year. Soluble ST2 was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay.ResultsSoluble ST2 levels were associated with hemodynamic parameters, but these associations were attenuated with clinical improvement. Soluble ST2 was elevated in patients with severe symptoms, but did not vary with etiology, viral presence or the amount of myocardial fibrosis. Heart rate and right atrial pressure remained independent predictors of sST2 on multiple regression analysis.Conclusions Our results imply that in non-ischemic heart failure, sST2 reflects hemodynamic stress rather than pathogenic processes in the myocardium.
    International Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a randomized, open-label trial, everolimus was compared to cyclosporine in 115 de novo heart transplant recipients. Patients were assigned within 5 days posttransplant to low-exposure everolimus (3–6 ng/mL) with reduced-exposure cyclosporine (n = 56), or standard-exposure cyclosporine (n = 59), with both mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. In the everolimus group, cyclosporine was withdrawn after 7–11 weeks and everolimus exposure increased (6–10 ng/mL). The primary efficacy end point, measured GFR at 12 months posttransplant, was significantly higher with everolimus versus cyclosporine (mean ± SD: 79.8 ± 17.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 61.5 ± 19.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.001). Coronary intravascular ultrasound showed that the mean increase in maximal intimal thickness was smaller (0.03 mm [95% CI 0.01, 0.05 mm] vs. 0.08 mm [95% CI 0.05, 0.12 mm], p = 0.03), and the incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) was lower (50.0% vs. 64.6%, p = 0.003), with everolimus versus cyclosporine at month 12. Biopsy-proven acute rejection after weeks 7–11 was more frequent with everolimus (p = 0.03). Left ventricular function was not inferior with everolimus versus cyclosporine. Cytomegalovirus infection was less common with everolimus (5.4% vs. 30.5%, p < 0.001); the incidence of bacterial infection was similar. In conclusion, everolimus-based immunosuppression with early elimination of cyclosporine markedly improved renal function after heart transplantation. Since postoperative safety was not jeopardized and development of CAV was attenuated, this strategy may benefit long-term outcome.
    American Journal of Transplantation 07/2014; · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2014; 33(4):S281. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2014; 33(4):S134. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2014; 33(4):S173-S174. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in patients with inoperable disease or persistent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy. Observational cohort study. Referred patients with inoperable or persistent CTEPH. Twenty consecutive CTEPH patients (10 females), aged 60±10 years. Right heart catheterisation, functional capacity (cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and NYHA class) and blood sampled biomarkers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin T examined at the time of diagnosis and repeated in all patients 3 months after the last BPA. Seventy-three catheterisations were performed with 18.6±6.1 BPAs per patient on segmental and subsegmental arteries. Two deaths occurred following the first BPA, with an overall 10% periprocedural death rate. Reperfusion oedema complicated seven procedures. Comparisons before and after BPA showed significant haemodynamic improvements, including decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) (45±11 mm Hg vs 33±10 mm Hg; p<0.001) and increased cardiac output (4.9±1.6 L/min vs 5.4±1.9 L/min; p=0.011). Reduced right ventricular strain was indicated by significantly lower plasma levels of NT-proBNP and troponin T. Significant improvement in functional capacity was evident as assessed by NYHA class (3.0±0.5 vs 2.0±0.5; p<0.001) and CPET (13.6±5.6 mL/kg/min vs 17.0±6.5 mL/kg/min; p<0.001). Seventeen patients (85%) were alive after 51±30 months of follow-up. BPA may offer an alternative form of treatment in selected CTEPH patients. While prognostic markers such as haemodynamics, functional capacity and biomarkers improve, significant periprocedural complications must be recognised. Randomised trials are warranted.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 07/2013; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Due to the need for suitable donors for heart transplantation (HTx), older grafts and grafts with prolonged graft ischaemic time (GIT) are accepted. The impact of GIT and donor age on post-transplant cardiac function has not been examined with either newer echocardiographic techniques (tissue Doppler imaging, TDI) or cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Thus, we studied the influence of GIT and donor age on post-transplant cardiac function and exercise capacity. METHODS: Fifty-two stable recipients underwent echocardiography with colour TDI and CPET at a median of 4 years after HTx. Left ventricular (LV) systolic (s') and early diastolic (e') mitral annular velocities, right ventricular (RV) s', RVe' as well as LV ejection fraction (EF) and VO2peak were analysed. RESULTS: HTx recipients with GIT ≥ median value (200 min) had significantly lower septal LVs' (15%, P = 0.005), LVEF (9%, P = 0.015), RVs' (21%, P = 0.007), septal LVe' (22%, P = 0.001) and RVe' velocities (23%, P = 0.011), and slightly lower VO2peak (P = 0.098). Recipients with grafts from donor ≥median age (37 years) had significantly lower LVe' velocities (septal LVe' P = 0.047 and lateral LVe' P = 0.010), but not LV systolic or RV parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged GIT impairs both systolic and diastolic function at the interventricular septum and RV free wall, while increasing donor age impairs LV diastolic function. The duration of graft ischaemia and donor age should be taken into account when evaluating for cardiac dysfunction in HTx recipients.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 05/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the early phases following heart transplantation a main challenge is to reduce the impact of acute rejections. Previous studies indicate that intracellular ciclosporin A (CsA) concentration may be a sensitive acute rejection marker in renal transplant recipients. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationships between CsA concentrations at different target sites as potential therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) tools in heart transplant recipients. METHODS: Ten heart transplant recipients (8 men, 2 women) on CsA-based immunosuppression were enrolled in this prospective single-center pilot study. Blood samples were obtained once to twice weekly up to 12 weeks post-transplant. One of the routine biopsies was allocated to this study at each sampling time. Whole blood, intralymphocyte, and endomyocardial CsA concentrations were determined with validated HPLC-MS/MS-methods. Mann--Whitney U test was used when evaluating parameters between the two groups of patients. To correlate whole blood, intralymphocyte, and endomyocardial CsA concentrations linear regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Three patients experienced mild rejections. In the study period, the mean (range) intralymphocyte CsA trough concentrations were 10.1 (1.5 to 39) and 8.1 (1.3 to 25) ng/106 cells in the rejection and no-rejection group, respectively (P=0.21). Corresponding whole blood CsA concentrations were 316 (153 to 564) and 301 (152 to 513) ng/mL (P=0.33). There were no correlations between whole blood, intralymphocyte, or endomyocardial concentrations of CsA (P >0.11). CONCLUSIONS: The study did not support an association between decreasing intralymphocyte CsA concentrations and acute rejections. Further, there were no association between blood concentrations and concentrations at sites of action, potentially challenging TDM in these patients.
    Transplantation research. 04/2013; 2(1):5.
  • Arne K Andreassen
    Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening 06/2012; 132(12-13):1469-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) function can be accurately assessed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. The association between reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) magnitude and risk for mortality in heart transplant recipients is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that LVGLS could predict 1-year mortality in heart transplant recipients. A total of 176 consecutive adult primary single-organ orthotopic heart transplant recipients were retrospectively evaluated. Of these, 167 had acceptable echocardiographic image quality and were included in the study. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, creatinine, C-reactive protein, and invasive hemodynamic parameters were measured, and echocardiography was performed 1 to 3 weeks after heart transplantation. LVGLS was averaged from regional strain in 16 LV segments. During the first year, 15 patients (9%) died 86 ± 72 days after heart transplantation. LVGLS and LV ejection fraction were decreased in magnitude in nonsurvivors (P < .05). They were older and had higher donor ages. Mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressures were similar in the two groups, while all other hemodynamic parameters were increased in nonsurvivors (P < .05). LVGLS was the only significant (P = .02) noninvasive independent predictor, with a hazard ratio of 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.88; P = .02) per 1% decrease in strain magnitude, while pulmonary vascular resistance was a significant (P < .001) invasive predictor, with a hazard ratio of 3.98 (95% confidence interval, 2.01-7.87) of 1-year mortality in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Reduced LV function and increased pulmonary vascular resistance are related to poor prognosis in heart transplant recipients. Early assessment of LVGLS might be a noninvasive predictor of 1-year mortality in these patients.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 06/2012; 25(9):1007-14. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological interactions between heart and lungs in heart failure (HF) are well recognized. We investigated whether expression of different factors known to be increased in the myocardium and/or the circulation in HF is also increased in alveolar macrophages in HF. Lung function, hemodynamic parameters, gene expression in alveolar macrophages, and plasma levels in the pulmonary and femoral arteries of HF patients (n = 20) were compared to control subjects (n = 16). Our principal findings were: (1) Lung function was significantly lower in HF patients compared to controls (P<0.05). (2) mRNA levels of ET-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were increased in alveolar macrophages from HF patients. (3) Plasma levels of ET-1, TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in HF patients, whereas our data indicate a net pulmonary release of MCP-1 into the circulation in HF. Several important cytokines and ET-1 are induced in alveolar macrophages in human HF. Further studies should clarify whether increased synthesis of these factors affects pulmonary remodeling and, directly or indirectly, adversely affects the failing myocardium.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e36815. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Arne K Andreassen, Einar Gude, Ole Geir Solberg, Thor Ueland
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    ABSTRACT: In the past 5-10 years, drug treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension has evolved considerably. Experience and results from use of such updated treatment in Norway has not been reported. 32 patients newly diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, were consecutively assessed with respect to hemodynamics and physical capacity. The results after three months were compared with those after 12 months. Observed survival was compared with estimated survival from the time when only conventional treatment was available. The patients (78% women) were 42 ± 14 years, had dyspnea in NYHA class 2.9 ± 0.4 and a maximal oxygen uptake of 12.0 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min (37 ± 13% of the expected). Updated treatment led to significantly improved hemodynamics and physical capacity, which persisted during follow-up. During 43 ± 31 months follow-up, seven patients died while two underwent bilateral lung transplantation. Observed transplantation-free survival was 81% after one, two and three years, while that for estimated transplantation-free survival was 70%, 58% and 49% respectively. Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension with updated treatment improves hemodynamics and thereby symptoms. Mortality remains high, but is probably lower than it was when only conventional treatment was available.
    Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening 07/2011; 131(13-14):1285-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Although malignancy is a major threat to long-term survival of heart transplant (HT) recipients, clear strategies to manage immunosuppression in these patients are lacking. Several lines of evidences support the hypothesis of an anticancer effect of proliferation signal inhibitors (PSIs: mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] inhibitors) in HT recipients. This property may arise from PSI's ability to replace immunosuppressive therapies that promote cancer progression, such as calcineurin inhibitors or azathioprine, and/or through their direct biological actions in preventing tumor development and progression. Given the lack of randomized studies specifically exploring these issues in the transplant setting, a collaborative group reviewed current literature and personal clinical experience to reach a consensus aimed to provide practical guidance for the clinical conduct in HT recipients with malignancy, or at high risk of malignancy, with a special focus on advice relevant to potential role of PSIs.
    Clinical Transplantation 05/2011; 25(5):E475-86. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CCR7 regulates lymphocyte trafficking, and CCR7 deficiency induces infiltration of T and B cells adjacent to vessels in mouse lungs. Perivascular infiltration of T and B cells has also been found in human pulmonary arterial hypertension, and downregulation of the CCR7 receptor in circulating leukocytes of such patients has been observed. To investigate whether changes in the CCR7 system contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, we utilized mice deficient of the CCR7 receptor. The cardiopulmonary and inflammatory responses of CCR7 depletion were evaluated in CCR7-deficient and wild-type mice. Measurements of cytokines upregulated in the animal model were also performed in patients with pulmonary hypertension and controls and in vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that mice lacking CCR7 had increased right ventricular systolic pressure, reduced pulmonary artery acceleration time, increased right ventricular/tibial length ratio, Rho kinase-mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction, and increased muscularization of distal arteries, indicating pulmonary hypertension. These mice also showed increased perivascular infiltration of leukocytes, consisting mainly of T and B cells, and increased mRNA levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 and CX3CL1 within pulmonary tissue. Increased serum levels of interleukin-12 and CX3CL1 were also observed in patients with pulmonary hypertension, particularly in those with pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue disorder. In smooth muscle cells, interleukin-12 induced secretion of the angiogenic cytokine interleukin-8. We conclude that these results suggest a role for CCR7 in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension, at least in some subgroups, possibly via pulmonary infiltration of lymphocytes and secretion of interleukin-12 and CX3CL1.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 04/2011; 301(1):L50-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2011; 30(4). · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2011; 57(14).
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated an extensive profile of clinical variables and immune markers to assess the inflammatory milieu associated with cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) assessed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and virtual histology (VH). In total, 101 heart transplant (HTx) recipients were included and underwent IVUS/VH examination and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, interleukin-6, osteoprotegerin, soluble gp130, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and neopterin. Mean Maximal Intimal Thickness (MIT) was 0.61 +/- 0.19 mm and mean fibrotic, fibrofatty, dense calcified and necrotic core components were 55 +/- 15, 14 +/- 10, 15 +/- 13 and 17 +/- 9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, CRP > 1.5 mg/L (OR 4.6, p < 0.01), VCAM-1 > 391 ng/mL (adjusted OR 3.2, p = 0.04) and neopterin > 7.7 nmol/L (OR 3.8, p = 0.02) were independently associated with MIT > 0.5 mm. Similarly, CRP > 1.5 mg/L (OR 3.7, p < 0.01) and VCAM-1 > 391 (OR 2.7, p = 0.04) were independently associated with an increased intimal inflammatory component (dense calcified/necrotic core component > 30%). Advanced CAV is associated with elevated CRP, VCAM-1 and neopterin and the two former biomarkers are also associated with an increased intimal inflammatory component. Forthcoming studies should clarify if routine measurements of these markers can accurately identify HTx recipients at risk of developing advanced CAV and vulnerable lesions.
    American Journal of Transplantation 06/2010; 10(6):1428-36. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity is a feared adverse effect after heart transplantation (HTx). In patients with advanced renal failure we performed an overnight conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to everolimus within the first year after HTx and compared changes in renal function to a similar switch performed in a group of long-term HTx survivors with 24-month follow up. Sixteen HTx recipients (Group 1), including 5 patients undergoing dialysis, were switched overnight from CsA to everolimus at 5.5 (range 1.3 to 8.5) months post-operatively, whereas 15 patients completed 24 months of follow-up. Fifteen long-term survivors (Group 2) were recruited at 96 (58 to 148) months post-HTx. Due to 3 withdrawals and 2 deaths, 10 of these 15 patients remained available for follow-up assessment. In Group 1 patients, creatinine level improved from 211 (186 to 263) to 112 (98 to 140) mumol/liter and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from 29 (20 to 35) to 62 (43 to 69) ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p < 0.001). In Group 2, creatinine decreased from 227 (188 to 255) to 193 (150 to 250) micromol/liter (p = 0.299), and eGFR increased from 26 (21 to 31) to 28 (22 to 35) ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.225). Four cellular rejections were treated successfully in Group 1. All together, 24 adverse events occurred. These preliminary data are the first to suggest that the improvement in renal function after switching to CNI-free everolimus treatment has the greatest potential within the first year post-HTx. While we await randomized, controlled trials, it appears that conversion can be performed with acceptable safety in selected patients.
    The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 03/2010; 29(6):641-7. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited information exists about acute renal failure (ARF) early after heart transplantation (HTx). We correlated pre-, per-, and post-operative patient and donor parameters to the risk of developing ARF. We also analyzed the consequences of ARF on kidney function after HTx, risk of later need for chronic dialysis or kidney transplantation, and mortality. In a retrospective study from 1983 to 2007, 145 (25%) of 585 HTx recipients developed ARF, defined as ≥ 26.4 micromol/L or ≥ 50% increase in serum creatinine from pre-operatively to the seventh day post-HTx and/or the need of early post-operative dialysis. Independent risk factors for ARF were intravenous cyclosporine immediately post-operatively (odds ratio [OR] 2.16, 95% CI 1.34-3.50, p = 0.02), donor age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04, p = 0.02), and pre-operative cardiac output (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.71, p = 0.003). The development of ARF was a predictor for short-term survival (≤ 3 months) ranging from 98% for patients who improved their creatinine after HTx vs. 79% for those in need of dialysis (p < 0.001). However, ARF did not predict subsequent end stage renal disease in need of dialysis or renal transplantation. ARF is a common complication post-HTx. As ARF is associated with short-term survival, post-operative strategies of preserving renal function have the potential of reducing mortality. Of avoidable risk factors, the use of intravenous CsA should be discouraged.
    Clinical Transplantation 02/2010; 24(6):E207-13. · 1.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
405.65 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Research Institute of Internal Medicine
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 1998–2009
    • University of Oslo
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Research Institute for Internal Medicine (IIM)
      • • Division of Medicine
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway