[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EBV, the prototypic human γ(1)-herpesvirus, persists for life in infected individuals, despite the presence of vigorous antiviral immunity. CTLs play an important role in the protection against viral infections, which they detect through recognition of virus-encoded peptides presented in the context of HLA class I molecules at the cell surface. The viral peptides are generated in the cytosol and are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by TAP. The EBV-encoded lytic-phase protein BNLF2a acts as a powerful inhibitor of TAP. Consequently, loading of antigenic peptides onto HLA class I molecules is hampered, and recognition of BNLF2a-expressing cells by cytotoxic T cells is avoided. In this study, we characterize BNLF2a as a tail-anchored (TA) protein and elucidate its mode of action. Its hydrophilic N-terminal domain is located in the cytosol, whereas its hydrophobic C-terminal domain is inserted into membranes posttranslationally. TAP has no role in membrane insertion of BNLF2a. Instead, Asna1 (also named TRC40), a cellular protein involved in posttranslational membrane insertion of TA proteins, is responsible for integration of BNLF2a into the ER membrane. Asna1 is thereby required for efficient BNLF2a-mediated HLA class I downregulation. To optimally accomplish immune evasion, BNLF2a is composed of two specialized domains: its C-terminal tail anchor ensures membrane integration and ER retention, whereas its cytosolic N terminus accomplishes inhibition of TAP function. These results illustrate how EBV exploits a cellular pathway for TA protein biogenesis to achieve immune evasion, and they highlight the exquisite adaptation of this virus to its host.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2011; 186(6):3594-605. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production and trafficking of proteins entering the secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells is coordinated at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a process that begins with protein translocation via the membrane-embedded ER translocon. The same complex is also responsible for the co-translational integration of membrane proteins and orchestrates polypeptide modifications that are often essential for protein function. We now show that the previously identified inhibitor of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) eeyarestatin 1 (ES(I)) is a potent inhibitor of protein translocation. We have characterised this inhibition of ER translocation both in vivo and in vitro, and provide evidence that ES(I) targets a component of the Sec61 complex that forms the membrane pore of the ER translocon. Further analyses show that ES(I) acts by preventing the transfer of the nascent polypeptide from the co-translational targeting machinery to the Sec61 complex. These results identify a novel effect of ES(I), and suggest that the drug can modulate canonical protein transport from the cytosol into the mammalian ER both in vitro and in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tail-anchored proteins are a distinct class of integral membrane proteins located in several eukaryotic organelles, where they perform a diverse range of functions. These proteins have in common the C-terminal location of their transmembrane anchor and the resulting post-translational nature of their membrane insertion, which, unlike the co-translational membrane insertion of most other proteins, is not coupled to ongoing protein synthesis. The study of tail-anchored proteins has provided a paradigm for understanding the components and pathways that mediate post-translational biogenesis of membrane proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum. In this Commentary, we review recent studies that have converged at a consensus regarding the molecular mechanisms that underlie this process--namely, that multiple pathways underlie the biogenesis of tail-anchored proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tail-anchored (TA) protein synthesis at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents a distinct and novel process that provides a paradigm for understanding post-translational membrane insertion in eukaryotes. The major route for delivering TA proteins to the ER requires both ATP and one or more cytosolic factors that facilitate efficient membrane insertion. Until recently, the identity of these cytosolic components was elusive, but two candidates have now been suggested to promote ATP-dependent TA protein integration. The first is the cytosolic chaperone complex of Hsp40/Hsc70, and the second is a novel ATPase denoted Asna-1 or TRC40. In this study we focus on the role of the Hsp40/Hsc70 complex in promoting TA protein biogenesis at the ER. We show that the membrane integration of most TA proteins is stimulated by Hsp40/Hsc70 when using purified components and a reconstituted system. In contrast, when both Hsp40/Hsc70 and Asna-1/TRC40 are provided as a complete system, small molecule inhibition of Hsp40/Hsc70 indicates that only a subset of TA proteins are obligatory clients for this chaperone-mediated delivery route. We show that the hydrophobicity of the TA region dictates whether a precursor is delivered to the ER via the Hsp40/Hsc70 or Asna-1/TRC40-dependent route, and we conclude that these distinct cytosolic ATPases are responsible for two different ATP-dependent pathways of TA protein biogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2008; 283(41):27504-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integration of tail-anchored membrane proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum occurs via a specialised ATP-dependent pathway, but the cytosolic factors involved have proven elusive. A novel ATPase that mediates this process has now been identified.
Current Biology 07/2007; 17(12):R472-4. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tail-anchored (TA) proteins provide an ideal model for studying post-translational integration at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes. There are multiple pathways for delivering TA proteins from the cytosol to the ER membrane yet, whereas an ATP-dependent route predominates, none of the cytosolic components involved had been identified. In this study we have directly addressed this issue and identify novel interactions between a model TA protein and the two cytosolic chaperones Hsp40 and Hsc70. To investigate their function, we have reconstituted the membrane integration of TA proteins using purified components. Remarkably, we find that a combination of Hsc70 and Hsp40 can completely substitute for the ATP-dependent factors present in cytosol. On the basis of this in vitro analysis, we conclude that this chaperone pair can efficiently facilitate the ATP-dependent integration of TA proteins.