[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia classified as AML M7 by the French–American–British (FAB) Leukemia Cooperative Study Group. We reviewed the records of children aged less than 18 years with AMKL during the period from January 2003 to December 2010. The diagnosis of AMKL was established on the basis of the FAB criteria and confirmed by immunophenotyping. Eight cases were assigned for this period. The incidence rate of AMKL was 5.5% of AML. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 1 year. The karyotype presented translocation (1, 22) in two cases. One girl had Down syndrome (DS). Treatment included two inductions based on daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside (7+3) followed by two consolidations with high dose of cytosine arabinoside (16 g/m2). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 3 patients (43%). One patient underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) and is still enjoying continuous CR 5 years after treatment. Other patients died from failure or relapse. In this small series from a single institution, reported incidence of AMKL is underestimated probably due to the difficulties of diagnosis. The prognosis was poor, particularly because of unavailability of intensified chemotherapy treatment and allogeneic SCT.
The Open Cancer Journal 06/2014; 7(1):7-10. DOI:10.2174/1874079001407010007
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The event-free survival (EFS) of children with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) exceeds 80% in high income countries (HIC), but little is known about this rate in developing countries.
A prospective national protocol for children with classical HL was implemented in Morocco to increase EFS by careful risk stratification, providing each cycle of therapy on time, decreasing treatment abandonment, improving communication among healthcare providers, and improving data collection. Patients were stratified into a favorable risk group (Ann Arbor stages I and II, no B symptoms, no bulky disease, and no contiguous (E) lesions) and received four cycles of vinblastine, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and prednisone (VAMP) or an unfavorable risk group (all others) who received two cycles of vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and doxorubicin (OPPA) and four cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP). All patients received involved-field radiotherapy 25.5 Gy after completion of chemotherapy. EFS was calculated counting death, relapse/resistant disease, and abandonment as events.
From February 2004 to December 2007, 160 patients enrolled; 138 (86%) had unfavorable risk features. Twenty patients (12.5%) abandoned treatment, 16 relapsed or had resistant disease, and 6 died (3 unexplained, 2 varicella, and 1 suicide). The estimated 5-year EFS was 70 ± 4% and overall survival 88 ± 3%.
Good outcomes for pediatric HL patients can be achieved in LMIC using a multidisciplinary team approach, uniform protocol-based therapy, twinning partnership among oncology units in-country and abroad, and a data collection system to monitor compliance and identify gaps in care.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 09/2013; DOI:10.1002/pbc.24534 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell neoplasm results from plasma cell proliferation and consists of monoclonal plasmacytic infiltration, without bone marrow involvement and any other systemic characteristics of multiple myeloma. EMP accounts for 3% of all plasma cell neoplasms and approximately 80% to 90% of EMP involve submucosa of the upper aerodigestive, while scrotal, dermis and retroperitoneal infiltration are very rare. There are no consensus guidelines for treatment, but EMP is highly radiosensitive, surgery may be considered for some sites, but 11 at 30% can progress in multiple myeloma. We report here an exceptional case of recurrent EMP in much localization. It's about a man 72 years old with initially testicular plasmocytoma who generalized the plasmacytic infiltration after 16 months in skin and progressively in mediastinal and retroperitoneal plasmacytoma, without any medullar and bone involvement.
Pan African Medical Journal 01/2013; 14:34. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2013.14.34.1778
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In all the major medical centers throughout the Middle East, there is a functioning pediatric hematology oncology department. In almost all countries, opioids such as morphine, oxycodone, and fentanyl are available. Pediatric palliative care services are still in their infancy and await further recognition and development. Unfortunately, there are still countries in the Middle East where children with cancer are diagnosed when the disease is already at stage III or IV, when the only option left is palliation. To decrease the incidence of late presentation, more effort is needed concerning public awareness, and concomitantly, an urgent need to develop hospital-based and community-based palliative and supportive care services. The initial step in this direction would involve more training of health care providers: Pediatricians, Pediatric Oncologists, Oncology Nurses, and Social Workers with updated pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities of treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer in children is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of non traumatic death among children. In pediatric oncology, palliative care is a primary component of the cancer control plan. In low income countries also known as emerging nations or developing countries access to adequate care remains a challenge for most pediatric oncology patients. In Morocco the situation has dramatically improved in the last few years as both the government and NGOs have become more aware of the importance and urgency of the issue. The incidence of cancer in patients under 15 years of age in Morocco is estimated to be 1000 new cases per year and the incidence of leukemia to be 100 new cases diagnosed per year. Pediatric cancer patients are mostly managed by public hospitals. Thus they are highly influenced by the Moroccan public health system, which is now considering cancer management a priority. Since health cover is very limited, most chemotherapy drugs were purchased by local parent associations. Recently, a new large Moroccan NGO (ALSC) provides anti-cancer drugs to all government-run oncology units. Despite all the progress, Morocco has witnessed in the pediatric oncology field, the palliative aspect of the care is not yet organized. Pediatric oncology is supported by the work of the National Society of Pediatric Oncolgy. The opioide therapy is available. However its use is strongly limited by the current restrictive and obsolete legislation which represents a major barrier to care. Despite the latest progress, pediatric oncology in Morocco still needs to improve in order to achieve performances comparable to those of the developed world. These improvements include better survival rates, less treatment abandonment, developing new techniques, improving quality of life and creating data collection teams. In order for this action to succeed all the stakeholders (government, NGOs, medical societies, oncology teams) must work together and coordinate their efforts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Askin tumor is a rare malignant tumor arising from soft tissues of the chest wall, rarely in the lung. It occurs predominantly in young adults. It still raises many questions about its individualisation and its links with Ewing's sarcoma. We report a case of Askin tumor in a 5-year-old child with reviewing the different data from the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: More than 90% of children with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) can be cured with current treatment modalities. This goal has not, however, been reached in most developing countries. We report here the results of a retrospective study of 24 years' experience in the management of HL in children in one institution in Morocco. Procedure: All cases of histologically confirmed HL in children under 17 years of age seen in our department between 1978 and 2001 were included in this study. The treatment modality varied during the 24-year period but mainly comprised combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Results: Two hundred and three patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 10.3 years, and 46% were 10 years old or less. The male:female ratio was 2.9. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 10.4 months. Lukes-Rye histological types 2 and 3 predominated, representing 40% and 37% of cases, respectively. Advanced stages III and IV represented 55.5% of the cases. After a median follow-up of 10 years, only 134 patients were available for evaluation. The 10-year overall and relapse-free survival rates were 64% and 58%, respectively. Conclusion: The results for this large series of cases of childhood HL in Morocco are similar to those observed in other developing countries. Steps must be taken, however, to reduce the numbers who abandon treatment and to improve the therapeutic results.
Journal africain du cancer / African Journal of Cancer 02/2009; 2(1):14-19. DOI:10.1007/s12558-009-0053-9
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase resulting in decreased cell levels of tetrahydrofolate. Adverse cutaneous reactions to MTX are usually dose- related and have been mainly reported in patients receiving extremely large doses of chemotherapy. Toxicity can affect multiple organ systems including bone marrow, liver, intestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, skin, and blood vessels, resulting in death in severe cases. In this report we describe the case of a 9 year old boy who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis after high-dose MTX treatment and discuss the important clinical and therapeutic features of this condition.
International journal of medical sciences 01/2009; · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first hematology department in Morocco was created in Casablanca in 1980 and it is still the only public facility where adult patients can be treated for hematological diseases. Two other units treat pediatric hematological disorders and cancer. Some patients are treated in private clinics located primarily in Casablanca and Rabat. The public hospitals have very limited resources and rely heavily on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) for the care of these patients. The NGOs have also played an important role in developing successful cooperative programs with hospitals and groups in Europe and the United States. Till 2004, all patients who needed BMT and could afford the cost went to Europe. In 2004, SCT was initiated in Casablanca, with a four-bed ward set up and properly equipped. By May 2007, 27 patients have received autologous PBSCs. With 15 patients in continuous CR, the program is considered a success so far. The development of allogeneic transplantation in Morocco planned in the current year is also considered a real challenge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 16-year-old male with a combination of pernicious anemia, auto-immune hemolytic anemia and alopecia areata. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia coexisted with pernicious anemia but was diagnosed only when the anemia failed to respond to cobalamin therapy. Alopecia areata occurred 9 years later.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood Wilms tumor represents one of the challenge for pediatric oncologists in developing countries. We report the characteristics and treatment results of patients with Wilms tumor according to SIOP 9 protocol in Morocco.
From January 1989 to December 2000, 86 children with Wilms tumor were admitted. The diagnosis was based on physical exam and abdominal ultrasound. The metastatic work-up was based on abdominal ultrasound and chest X-ray.
The mean age was 36 months (3-120 months). The sex-ratio was 1. Abdominal mass was the main symptom at presentation (84 cases). There were 13 metastatic cases. Treatment applied was according to SIOP 9 Protocol without randomization. Local deases was present in 75 patients with stage I in 38 cases (50%), IIN0 in 4 cases (6%), IIN1 in 9 cases, and III in 24 cases (44%). The distribution of pathologic groups was: favorable in 4 cases, standard in 69 cases, and unfavorable anaplastic type in 2 cases. Sixty-nine patients were evaluable for therapeutic evaluation. Other patients were lost to follow-up. Three patients died of treatment related toxicity and 13 patients relapsed. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 5-year EFS and 5 years overall survival for evaluable patients are 77.4% and 79%, respectively while the 5-year EFS for all patients was 56%.
These results are encouraging for a developing country but special efforts should be done to reduce the rate of abandonment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the two last decades, the prognosis of children with Burkitt lymphoma has improved dramatically. Treating patients with Bukitt lymphoma in countries with limited resources is a challenge. We report our results in a serie of 95 children with Burkitt lymphoma treated between September 1990 and December 2000 according to SFOP LMB89 protocol. The median age was 45 months (range 8 months, 18 years). Seventy three percent of patients had abdominal tumor and 10% had maxillary tumor. According to Murphy classification, one patient had stage I, 17 patients stage II, 60 patients stage III and 17 patients stage IV. When considering the LMB prognosis groups, 1 patient was in group A, 83 were in group B and 11 were in group C. 73 patients were evaluables for treatment results. Complete remission was achieved in 50 patients, of whom 6 relapsed. 18 patients died from early treatment toxicity. The 5 years relapse free survival rate was 56%. It was at 100%, 84%, 52% and 38% for stage I, II, III and IV respectively. These results are below what is expected with this protocol. Improvement of supportive-care is the main condition to reach western results.
Bulletin du cancer 03/2005; 92(2):193-8. · 0.60 Impact Factor