[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Sparganosis is an infection with a larval Diphyllobothriidea tapeworm. From a rare cerebral case presented at a clinic in the UK, DNA was recovered from a biopsy sample and used to determine the causative species as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei through sequencing of the cox1 gene. From the same DNA, we have produced a draft genome, the first of its kind for this species, and used it to perform a comparative genomics analysis and to investigate known and potential tapeworm drug targets in this tapeworm.ResultsThe 1.26Gb draft genome of S. erinaceieuropaei is currently the largest reported for any flatworm. Through investigation of ß-tubulin genes, we predict that S. erinaceieuropaei larvae are insensitive to the tapeworm drug albendazole. We find that many putative tapeworm drug targets are also present in S. erinaceieuropaei, allowing possible cross application of new drugs. In comparison to other sequenced tapeworm species we observe expansion of protease classes, and of Kuntiz-type protease inhibitors. Expanded gene families in this tapeworm also include those that are involved in processes that add post-translational diversity to the protein landscape, intracellular transport, transcriptional regulation and detoxification.Conclusions
The S. erinaceieuropaei genome begins to give us insight into an order of tapeworms previously uncharacterized at the genome-wide level. From a single clinical case we have begun to sketch a picture of the characteristics of these organisms. Finally, our work represents a significant technological achievement as we present a draft genome sequence of a rare tapeworm, and from a small amount of starting material.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whipworms are common soil-transmitted helminths that cause debilitating chronic infections in man. These nematodes are only distantly related to Caenorhabditis elegans and have evolved to occupy an unusual niche, tunneling through epithelial cells of the large intestine. We report here the whole-genome sequences of the human-infective Trichuris trichiura and the mouse laboratory model Trichuris muris. On the basis of whole-transcriptome analyses, we identify many genes that are expressed in a sex- or life stage-specific manner and characterize the transcriptional landscape of a morphological region with unique biological adaptations, namely, bacillary band and stichosome, found only in whipworms and related parasites. Using RNA sequencing data from whipworm-infected mice, we describe the regulated T helper 1 (TH1)-like immune response of the chronically infected cecum in unprecedented detail. In silico screening identified numerous new potential drug targets against trichuriasis. Together, these genomes and associated functional data elucidate key aspects of the molecular host-parasite interactions that define chronic whipworm infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Globodera pallida is a devastating pathogen of potato crops, making it one of the most economically important plant parasitic nematodes. It is also an important model for the biology of cyst nematodes. Cyst nematodes and root-knot nematodes are the two most important plant parasitic nematode groups and together represent a global threat to food security.
We present the complete genome sequence of G. pallida, together with transcriptomic data from most of the nematode life cycle, particularly focusing on the life cycle stages involved in root invasion and establishment of the biotrophic feeding site. Despite the relatively close phylogenetic relationship with root-knot nematodes, we describe a very different gene family content between the two groups and in particular extensive differences in the repertoire of effectors, including an enormous expansion of the SPRY domain protein family in G. pallida, which includes the SPRYSEC family of effectors. This highlights the distinct biology of cyst nematodes compared to the root-knot nematodes that were, until now, the only sedentary plant parasitic nematodes for which genome information was available. We also present in-depth descriptions of the repertoires of other genes likely to be important in understanding the unique biology of cyst nematodes and of potential drug targets and other targets for their control.
The data and analyses we present will be central in exploiting post-genomic approaches in the development of much-needed novel strategies for the control of G. pallida and related pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in both high-throughput sequencing and whole-genome amplification (WGA) protocols have allowed genomes to be sequenced from femtograms of DNA, for example from individual cells or from precious clinical and archived samples. Using the highly curated Caenorhabditis elegans genome as a reference, we have sequenced and identified errors and biases associated with Illumina library construction, library insert size, different WGA methods and genome features such as GC bias and simple repeat content. Detailed analysis of the reads from amplified libraries revealed characteristics suggesting that majority of amplified fragment ends are identical but inverted versions of each other. Read coverage in amplified libraries is correlated with both tandem and inverted repeat content, while GC content only influences sequencing in long-insert libraries. Nevertheless, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calls and assembly metrics from reads in amplified libraries show comparable results with unamplified libraries. To utilize the full potential of WGA to reveal the real biological interest, this article highlights the importance of recognizing additional sources of errors from amplified sequence reads and discusses the potential implications in downstream analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dracunculiasis was rediscovered in Chad in 2010 after an apparent absence of 10 years. In April 2012 active village-based surveillance was initiated to determine where, when, and how transmission of the disease was occurring, and to implement interventions to interrupt it. The current epidemiologic pattern of the disease in Chad is unlike that seen previously in Chad or other endemic countries, i.e., no clustering of cases by village or association with a common water source, the average number of worms per person was small, and a large number of dogs were found to be infected. Molecular sequencing suggests these infections were all caused by Dracunculus medinensis. It appears that the infection in dogs is serving as the major driving force sustaining transmission in Chad, that an aberrant life cycle involving a paratenic host common to people and dogs is occurring, and that the cases in humans are sporadic and incidental.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small ruminant parasite Haemonchus contortus is the most widely used parasitic nematode in drug discovery, vaccine development and anthelmintic resistance research. Its remarkable propensity to develop resistance threatens the viability of the sheep industry in many regions of the world and provides a cautionary example of the effect of mass drug administration to control parasitic nematodes. Its phylogenetic position makes it particularly well placed for comparison with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the most economically important parasites of livestock and humans.
Here we report the detailed analysis of a draft genome assembly and extensive transcriptomic dataset for H. contortus. This represents the first genome to be published for a strongylid nematode and the most extensive transcriptomic dataset for any parasitic nematode reported to date. We show a general pattern of conservation of genome structure and gene content between H. contortus and C. elegans, but also a dramatic expansion of important parasite gene families. We identify genes involved in parasite-specific pathways such as blood feeding, neurological function, and drug metabolism. In particular, we describe complete gene repertoires for known drug target families, providing the most comprehensive understanding yet of the action of several important anthelmintics. Also, we identify a set of genes enriched in the parasitic stages of the lifecycle and the parasite gut that provide a rich source of vaccine and drug target candidates.
The H. contortus genome and transcriptome provides an essential platform for postgenomic research in this and other important strongylid parasites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases, affecting millions of people in developing countries. Amongst the human-infective species, Schistosoma mansoni is also the most commonly used in the laboratory and here we present the systematic improvement of its draft genome. We used Sanger capillary and deep-coverage Illumina sequencing from clonal worms to upgrade the highly fragmented draft 380 Mb genome to one with only 885 scaffolds and more than 81% of the bases organised into chromosomes. We have also used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) from four time points in the parasite's life cycle to refine gene predictions and profile their expression. More than 45% of predicted genes have been extensively modified and the total number has been reduced from 11,807 to 10,852. Using the new version of the genome, we identified trans-splicing events occurring in at least 11% of genes and identified clear cases where it is used to resolve polycistronic transcripts. We have produced a high-resolution map of temporal changes in expression for 9,535 genes, covering an unprecedented dynamic range for this organism. All of these data have been consolidated into a searchable format within the GeneDB (www.genedb.org) and SchistoDB (www.schistodb.net) databases. With further transcriptional profiling and genome sequencing increasingly accessible, the upgraded genome will form a fundamental dataset to underpin further advances in schistosome research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing intervention strategies for the control of parasitic nematodes continues to be a significant challenge. Genomic and post-genomic approaches play an increasingly important role for providing fundamental molecular information about these parasites, thus enhancing basic as well as translational research. Here we report a comprehensive genome-wide survey of the developmental transcriptome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi.
Using deep sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of eggs and embryos, immature (≤3 days of age) and mature microfilariae (MF), third- and fourth-stage larvae (L3 and L4), and adult male and female worms. Comparative analysis across these stages provided a detailed overview of the molecular repertoires that define and differentiate distinct lifecycle stages of the parasite. Genome-wide assessment of the overall transcriptional variability indicated that the cuticle collagen family and those implicated in molting exhibit noticeably dynamic stage-dependent patterns. Of particular interest was the identification of genes displaying sex-biased or germline-enriched profiles due to their potential involvement in reproductive processes. The study also revealed discrete transcriptional changes during larval development, namely those accompanying the maturation of MF and the L3 to L4 transition that are vital in establishing successful infection in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively.
Characterization of the transcriptional program of the parasite's lifecycle is an important step toward understanding the developmental processes required for the infectious cycle. We find that the transcriptional program has a number of stage-specific pathways activated during worm development. In addition to advancing our understanding of transcriptome dynamics, these data will aid in the study of genome structure and organization by facilitating the identification of novel transcribed elements and splice variants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) is producing de novo reference quality genomes for parasitic helminth species from platyhelminth tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes) and roundworms (nematodes) primarily using second-generation (Illumina and 454) sequencing technologies. The reference genomes will be followed with draft coverage from a number of related strains or species. Comparing species- or strain-specific differences will help to unravel the genomic basis for differences in the organism's biology and ultimately contribute towards identifying potential novel targets for vaccine therapies. Second-generation sequencing technologies are revolutionizing parasite genomics. This article reviews the impact that sequencing technologies has had on genomics and how it has shaped the parasitic helminth genome sequencing initiative at WTSI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus). These pathogens share approximately 80% genome sequence identity with the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We sequenced and compared the genomes of S. equi 4047 and S. zooepidemicus H70 and screened S. equi and S. zooepidemicus strains from around the world to uncover evidence of the genetic events that have shaped the evolution of the S. equi genome and led to its emergence as a host-restricted pathogen. Our analysis provides evidence of functional loss due to mutation and deletion, coupled with pathogenic specialization through the acquisition of bacteriophage encoding a phospholipase A(2) toxin, and four superantigens, and an integrative conjugative element carrying a novel iron acquisition system with similarity to the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia pestis. We also highlight that S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes share a common phage pool that enhances cross-species pathogen evolution. We conclude that the complex interplay of functional loss, pathogenic specialization, and genetic exchange between S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes continues to influence the evolution of these important streptococci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients cause major complications in the treatment of this common genetic disease. Burkholderia cenocepacia infection is particularly problematic since this organism has high levels of antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to eradicate; the resulting chronic infections are associated with severe declines in lung function and increased mortality rates. B. cenocepacia strain J2315 was isolated from a CF patient and is a member of the epidemic ET12 lineage that originated in Canada or the United Kingdom and spread to Europe. The 8.06-Mb genome of this highly transmissible pathogen comprises three circular chromosomes and a plasmid and encodes a broad array of functions typical of this metabolically versatile genus, as well as numerous virulence and drug resistance functions. Although B. cenocepacia strains can be isolated from soil and can be pathogenic to both plants and man, J2315 is representative of a lineage of B. cenocepacia rarely isolated from the environment and which spreads between CF patients. Comparative analysis revealed that ca. 21% of the genome is unique in comparison to other strains of B. cenocepacia, highlighting the genomic plasticity of this species. Pseudogenes in virulence determinants suggest that the pathogenic response of J2315 may have been recently selected to promote persistence in the CF lung. The J2315 genome contains evidence that its unique and highly adapted genetic content has played a significant role in its success as an epidemic CF pathogen.
Journal of bacteriology 11/2008; 191(1):261-77. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium marinum, a ubiquitous pathogen of fish and amphibia, is a near relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis in humans. The genome of the M strain of M. marinum comprises a 6,636,827-bp circular chromosome with 5424 CDS, 10 prophages, and a 23-kb mercury-resistance plasmid. Prominent features are the very large number of genes (57) encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the most extensive repertoire yet reported of the mycobacteria-restricted PE and PPE proteins, and related-ESX secretion systems. Some of the NRPS genes comprise a novel family and seem to have been acquired horizontally. M. marinum is used widely as a model organism to study M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, and genome comparisons confirmed the close genetic relationship between these two species, as they share 3000 orthologs with an average amino acid identity of 85%. Comparisons with the more distantly related Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis reveal how an ancestral generalist mycobacterium evolved into M. tuberculosis and M. marinum. M. tuberculosis has undergone genome downsizing and extensive lateral gene transfer to become a specialized pathogen of humans and other primates without retaining an environmental niche. M. marinum has maintained a large genome so as to retain the capacity for environmental survival while becoming a broad host range pathogen that produces disease strikingly similar to M. tuberculosis. The work described herein provides a foundation for using M. marinum to better understand the determinants of pathogenesis of tuberculosis.
Genome Research 06/2008; 18(5):729-41. · 13.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about human genome function in several major areas. First, our studies provide convincing evidence that the genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including non-protein-coding transcripts, and those that extensively overlap one another. Second, systematic examination of transcriptional regulation has yielded new understanding about transcription start sites, including their relationship to specific regulatory sequences and features of chromatin accessibility and histone modification. Third, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure has emerged, including its inter-relationship with DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. Finally, integration of these new sources of information, in particular with respect to mammalian evolution based on inter- and intra-species sequence comparisons, has yielded new mechanistic and evolutionary insights concerning the functional landscape of the human genome. Together, these studies are defining a path for pursuit of a more comprehensive characterization of human genome function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report presents systematic empirical annotation of transcript products from 399 annotated protein-coding loci across the 1% of the human genome targeted by the Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) pilot project using a combination of 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and high-density resolution tiling arrays. We identified previously unannotated and often tissue- or cell-line-specific transcribed fragments (RACEfrags), both 5' distal to the annotated 5' terminus and internal to the annotated gene bounds for the vast majority (81.5%) of the tested genes. Half of the distal RACEfrags span large segments of genomic sequences away from the main portion of the coding transcript and often overlap with the upstream-annotated gene(s). Notably, at least 20% of the resultant novel transcripts have changes in their open reading frames (ORFs), most of them fusing ORFs of adjacent transcripts. A significant fraction of distal RACEfrags show expression levels comparable to those of known exons of the same locus, suggesting that they are not part of very minority splice forms. These results have significant implications concerning (1) our current understanding of the architecture of protein-coding genes; (2) our views on locations of regulatory regions in the genome; and (3) the interpretation of sequence polymorphisms mapping to regions hitherto considered to be "noncoding," ultimately relating to the identification of disease-related sequence alterations.
Genome Research 07/2007; 17(6):746-59. · 13.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is commonly found harmlessly colonising the mucosal surfaces of the human nasopharynx. Occasionally strains can invade host tissues causing septicaemia and meningitis, making the bacterium a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. The species is known to be diverse in many ways, as a product of its natural transformability and of a range of recombination and mutation-based systems. Previous work on pathogenic Neisseria has identified several mechanisms for the generation of diversity of surface structures, including phase variation based on slippage-like mechanisms and sequence conversion of expressed genes using information from silent loci. Comparison of the genome sequences of two N. meningitidis strains, serogroup B MC58 and serogroup A Z2491, suggested further mechanisms of variation, including C-terminal exchange in specific genes and enhanced localised recombination and variation related to repeat arrays. We have sequenced the genome of N. meningitidis strain FAM18, a representative of the ST-11/ET-37 complex, providing the first genome sequence for the disease-causing serogroup C meningococci; it has 1,976 predicted genes, of which 60 do not have orthologues in the previously sequenced serogroup A or B strains. Through genome comparison with Z2491 and MC58 we have further characterised specific mechanisms of genetic variation in N. meningitidis, describing specialised loci for generation of cell surface protein variants and measuring the association between noncoding repeat arrays and sequence variation in flanking genes. Here we provide a detailed view of novel genetic diversification mechanisms in N. meningitidis. Our analysis provides evidence for the hypothesis that the noncoding repeat arrays in neisserial genomes (neisserial intergenic mosaic elements) provide a crucial mechanism for the generation of surface antigen variants. Such variation will have an impact on the interaction with the host tissues, and understanding these mechanisms is important to aid our understanding of the intimate and complex relationship between the human nasopharynx and the meningococcus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An expressed sequence tag library has been generated from a sand fly vector of visceral leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia longipalpis. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from whole adults and 16,608 clones were sequenced from both ends and assembled into 10,203 contigs and singlets. Of these 58% showed significant similarity to known genes from other organisms, <4% were identical to described sand fly genes, and 42% had no match to any database sequence. Our analyses revealed putative proteins involved in the barrier function of the gut (peritrophins, microvillar proteins, glutamine synthase), digestive physiology (secreted and membrane-anchored hydrolytic enzymes), and the immune response (gram-negative binding proteins, thioester proteins, scavenger receptors, galectins, signaling pathway factors, caspases, serpins, and peroxidases). Sequence analysis of this transcriptome dataset has provided new insights into genes that might be associated with the response of the vector to the development of Leishmania.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes.