[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin keratinocytes represent a primary entry site for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vivo. The cellular proteins nectin-1 and HVEM act as efficient receptors for both serotypes of HSV and are sufficient for disease development mediated by HSV-2 in mice. How HSV-1 enters skin, and whether both nectin-1 and HVEM are involved, is not known. We addressed the impact of nectin-1 during entry of HSV-1 into murine epidermis and investigated the putative contribution of HVEM. Using ex vivo infection of murine epidermis we showed that HSV-1 entered the basal keratinocytes of the epidermis very efficiently. In nectin-1 deficient epidermis entry was strongly reduced. Almost no entry was observed, however, in nectin-1 deficient keratinocytes grown in culture. This observation correlated with the presence of HVEM on the keratinocyte surface in epidermis and with the lack of HVEM expression in nectin-1 deficient primary keratinocytes. Our results suggest that nectin-1 is the primary receptor in epidermis while HVEM has a more limited role. In primary murine keratinocytes where nectin-1 acts as single receptor, electron microscopy suggested that HSV-1 can enter both by direct fusion with the plasma membrane and via endocytic vesicles. Thus, we conclude that nectin-1 directs internalization into keratinocytes via alternative pathways. In summary, HSV-1 entry into epidermis was shown to strongly depend on the presence of nectin-1, however, the restricted presence of HVEM can potentially replace nectin-1 as receptor illustrating the flexibility employed by HSV-1 to efficiently invade tissue in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily members conform a group of molecular interaction pathways of essential relevance during the process of T-cell activation and differentiation toward effector cells and particularly for the maintenance phase of the immune response. Specific blockade of these interacting pathways, such as CD40-CD40L, contributes to modulate the deleterious outcome of allogeneic immune responses. We postulated that antagonizing the interaction of LIGHT expression on activated T cells with its receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator and lymphotoxin β receptor, may decrease T cell-mediated allogeneic responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFN receptor signaling induces cell-autonomous immunity to infections with intracellular bacterial pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-inducible guanylate binding protein (Gbp) proteins stimulate caspase-11-dependent, cell-autonomous immunity in response to cytoplasmic LPS. Caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis is triggered in IFN-activated macrophages infected with the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. The rapid induction of pyroptosis in IFN-activated macrophages required a cluster of IFN-inducible Gbp proteins encoded on mouse chromosome 3 (Gbp(chr3)). Induction of pyroptosis in naive macrophages by infections with the cytosol-invading ΔsdhA L. pneumophila mutant was similarly dependent on Gbp(chr3), suggesting that these Gbp proteins play a role in the detection of bacteria accessing the cytosol. Cytoplasmic LPS derived from Salmonella ssp. or Escherichia coli has recently been shown to trigger caspase-11 activation and pyroptosis, but the cytoplasmic sensor for LPS and components of the caspase-11 inflammasome are not yet defined. We found that the induction of caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis by cytoplasmic L. pneumophila-derived LPS required Gbp(chr3) proteins. Similarly, pyroptosis induced by cytoplasmic LPS isolated from Salmonella was diminished in Gbp(chr3)-deficient macrophages. These data suggest a role for Gbp(chr3) proteins in the detection of cytoplasmic LPS and the activation of the noncanonical inflammasome.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Janus kinase / signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway can be activated by many different cytokines, among them all members of the Interleukin (IL-)6 family. Dysregulation of this pathway, resulting in its constitutive activation, is associated with chronic inflammation and cancer development. In the present study, we show that activity of protein kinase II (CK2), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase, is needed for induced activation of STAT1 and STAT3 by IL-6 classic and trans-signaling, IL-11, IL-27, oncostatin M (OSM), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). Inhibition of CK2 efficiently prevented STAT phosphorylation and inhibited cytokine-dependent cell proliferation in a Jak1-dependent manner. Conversely, forced activation of CK2 alone was not sufficient to induce activation of the Jak/STAT signaling pathway. Inhibition of CK2 in turn inhibited Jak1-dependent STAT activation by oncogenic gp130 mutations. Furthermore, CK2 inhibition diminished the Jak1- and Src kinase-dependent phosphorylation of a constitutively active STAT3 mutant recently described in human large granular lymphocytic leukemia. In conclusion, we characterize CK2 as an essential component of the Jak/STAT pathway. Pharmacologic inhibition of this kinase is therefore a promising strategy to treat human inflammatory diseases and malignancies associated with constitutive activation of the Jak/STAT pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD8(+) T-cell functions are critical for preventing chronic viral infections by eliminating infected cells. For healthy immune responses, beneficial destruction of infected cells must be balanced against immunopathology resulting from collateral damage to tissues. These processes are regulated by factors controlling CD8(+) T-cell function, which are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that the interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and its cooperating binding partner B-cell-activating transcription factor (BATF) are necessary for sustained CD8(+) T-cell effector function. Although Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells were initially capable of proliferation, IRF4 deficiency resulted in limited CD8(+) T-cell responses after infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Consequently, Irf4(-/-) mice established chronic infections, but were protected from fatal immunopathology. Absence of BATF also resulted in reduced CD8(+) T-cell function, limited immunopathology, and promotion of viral persistence. These data identify the transcription factors IRF4 and BATF as major regulators of antiviral cytotoxic T-cell immunity.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 14 February 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.19.
Cell death and differentiation 02/2014; · 8.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously characterized mouse CMV (MCMV)-encoded immune-evasive IFN signaling inhibition and identified the viral protein pM27 as inducer of proteasomal degradation of STAT2. Extending our analysis to STAT1 and STAT3, we found that MCMV infection neither destabilizes STAT1 protein nor prevents STAT1 tyrosine Y701 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, or the capability to bind γ-activated sequence DNA-enhancer elements. Unexpectedly, the analysis of STAT3 revealed an induction of STAT3 Y705 phosphorylation by MCMV. In parallel, we found decreasing STAT3 protein amounts upon MCMV infection, although STAT3 expression normally is positive autoregulative. STAT3 phosphorylation depended on the duration of MCMV infection, the infectious dose, and MCMV gene expression but was independent of IFNAR1, IL-10, IL-6, and JAK2. Although STAT3 phosphorylation did not require MCMV immediate early 1, pM27, and late gene expression, it was restricted to MCMV-infected cells and not transmitted to bystander cells. Despite intact STAT1 Y701 phosphorylation, IFN-γ-induced target gene transcription (e.g., IRF1 and suppressor of cytokine signaling [SOCS] 1) was strongly impaired. Likewise, the induction of STAT3 target genes (e.g., SOCS3) by IL-6 was also abolished, indicating that MCMV antagonizes STAT1 and STAT3 despite the occurrence of tyrosine phosphorylation. Consistent with the lack of SOCS1 induction, STAT1 phosphorylation was prolonged upon IFN-γ treatment. We conclude that the inhibition of canonical STAT1 and STAT3 target gene expression abrogates their intrinsic negative feedback loops, leading to accumulation of phospho-tyrosine-STAT3 and prolonged STAT1 phosphorylation. These findings challenge the generalization of tyrosine-phosphorylated STATs necessarily being transcriptional active and document antagonistic effects of MCMV on STAT1/3-dependent target gene expression.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal microbes provide multicellular hosts with nutrients and confer resistance to infection. The delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, essential for gut immune homeostasis, is affected by the composition of the commensal microbial community. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) expressing transcription factor Foxp3 have a key role in limiting inflammatory responses in the intestine. Although specific members of the commensal microbial community have been found to potentiate the generation of anti-inflammatory Treg or pro-inflammatory T helper 17 (TH17) cells, the molecular cues driving this process remain elusive. Considering the vital metabolic function afforded by commensal microorganisms, we reasoned that their metabolic by-products are sensed by cells of the immune system and affect the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cells. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the effect of microbial metabolites on the generation of anti-inflammatory Treg cells. We found that in mice a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate, produced by commensal microorganisms during starch fermentation, facilitated extrathymic generation of Treg cells. A boost in Treg-cell numbers after provision of butyrate was due to potentiation of extrathymic differentiation of Treg cells, as the observed phenomenon was dependent on intronic enhancer CNS1 (conserved non-coding sequence 1), essential for extrathymic but dispensable for thymic Treg-cell differentiation. In addition to butyrate, de novo Treg-cell generation in the periphery was potentiated by propionate, another SCFA of microbial origin capable of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, but not acetate, which lacks this HDAC-inhibitory activity. Our results suggest that bacterial metabolites mediate communication between the commensal microbiota and the immune system, affecting the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Janus kinases (Jak) play essential roles in cytokine and growth factor signaling. Conventional gene targeting of Jak2, creating a null allele, leads to a block in definitive erythropoiesis as a result of failing signal transduction at the homomeric Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and at the heteromeric Interferon γ receptor (IFNGR). To investigate the in vivo relevance of the activation loop of Jak2, a Jak2-YY1007/1008FF knock-in mutation was introduced into the germline of mice. The phenotype of the Jak2(FF/FF) mouse line reveals that tyrosine residues 1007/1008 are absolutely essential for kinase function and signal transduction at the homomeric EpoR. Detailed studies using the Jak2 activation loop mutant uncover an essential scaffolding function of Jak2 within the IFNGR receptor complex and reveal that Jak1 can mediate a semi-redundant function for IFNGR signal transduction. These studies are highly important for the molecular understanding of cytokine and growth factor signaling and provide new insights for future strategies in the design of pharmacological blockers of Jak2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DC-derived chemokine CCL17, a ligand of CCR4, has been shown to promote various inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Under steady state conditions, and even after systemic stimulation with LPS, CCL17 is not expressed in resident splenic DCs as opposed to CD8α(-) CD11b(+) LN DCs, which produce large amounts of CCL17 in particular after maturation. Upon systemic NKT cell activation through α-galactosylceramide stimulation however, CCL17 can be upregulated in both CD8α(-) and CD8α(+) splenic DC subsets and enhances cross-presentation of exogenous antigens. Based on genome-wide expression profiling, we now show that splenic CD11b(+) DCs are susceptible to IFN-γ-mediated suppression of CCL17, whereas LN CD11b(+) CCL17(+) DCs downregulate the IFN-γR and are much less responsive to IFN-γ. Under inflammatory conditions, particularly in the absence of IFN-γ signaling in IFN-γRKO mice, CCL17 expression is strongly induced in a major proportion of splenic DCs by the action of GM-CSF in concert with IL-4. Our findings demonstrate that the local cytokine milieu and differential cytokine responsiveness of DC subsets regulate lymphoid organ specific immune responses at the level of chemokine expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal of Immunology 10/2013; · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the first isolation in 2002, the metallo-ß-lactamase GIM-1 has not been detected outside Germany. The data presented here on 50 clinical blaGIM-1-positive isolates including Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae (E. cloacae, K. oxytoca, S. marcescens, E. coli and C. freundii), collected between 2007 and 2012 at the original site in an on-going outbreak, demonstrates a diverse genetic background and dissemination of the resistance gene to enteric bacteria.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TNF superfamily ligand LIGHT (lymphotoxin-like, exhibits inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry mediator [HVEM], a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes) has been shown to play a role in T cell costimulation and be involved in apoptosis of mononuclear cells. As both T cells and monocytes are key components in the development and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we studied the role of LIGHT in EAE. Following immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (35-55), LIGHT-deficient mice developed severe EAE that resulted in an atypically high mortality rate. Histological examinations revealed intensive activation of microglia/macrophages in the CNS and higher numbers of apoptotic cells within the CNS parenchyma of LIGHT-deficient mice. However, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-specific CD4(+) T cells from LIGHT-deficient mice showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 production and migration. Serum levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates and CNS transcripts of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were also substantially decreased in the absence of LIGHT. EAE adoptive transfer experiments and bone marrow chimeras indicated that expression of LIGHT on donor cells is not required for disease induction. However, its expression on CNS host cells is a decisive factor to limit disease progression and tissue damage. Together, these data show that LIGHT expression is crucially involved in controlling activated macrophages/microglia during autoimmune CNS inflammation.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFN-γ activates cells to restrict intracellular pathogens by upregulating cellular effectors including the p65 family of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). Here we test the role of Gbp1 in the IFN-γ-dependent control of T. gondii in the mouse model. Virulent strains of T. gondii avoided recruitment of Gbp1 to the parasitophorous vacuole in a strain-dependent manner that was mediated by the parasite virulence factors ROP18, an active serine/threonine kinase, and the pseudokinase ROP5. Increased recruitment of Gbp1 to Δrop18 or Δrop5 parasites was associated with clearance in IFN-γ-activated macrophages in vitro, a process dependent on the autophagy protein Atg5. The increased susceptibility of Δrop18 mutants in IFN-γ-activated macrophages was reverted in Gbp1(-/-) cells, and decreased virulence of this mutant was compensated in Gbp1(-/-) mice, which were also more susceptible to challenge with type II strain parasites of intermediate virulence. These findings demonstrate that Gbp1 plays an important role in the IFN-γ-dependent, cell-autonomous control of toxoplasmosis and predict a broader role for this protein in host defense.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for a common infection of the central nervous system. Interferon (IFN) γ is the key cytokine of host defence against T. gondii. However, T. gondii strains differ in virulence and T. gondii factors determining virulence are still poorly understood. In astrocytes IFN γ primarily induces immunity-related GTPases (IRGs), providing a cell-autonomous resistance system. Here, we demonstrate that astrocytes prestimulated with IFN γ inhibit the proliferation of various avirulent, but not virulent, T. gondii strains. The two analyzed immunity-related GTPases Irga6 and Irgb6 accumulate at the PV only of avirulent T. gondii strains, whereas in virulent strains this accumulation is only detectable at very low levels. Both IRG proteins could temporarily be found at the same PV, but did only partially colocalize. Coinfection of avirulent and virulent parasites confirmed that the accumulation of the two analyzed IRGs was a characteristic of the individual PV and not determined by the presence of other strains of T. gondii in the same host cell. Thus, in astrocytes the accumulation of Irga6 and Irgb6 significantly differs between avirulent and virulent T. gondii strains correlating with the toxoplasmacidal properties suggesting a role for this process in parasite virulence.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:480231. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have a multilineage differentiation potential and provide immunosuppressive and antimicrobial functions. Murine as well as human MSCs restrict the proliferation of T cells. However, species-specific differences in the underlying molecular mechanisms have been described. Here, we analyzed the antiparasitic effector mechanisms active in murine MSCs. Murine MSCs, in contrast to human MSCs, could not restrict the growth of a highly virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii (BK) after stimulation with IFN-γ. However, the growth of a type II strain of T. gondii (ME49) was strongly inhibited by IFN-γ-activated murine MSCs. Immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) as well as guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) contributed to this antiparasitic effect. Further analysis showed that IFN-γ-activated mMSCs also inhibit the growth of Neospora caninum, a parasite belonging to the apicomplexan group as well. Detailed studies with murine IFN-γ-activated MSC indicated an involvement in IRGs like Irga6, Irgb6 and Irgd in the inhibition of N. caninum. Additional data showed that, furthermore, GBPs like mGBP1 and mGBP2 could have played a role in the anti-N. caninum effect of murine MSCs. These data underline that MSCs, in addition to their regenerative and immunosuppressive activity, function as antiparasitic effector cells as well. However, IRGs are not present in the human genome, indicating a species-specific difference in anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum effect between human and murine MSCs.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology 12/2012; · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFN-γ orchestrates the host response against intracellular pathogens. Members of the guanylate binding proteins (GBP) comprise the most abundant IFN-γ-induced transcriptional response. mGBPs are GTPases that are specifically up-regulated by IFN-γ, other proinflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor agonists, as well as in response to Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii infection. mGBP2 localizes at the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) of T. gondii; however, the molecular function of mGBP2 and its domains in T. gondii infection is not known. Here, we show that mGBP2 is highly expressed in several cell types, including T and B cells after stimulation. We provide evidence that the C-terminal domain is sufficient and essential for recruitment to the T. gondii PV. Functionally, mGBP2 reduces T. gondii proliferation because mGBP2-deficient cells display defects in the replication control of T. gondii. Ultimately, mGBP2-deficient mice reveal a marked immune susceptibility to T. gondii. Taken together, mGBP2 is an essential immune effector molecule mediating antiparasitic resistance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2012; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forkhead box P3 positive (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress immune responses and regulate peripheral tolerance. Here we show that the atypical inhibitor of NFκB (IκB) IκB(NS) drives Foxp3 expression via association with the promoter and the conserved noncoding sequence 3 (CNS3) of the Foxp3 locus. Consequently, IκB(NS) deficiency leads to a substantial reduction of Foxp3(+) Treg cells in vivo and impaired Foxp3 induction upon transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) treatment in vitro. Moreover, fewer Foxp3(+) Treg cells developed from IκB(NS)-deficient CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells adoptively transferred into immunodeficient recipients. Importantly, IκB(NS) was required for the transition of immature GITR(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) thymic Treg cell precursors into Foxp3(+) cells. In contrast to mice lacking c-Rel or Carma1, IκB(NS)-deficient mice do not show reduced Treg precursor cells. Our results demonstrate that IκB(NS) critically regulates Treg cell development in the thymus and during gut inflammation, indicating that strategies targeting IκB(NS) could modulate the Treg cell compartment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is a T(H)2-promoted hyperreactivity with an immediate, IgE, and mast cell-dependent response followed by eosinophil-dominated inflammation and airway obstruction. OBJECTIVE: Because costimulation by CD28 is essential for T(H)2 but not T(H)1 responses, we investigated the effect of selective interference with this pathway in mice using the models of ovalbumin and house dust mite-induced airway inflammation. METHODS: To study the role of CD28 in the effector phase of allergic airway inflammation, we developed an inducibly CD28-deleting mouse strain or alternatively used a CD28 ligand-binding site-specific mouse anti-mouse mAb blocking CD28 engagement. RESULTS: We show that even after systemic sensitization to the allergen, interruption of CD28-mediated costimulation is highly effective in preventing airway inflammation during challenge. In addition to improving airway resistance and histopathologic presentation and reducing inflammatory infiltrates, antibody treatment during allergen challenge resulted in a marked relative increase in regulatory T-cell numbers among the CD4 T-cell subset of the challenged lung. CONCLUSION: Selective interference with CD28-mediated costimulation during allergen exposure might be an attractive therapeutic concept for allergic asthma.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2012; · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway important for cellular homeostasis, mammalian development, cancer and immunity. Many molecular components of autophagy have been identified, but little is known about regulatory mechanisms controlling their effector functions. Here, we show that, in contrast to other p38 MAP kinase activators, the growth arrest and DNA damage 45 beta (Gadd45β)-MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 4 (MEKK4) pathway specifically directs p38 to autophagosomes. This process results in an accumulation of autophagosomes through p38-mediated inhibition of lysosome fusion. Conversely, autophagic flux is increased in p38-deficient fibroblasts and Gadd45β-deficient cells. We further identified the underlying mechanism and demonstrate that phosphorylation of the autophagy regulator autophagy-related (Atg)5 at threonine 75 through p38 is responsible for inhibition of starvation-induced autophagy. Thus, we show for the first time that Atg5 activity is controlled by phosphorylation and, moreover, that the spatial regulation of p38 by Gadd45β/MEKK4 negatively regulates the autophagic process.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 12 October 2012; doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.129.
Cell death and differentiation 10/2012; · 8.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the requirement for CD28 and its ligands for the generation and function of "natural" (n)Treg cells is well established, it has not been possible yet to investigate cell-intrinsic effects after interrupted CD28 expression. Here, we demonstrate a selective loss of Treg cells after disruption of the CD28 gene. The decline in Treg-cell number was accompanied by reduced homeostatic proliferation, probably due to lack of costimulation during self antigen recognition, and by impaired Treg-cell function including downregulation of CTLA-4. The decline in Treg-cell number was unaffected by thymectomy or by the presence of CD28 expressing T cells within the same animal, indicating that impairment of peripheral homeostasis and function of nTreg cells by CD28 deletion is cell-intrinsic. In contrast, downregulation of CD25, the α chain of the IL-2R, did not occur in the presence of WT T cells, indicating that its expression does not depend on CD28 signals in cis.
European Journal of Immunology 10/2012; · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most abundantly IFN-γ-induced protein families in different cell types is the 65-kDa guanylate-binding protein family that is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we elucidate the relationship between biochemistry and cellular host defense functions of mGBP2 in response to Toxoplasma gondii. The wild type protein exhibits low affinities to guanine nucleotides, self-assembles upon GTP binding, forming tetramers in the activated state, and stimulates the GTPase activity in a cooperative manner. The products of the two consecutive hydrolysis reactions are both GDP and GMP. The biochemical characterization of point mutants in the GTP-binding motifs of mGBP2 revealed amino acid residues that decrease the GTPase activity by orders of magnitude and strongly impair nucleotide binding and multimerization ability. Live cell imaging employing multiparameter fluorescence image spectroscopy (MFIS) using a Homo-FRET assay shows that the inducible multimerization of mGBP2 is dependent on a functional GTPase domain. The consistent results indicate that GTP binding, self-assembly, and stimulated hydrolysis activity are required for physiological localization of the protein in infected and uninfected cells. Ultimately, we show that the GTPase domain regulates efficient recruitment to T. gondii in response to IFN-γ.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 287(33):27452-66. · 4.65 Impact Factor