Johanna Lundberg

Linköping University, Sweden

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Publications (5)7.63 Total impact

  • Margareta Kristenson, Johanna Lundberg, Peter Garvin
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    ABSTRACT: To assess whether there are socioeconomic (SES) differences in outpatient visits within groups of comparable morbidity (medical disease and self-rated health) and whether psychosocial factors can explain these differences. Baseline data for SES, presence of disease, self-rated health (SRH), and psychosocial factors were collected during 2003-04 from 923 men and women aged 45-69 years in southeast Sweden. Outcome data were all registered outpatient healthcare visits to physicians during 2004-08. Cumulative incidences and standardised rate ratios (SSR) were calculated for strata of comparable morbidity for all visits, for visits due to cardiovascular disorders (CVD)/diabetes and for musculoskeletal problems. Low SES was associated with more outpatient visits due to musculoskeletal problems (SRR for education 1.52, 95% CI 1.35-1.73; for occupation 1.40, 95% CI 1.26-1.56) and accentuated in groups with poor SRH. The SES effect was significant for visits to primary care and to hospitals, for men and women, and independent of present disease, SRH, and psychosocial factors. Low SES was significantly associated with more total outpatient visits at primary healthcare centres. In contrast, for outpatient visits due to CVD/diabetes, high SES was related to more visits to hospitals among people with good SRH at baseline. We found a consistent pattern for outpatient visits related to musculoskeletal problems where people with low SES counted more visits and this was most prominent in groups of poor SRH. The results demonstrate the need to apply different morbidity measures when studying inequalities in healthcare utilisation.
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 12/2011; 39(8):805-12. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated the importance of measuring stability of risk factors over time to correct for attenuation bias. The present aim was to assess the stability of scores for eight psychometric scales over a 2-yr. period and whether stability differed by socioeconomic position. Baseline data were collected during 2003-2004 from 1,007 men and women ages 45 to 69 years. Follow-up data were collected in 2006 from a total of 795 men and women. Analysis showed that stability over 2 yr. was moderate and tended to be lower in groups of low socioeconomic position. It is suggested that correction of attenuation bias is relevant in longitudinal studies for psychosocial factors, especially for groups of low socioeconomic position.
    Psychological Reports 12/2009; 105(3 Pt 2):1009-22. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    Johanna Lundberg, Margareta Kristenson, Bengt Starrin
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    ABSTRACT: Status incongruence has been related to poor health and all-cause mortality, and could be a growing public health problem due to changes in the labour market in later decades. Shaming experiences have been suggested as playing a part in the aetiology. The aim here was to study the risk for shaming experiences, pessimism, anxiety, depressive feelings, and poor mental wellbeing (as measured by the GHQ) with a special focus on shame, in four social status categories: negatively and positively incongruent individuals, and low-status and high-status congruent individuals. Data comprised 14,854 working men and women from a regional sample of randomly selected respondents, 18-79 years of age. Logistic regression was used to study differences in risk for negative emotional outcomes. Results showed that the negative incongruent category persisted as the group most at risk for all negative emotional outcomes (OR 1.5-1.9; p < 0.05-<0.001).When testing the risk for poor mental wellbeing among the status categories with and without shaming experiences, ORs for all groups with shaming experiences were elevated. Among groups without shame, only the negative incongruent category remained at risk (OR 2.7; p < 0.05) after adjustment. Negative incongruent status is associated with adverse emotional outcomes, among them shame, which is a previously unappreciated aspect of status incongruence.
    Sociology of Health & Illness 12/2008; 31(4):478-93. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study of two middle-aged community samples from Sweden and Russia examined the distribution of perceived control scores in the two populations, investigated differences in individual control items between the populations, and assessed the association between perceived control and self-rated health. The samples consisted of men and women aged 45-69 years, randomly selected from national and local population registers in southeast Sweden (n = 1007) and in Novosibirsk, Russia (n = 9231). Data were collected by structured questionnaires and clinical measures at a visit to a clinic. The questionnaire covered socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, societal circumstances, and psychosocial measures. Self-rated health was assessed by standard single question with five possible answers, with a cut-off point at the top two alternatives. 32.2 % of Swedish men and women reported good health, compared to 10.3 % of Russian men and women. Levels of perceived control were also significantly lower in Russia than in Sweden and varied by socio-demographic parameters in both populations. Sub-item analysis of the control questionnaire revealed substantial differences between the populations both in the perception of control over life and over health. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios (OR) of poor self-rated health were significantly increased in men and women with low perceived control in both countries (OR between 2.61 and 4.26). Although the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inference, these results support the view that perceived control influences health, and that it may mediate the link between socioeconomic hardship and health.
    BMC Public Health 02/2007; 7:314. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    Johanna Lundberg, Margareta Kristenson
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status, life satisfaction, and a battery of psychosocial factors. Associations were controlled for effects of age and sex. Results Both subjective status and occupation were significantly associated with self-rated health also after control for psychosocial factors. Stepwise regression showed that subjective status was significantly influenced by self-rated economy, education, life satisfaction, self-esteem, trust, perceived control, and mastery. Conclusion The association between subjective status and self-rated health does not seem to be uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors. Both resource-based measures and psychological dimensions seem to influence subjective status ratings. Comparative studies are required to study whether predictors of subjective status vary between countries with different socio-political profiles.
    Social Indicators Research 89(3):375-390. · 1.26 Impact Factor