Osam Mazda

Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (140)523.43 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synovial fluid pH is decreased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we examined the mechanism by which synovial fluid pH is regulated and explore the therapeutic strategy by manipulating this mechanism. The pH and lactate concentration in synovial fluid from 16 RA patients were determined. Cultured synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from the inflamed joints of nine patients with RA (RASFs) were examined for the expression of ion transporters that regulate intracellular and extracellular pH. The ion transporter up-regulated in RASF lines was then suppressed in RASFs by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effect of transfection on viability and proliferation was investigated. Finally, we examined the therapeutic effect of electro-transfer of MCT4-specific siRNA into the articular synovium of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Synovial fluid pH correlated inversely with both the patient disease activity score (DAS)-28 CRP and synovial fluid lactate levels. RASFs exhibited up-regulated transcription of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4 mRNA. MCT4 exports intracellular lactate into the extracellular space. RASFs had significantly higher MCT4 protein levels than osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts. Knockdown of MCT4 induced intrinsic RASF apoptosis, thereby inhibiting their proliferation. Moreover, electro-transfer of MCT4-specific siRNA into the articular synovium of CIA mice significantly reduced the severity of arthritis. RA activity correlated with decreased synovial fluid pH. This may be due to increased MCT4 expression in RASFs. Silencing MCT4 induced apoptosis in RASFs and reduced the severity of CIA, suggesting that MCT4 is a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory arthritis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis and Rheumatology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/art.39270
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    ABSTRACT: Although many reports have been published on the functional roles of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, the mechanisms involved in the maintenance and homeostasis of PDL have not been determined. We investigated the effects of biomechanical force on growth factor production, phosphorylation of MAPKs, and intracellular transduction pathways for growth factor production in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells using MAPK inhibitors. hPDL cells were exposed to mechanical force (6 MPa) using a hydrostatic pressure apparatus. The levels of growth factor mRNA and protein were examined by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. The phosphorylation of MAPKs was measured using BD™ CBA Flex Set. In addition, MAPKs inhibitors were used to identify specific signal transduction pathways. Application of biomechanical force (equivalent to occlusal force) increased the synthesis of VEGF-A, FGF-2, and NGF. The application of biomechanical force increased the expression levels of phosphorylated ERK and p38, but not of JNK. Furthermore, the levels of VEGF-A and NGF expression were suppressed by ERK or p38 inhibitor. The growth factors induced by biomechanical force may play a role in the mechanisms of homeostasis of PDL.
    Odontology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10266-015-0206-5 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoblasts produce calcified bone matrix and contribute to bone formation and remodeling. In this study, we established a procedure to directly convert human fibroblasts into osteoblasts by transducing some defined factors and culturing in osteogenic medium. Osteoblast-specific transcription factors, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and Osterix, in combination with Octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct4) and L-Myc (RXOL) transduction, converted ∼80% of the fibroblasts into osteocalcin-producing cells. The directly converted osteoblasts (dOBs) induced by RXOL displayed a similar gene expression profile as normal human osteoblasts and contributed to bone repair after transplantation into immunodeficient mice at artificial bone defect lesions. The dOBs expressed endogenous Runx2 and Osterix, and did not require continuous expression of the exogenous genes to maintain their phenotype. Another combination, Oct4 plus L-Myc (OL), also induced fibroblasts to produce bone matrix, but the OL-transduced cells did not express Osterix and exhibited a more distant gene expression profile to osteoblasts compared with RXOL-transduced cells. These findings strongly suggest successful direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional osteoblasts by RXOL, a technology that may provide bone regeneration therapy against bone disorders.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2015; 112(19). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1420713112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 04/2015; 23:A154-A155. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2015.02.908 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis rabbit model by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Steroid-induced osteonecrosis was produced by single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone in 15 rabbits. Eight rabbits underwent PEMF stimulation (PEMF group) and seven did not (control group). DCE-MRI was performed before PEMF stimulation, immediately before steroid administration, and 1, 5, 10, and 14 days after steroid administration. Regions of interest were set in the bilateral proximal femora. Enhancement ratio (ER), initial slope (IS), and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. ER, IS, and AUC in the control group significantly decreased after steroid administration compared with before administration (P < 0.05). In PEMF group, IS significantly decreased; however, ER and AUC showed no significant differences after steroid administration compared with before. ER and IS in PEMF group were higher than in control group until 10th day, and AUC was higher until 5th day after steroid administration (P < 0.05). PEMF stimulation restrains the decrease in blood flow after steroid administration. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Bioelectromagnetics 03/2015; 36(5). DOI:10.1002/bem.21910 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2015; 16(1):1043-50. DOI:10.3390/ijms16011043 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are transplanted for periodontal tissue regeneration, and the periodontal ligament (PDL) is regenerated using a cultured cell sheet. This cultured cell sheet is prepared using PDL-derived cells, growth factors, and amniotic membrane (AM). Dental pulp (DP)-derived cells can be easily obtained from extracted wisdom teeth, proliferate rapidly, and are less susceptible to bacterial infection than PDL-derived cells. Thus, to prepare a novel cell sheet, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM as a culture substrate for immunohistochemical examination. Wisdom teeth extracted from three adults were cut along the cement-enamel border. DP tissue was collected, minced, and primarily cultured. After three or four passage cultures, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM, followed by hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and immunofluorescence staining. DP-derived cells cultured on AM formed a layered structure. Cells positive for vimentin, Ki-67, ZO-1, desmoplakin, CD29, 44, 105 or 146, STRO-1, collagen IV or VII or laminin 5 or α5 chain were localized. DP-derived cells proliferated on AM, while retaining the properties of DP, which allowed the cultured cell sheet to be prepared. In addition, the cultured cell sheet contained MSC, which suggests its potential application in periodontal tissue regeneration.
    Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2015; 25(2):203-212. DOI:10.3233/BME-151270 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone destruction at inflamed joints is an important complication associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) may suppress not only inflammation but also induction of osteoclasts that play key roles in the bone destruction. If IL-10-producing osteoblast-like cells are induced from patient somatic cells and transplanted back into the destructive bone lesion, such therapy may promote bone remodeling by the cooperative effects of IL-10 and osteoblasts. We transduced mouse fibroblasts with genes for IL-10 and Runx2 that is a crucial transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. The IL-10-producing induced osteoblast-like cells (IL-10-iOBs) strongly expressed osteoblast-specific genes and massively produced bone matrix that were mineralized by calcium phosphate in vitro and in vivo. Culture supernatant of IL-10-iOBs significantly suppressed induction of osteoclast from RANKL-stimulated Raw264.7 cells as well as LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokine by macrophages. The IL-10-iOBs may be applicable to novel cell-based therapy against bone destruction associated with RA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014; 456(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.040 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) enables potent and specific gene silencing, potentially offering useful means for treatment of cancers. However, a safe and efficient drug delivery system (DDS) that is appropriate for intra-tumor delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) has rarely been established, hindering clinical application of RNAi technology to cancer therapy. We have devised hydrogel polymer nanoparticles, or nanogel, and shown its validity as a novel DDS for various molecules. Here we examined the potential of self-assembled nanogel of cholesterol-bearing cycloamylose with spermine group (CH-CA-Spe) to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-specific short interfering RNA (siVEGF) into tumor cells. The siVEGF/nanogel complex was engulfed by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells through the endocytotic pathway, resulting in efficient knockdown of VEGF. Intra-tumor injections of the complex significantly suppressed neovascularization and growth of RCC in mice. The treatment also inhibited induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), while it decreased interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production. Therefore, the CHP-CA-Spe nanogel may be a feasible DDS for intra-tumor delivery of therapeutic siRNA. The results also suggest that local suppression of VEGF may have a positive impact on systemic immune responses against malignancies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Cancer Science 10/2014; 105(12). DOI:10.1111/cas.12547 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 09/2014; 72(9):e178-e179. DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2014.06.322 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed whether heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is involved in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent anabolic pathways in articular chondrocytes under hypoxic conditions. Primary rabbit chondrocytes were cultured under normoxia (20% oxygen condition) or hypoxia (1% oxygen condition). Alternatively, cells cultured under normoxia were treated with CoCl2, which induces HIF-1α, to simulate hypoxia, or transfected with siRNAs targeting HIF-1α (si-HIF-1α) and HSP70 (si-HSP70) under hypoxia. HSP70 expression was enhanced by the increased expression of HIF-1α under hypoxia or simulated hypoxia, but not in the presence of si-HIF-1α. Hypoxia-induced overexpression of ECM genes was significantly suppressed by si-HIF-1α or si-HSP70. Cell viability positively correlated with hypoxia, but transfection with si-HIF-1α or si-HSP70 abrogated the chondroprotective effects of hypoxia. Although LDH release from sodium nitroprusside-treated cells and the proportion of TUNEL positive cells were decreased under hypoxia, transfection with si-HIF-1α or si-HSP70 almost completely blocked these effects. These findings indicated that HIF-1α-induced HSP70 overexpression increased the expression levels of ECM genes and cell viability, and protected chondrocytes from apoptosis. HIF-1α may regulate the anabolic effects of chondrocytes under hypoxic conditions by regulating HSP70 expression. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 08/2014; 32(8). DOI:10.1002/jor.22623 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recent reports demonstrated that somatic cells such as fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into other cell types including neurons and cardiomyocytes by introducing critical transcription factors involved in the differentiation of the corresponding cell lineages1,2. Such procedures in combination with co-transduction of a particular gene may allow creation of the cells with desired functions. If patient specific osteoblasts can be induced and engineered to produce IL-10, autologous transplantation of such cells may suppress inflammation and bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis by modulating immune responses and osteoclast development. Objectives To generate IL-10-producing mouse osteoblast-like cells from fibroblasts, and estimate potential effect of the cell supernatants on osteoclast differentiation. Methods Various combinations of transcription factors were transduced into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with retroviral vectors and the efficiency of conversion into osteoblast-like cells were estimated by alizarine red S staining. IL-10 gene was also transduced to the cells that received the most effective combination of the transcription factors, and resultant cells were characterized by qRT-PCR, alkaline phosphatase staining, and alizarine red S staining. IL-10 production was measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The supernatant was added to a mouse macrophage cell line Raw264.7 cells that were induced to differentiate into osteoclasts by an addition of RANKL. Results MEFs were successfully induced to massively produce bone matrix that were mineralized by calcium phosphate. Co-transduction of the IL-10 gene by means of a retrovirus vector resulted in establishment of osteoblasts that produced IL-10 at a significant level. The culture supernatant of the cells significantly suppressed osteoclast differentiation from Raw264.7 cells. Conclusions IL-10-secreting osteoblasts were successfully generated from fibroblasts by direct reprogramming procedures. The cells may be useful in novel cell-based therapy against RA in the future. References Disclosure of Interest None declared DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-eular.2247
    Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2014; 73(Suppl 2):794-794. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-eular.2247 · 10.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene transfer technique has various applications, ranging from cellular biology to medical treatments for diseases. Although nonviral vectors, such as episomal vectors, have been developed, it is necessary to improve their gene transfer efficacy. Therefore, we attempted to develop a highly efficient gene delivery system combining an episomal vector with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). In comparison with the conventional method using transfection reagents, polyethylenimine-coated MNPs introduced episomal vectors more efficiently under a magnetic field and could express the gene in mammalian cells with higher efficiency and for longer periods. This novel in vitro separation method of gene-introduced cells utilizing the magnetic property of MNPs significantly facilitated the separation of cells of interest. Transplanted cells in vivo were detected using magnetic resonance. These results suggest that MNPs play multifunctional roles in ex vivo gene transfer, such as improvement of gene transfer efficacy, separation of cells, and detection of transplanted cells.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 04/2014; 10(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nano.2014.03.018 · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 04/2014; 22:S288-S289. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2014.02.536 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo evaluate perfusion during the early phase after steroid administration in vivo using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with a high magnetic field MRI system. The main pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis is considered to be ischemia.Materials and MethodsA single dose of methylprednisolone (MPSL) was injected into nine rabbits. DCE-MRI was performed for these rabbits before MPSL administration and 1, 5, 10, and 14 days after administration. Time–signal intensity curves were created for each femur based on the signal intensity to evaluate perfusion. Enhancement ratio (ER), initial slope (IS), and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated and the value before MPSL administration and the minimal value after administration were compared statistically.ResultsER, IS, and AUC values after MPSL administration significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively). All of them decreased by the 5th day in 56% of the femora and by the 14th day in 83%, and some femora even showed a decrease from the 1st day.Conclusion In this study, decreased perfusion in the femora after steroid administration was proven. Additionally, we could show that it occurred from the early days after steroid administration. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 04/2014; 41(4). DOI:10.1002/jmri.24632 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this feasibility study was to examine whether sonoporation assisted transduction of siRNA could be used to ameliorate arthritis locally. If successful, such approach could provide an alternative treatment for the patients that have or gradually develop adverse response to chemical drugs. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) produced by synovial fibroblasts has an important role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis, inducing inflammation and bone destruction. In this study, we injected a mixture of microbubbles and siRNA targeting TNF-α (siTNF) into the articular joints of rats, and transduced siTNF into synovial tissue by exposure to a collimated ultrasound beam, applied through a probe 6mm in diameter with an input frequency of 3.0MHz, an output intensity of 2.0W/cm(2) (spatial average temporary peak; SATP), a pulse duty ratio of 50%, and a duration of 1min. Sonoporation increased skin temperature from 26.8°C to 27.3°C, but there were no adverse effect such as burns. The mean level of TNF-α expression in siTNF-treated knee joints was 55% of those in controls. Delivery of siTNF into the knee joints every 3days (i.e., 7, 10, 13, and 16days after immunization) by in vivo sonoporation significantly reduced paw swelling on days 20-23 after immunization. Radiographic scores in the siTNF group were 56% of those in the CIA group and 61% of those in the siNeg group. Histological examination showed that the number of TNF-α positive cells was significantly lower in areas of pannus invasion into the ankle joints of siTNF- than of siNeg-treated rats. These results indicate that transduction of siTNF into articular synovium using sonoporation may be an effective local therapy for arthritis.
    Ultrasonics 11/2013; 54(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ultras.2013.10.021 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance the effect of anti-influenza-virus agent treatment, the effect of combined administration of oseltamivir phosphate and hochu-ekki-to (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, HET) on early viral clearance was examined. Senescence-accelerated mice were given HET in drinking water for 2 weeks, followed by intranasal infection with influenza A virus strain PR8. After 4 hours of infection, oseltamivir was administered orally for 5 days. The viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving combined treatment were dramatically lower when compared with the viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving oseltamivir alone. HET significantly increased the induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in the lungs of PR8-infected mice and stimulated alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. From these results, we conclude that these functions may be responsible the increased effect on viral load reduction. Here, we show that the combined administration of oseltamivir and HET is very useful for influenza treatment in senescence-accelerated mice.
    Archives of Virology 08/2013; 159(2). DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1807-3 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of mild electrical stimulation (MES) and heat stress (HS) on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), that protects chondrocytes and enhances cartilage matrix metabolism, in chondrocyte and articular cartilage. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were treated with MES and/or HS. The safeness was assessed by LDH assay and morphology. HSP70 protein, ubiquitinated proteins and HSP70 mRNA were examined by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Rat knee joints were treated with MES and/or HS. HSP70 protein, ubiquitinated proteins, HSP70 mRNA and proteoglycan core protein (PG) mRNA in articular cartilage were investigated. In vitro, HS increased HSP70 mRNA and HSP70 protein. MES augmented ubiquitinated protein and HSP70 protein, but not HSP70 mRNA. MES + HS raised HSP70 mRNA and ubiquitinated protein, and significantly increased HSP70 protein. In vivo, HS and MES + HS treatment augmented HSP70 mRNA. HS modestly augmented HSP70 protein. MES + HS significantly increased HSP70 protein and ubiquitinated proteins. PG mRNA was markedly raised by MES + HS. This study demonstrated that MES, in combination with HS, increases HSP70 protein in chondrocytes and articular cartilage, and promotes cartilage matrix metabolism in articular cartilage. MES in combination with HS can be a novel physical therapy for osteoarthritis by inducing HSP70 in articular cartilage. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 06/2013; 31(6). DOI:10.1002/jor.22307 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    T Kishida · F-D Cui · E Ohgitani · F Gao · K Hayakawa · O Mazda
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    ABSTRACT: Some viruses are sensitive to high pressure. The freeze-pressure generation method (FPGM) applies pressure as high as 250 MPa on a substance, simply by freezing a pressure-resistant reservoir in which the substance is immersed in water. Here we examined whether the FPGM successfully inactivates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the human Herpesviridae, and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), an envelope-free RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae. After the treatment, HSV-1 drastically reduced the ability to form plaque in Vero cells in vitro as well as to kill mice in vivo. EMCV that had been pressurized failed to proliferate in HeLa cells and induce interferon response. The results suggest that the FPGM provides a feasible procedure to inactivate a broad spectrum of viruses.
    Biotechnology Letters 04/2013; 35(8). DOI:10.1007/s10529-013-1204-8 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine whether the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) effected on inflammatory conditions in rat fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and on rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression of Cx43 in rat FLS stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of small-interfering RNA targeting Cx43 (siCx43) on pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The therapeutic and side effects of siCx43 in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were examined by in vivo electroporation method. LPS markedly enhanced Cx43 gene expression in rat FLS, with transfection of siCx43 suppressing the over-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the chemokine. Treatment of CIA rats with siCx43 significantly ameliorated paw swelling, and significantly reduced histological arthritis scores and radiographic scores. In histological appearance of rat ankle joints, siCx43 treatment significantly decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive (osteoclast-like) cells. These findings indicated that siCx43 had anti-inflammatory effects in rat FLS and efficiently inhibited the development of CIA. Cx43 may play an important role in the pathophysiology of RA, and may be a potential target molecule for novel RA therapies. © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 04/2013; 31(4). DOI:10.1002/jor.22263 · 2.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
523.43 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2015
    • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Graduate School of Medical Science
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2011
    • Kyoto Sangyo University
      • Faculty of Life Sciences
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2005
    • Louis Pasteur Center for Medical Research
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1991–1995
    • Kyoto University
      • Primate Research Institute
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan