[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the extent of bone fill over 3 years following the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis with bone grafting with or without a membrane.
In a non-submerged wound-healing mode, 15 subjects with 27 implants were treated with a bone substitute (Algipore(®)) alone and 17 subjects with 29 implants were treated with the bone substitute and a resorbable membrane (Osseoquest(®)). Implants with radiographic bone loss ≥1.8 mm following the first year in function and with bleeding and/or pus on probing were included. Following surgery, subjects were given systemic antibiotics (10 days) and rinsed with chlorhexidine. After initial healing, the subjects were enrolled in a strict maintenance programme.
Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate changes in bone fill between 1 and 3 years both between and within procedure groups. The mean defect fill at 3 years was 1.3 ± (SD) 1.3 mm if treated with the bone substitute alone and 1.6 ± (SD) 1.2 mm if treated with an adjunct resorbable membrane, (p=0.40). The plaque index decreased from approximately 40-10%, remaining stable during the following 2 years.
Defect fill using a bone substitute with or without a membrane technique in the treatment of peri-implantitis can be maintained over 3 years.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 06/2011; 38(6):590-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to assess clinical and microbiologic effects of the non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions using either an erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser or an air-abrasive subgingival polishing method.
In a 6-month clinical trial, 42 patients with peri-implantitis were treated at one time with an Er:YAG laser or an air-abrasive device. Routine clinical methods were used to monitor clinical conditions. Baseline and 6-month intraoral radiographs were assessed with a software program. The checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was used to assess 74 bacterial species from the site with the deepest probing depth (PD) at the implant. Non-parametric tests were applied to microbiology data.
PD reductions (mean ± SD) were 0.9 ± 0.8 mm and 0.8 ± 0.5 mm in the laser and air-abrasive groups, respectively (not significant). No baseline differences in bacterial counts between groups were found. In the air-abrasive group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus anaerobius were found at lower counts at 1 month after therapy (P <0.001) and with lower counts in the laser group for Fusobacterium nucleatum naviforme (P = 0.002), and Fusobacterium nucleatum nucleatum (P = 0.002). Both treatments failed to reduce bacterial counts at 6 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis counts were higher in cases with progressive peri-implantitis (P <0.001). ConclusiONS: At 1 month, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. anaerobius were reduced in the air-abrasive group, and Fusobacterium spp. were reduced in the laser group. Six-month data demonstrated that both methods failed to reduce bacterial counts. Clinical improvements were limited.
Journal of Periodontology 03/2011; 82(9):1267-78. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is the most common multifactorial disease, afflicting a very large proportion of the adult population. Periodontal disease secondarily causes increases in the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other markers of inflammation. An increased level of CRP reflects an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the short-term effect of a combination of dipyridamole and prednisolone (CRx-102) on the levels of high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP, proinflammatory markers in blood, and clinical signs of periodontal disease.
Fifty-seven patients with >/=10 pockets with probing depths >/=5 mm were randomized into two groups in this masked single-center placebo-controlled study: CRx-102 (n = 28) and placebo (n = 29). hs-CRP levels, inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, -1beta, -8, and -12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma]), bleeding on probing (BOP), and changes in probing depths were evaluated. The subjects received mechanical non-surgical therapy after 42 days, and the study was completed after 49 days.
At day 42, the differences in the hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6 levels between the two groups were statistically significant (P <0.05), whereas no difference was found for the other inflammatory markers. There was no change in probing depth or BOP between the two groups.
The administration of CRx-102 resulted in significant decreases in hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6, but it did not significantly change BOP or probing depths.
Journal of Periodontology 06/2009; 80(6):892-900. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the literature on non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.
A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL) as well as a hand search of articles were conducted. Publications and articles accepted for publication up to November 2007 were included.
Out of 437 studies retrieved a total of 24 studies were selected for the review. Thus the available evidence for non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis is scarce.
It was observed that mechanical non-surgical therapy could be effective in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis lesions. Furthermore, the adjunctive use of antimicrobial mouth rinses enhanced the outcome of mechanical therapy of such mucositis lesions. In peri-implantitis lesions non-surgical therapy was not found to be effective. Adjunctive chlorhexidine application had only limited effects on clinical and microbiological parameters. However, adjunctive local or systemic antibiotics were shown to reduce bleeding on probing and probing depths. Minor beneficial effects of laser therapy on peri-implantitis have been shown; this approach needs to be further evaluated. There is a need for randomized-controlled studies evaluating treatment models of non-surgical therapy of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to study a regenerative surgical treatment modality for peri-implantitis employing submerged healing.
Twelve patients, having a minimum of one osseointegrated implant with peri-implantitis, with a progressive loss of >or=3 threads (1.8 mm) following the first year of healing were involved in the study. After surgical exposure of the defect, granulomatous tissue was removed and the implant surface was treated using 3% hydrogen peroxide. The bone defects were filled with a bone substitute (Algipore), a resorbable membrane (Osseoquest) was placed over the grafted defect and a cover screw was connected to the fixture. The implant was then covered by flaps and submerged healing was allowed for 6 months. After 6 months the abutment was re-connected to the supra-structure.
A 1-year follow-up demonstrated clinical and radiographic improvements. Probing depth was reduced by 4.2 mm and a mean defect fill of 2.3 mm was obtained.
Treatment of peri-implant defects using a bone graft substitute combined with a resorbable membrane and submerged healing results in defect fill and clinical healthier situations.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 09/2007; 34(8):723-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective cohort study was to compare two regenerative surgical treatment modalities for peri-implantitis.
Thirty-six patients having a minimum of one osseointegrated implant, with a progressive loss of bone amounting to > or =3 threads (1.8 mm) following the first year of healing, combined with bleeding and/or pus on probing, were involved in this study. The patients were assigned to two different treatment strategies. After surgical exposure of the defect, granulomatous tissue was removed and the infected implant surface was treated using 3% hydrogen peroxide. The bone defects were filled with a bone substitute (Algipore). In 17 patients (Group 1), a resorbable membrane (Osseoquest) was placed over the grafted defect before suturing. In 19 patients (Group 2), the graft was used alone.
One-year follow-up demonstrated clinical and radiographic improvements. Probing depths were reduced by 2.9 mm in Group 1 and by 3.4 mm in Group 2. Defect fill amounted to 1.5 and 1.4 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups.
It is possible to treat peri-implant defects with a bone substitute, with or without a resorbable membrane.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 07/2007; 34(7):625-32. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and their natural specific inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) play a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in periodontal tissues. Polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster have been associated with severe adult periodontitis. We aimed to investigate the IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms in patients with peri-implantitis.
The study included 120 North Caucasian individuals. A total of 71 patients (mean age 68 years, 76% smokers) demonstrating peri-implantitis at one or more implants as evidenced by bleeding and/or pus on probing and bone loss amounting to >3 threads on Brånemark implants and 49 controls (mean age 66 years, 45% smokers) with clinical healthy mucosa and no bone loss around the implants were recruited for the study. The titanium implants, ad modum Brånemark, had been in function for at least 2 years. Mouthwash samples were collected and used for genotyping of the bi-allelic polymorphisms IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(+3953), IL-1B(-511) and a variable number of tandem repeat IL-1RN gene polymorphisms using PCR technique.
Significant differences were found in the carriage rate of allele 2 in the IL-1RN gene between peri-implantitis patients and controls (56.5% vs. 33.3%, respectively; odds ratios (OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.6; P=0.015). Logistic regression analysis taking smoking, gender and age into account confirmed the association between the IL-1RN allele 2 carriers and peri-implantitis (OR 3; 95% CI 1.2-7.6; P=0.02).
Our results provide evidence that IL-1RN gene polymorphism is associated with peri-implantitis and may represent a risk factor for this disease.
Clinical Oral Implants Research 09/2006; 17(4):380-5. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyse the proportions of peri-implant lesions at implants after 9-14 years of function.
Two hundred and ninety-four patients underwent implant therapy during the years 1988-1992 in Kristianstad County. These individuals were recalled to the speciality clinic 1 and 5 years after placement of the suprastructure. Between 2000 and 2002, 218 patients with 999 implants were examined clinically and radiographically.
Forty-eight per cent of the implants had probing depth > or =4 mm and bleeding on probing (peri-implant mucositis). In 20.4% of the implants, the bone level was located 3.1 mm apical to the implant shoulder. Progressive bone loss (> or =1.8 mm) during the observation period was found in 7.7% of the implants. Peri-implantitis defined as bone loss > or =1.8 mm compared with 1-year data (the apical border of the bony defect located at or apical to the third thread, i.e. a minimum of 3.1 mm apical to the implant shoulder), combined with bleeding on probing and or pus, were diagnosed among 16% of the patients and 6.6% of the implants.
After 10 years in use without systematic supportive treatment, peri-implant lesions is a common clinical entity adjacent to titanium implants.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 04/2006; 33(4):290-5. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present paper was to analyse, on patient and implant basis, factors related to peri-implant lesions.
Two hundred and eighteen patients treated with titanium implants were examined for biological complications at existing implants 9-14 years after initial therapy. The effects of several potentially explanatory variables, both on patient and on implant levels, were analysed.
On the implant level, the presence of keratinized mucosa (p = 0.02) and plaque (p = 0.005) was associated with mucositis (probing depth > or =4 mm + bleeding on probing). The bone level at implants was associated with the presence of keratinized mucosa (p = 0.03) and the presence of pus (p < 0.001). On the patient level, smoking was associated with mucositis, bone level and peri-implantitis (p = 0.02, <0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Peri-implantitis was related to a previous history of periodontitis (p = 0.05).
Individuals with a history of periodontitis and individuals who smoke are more likely to develop peri-implant lesions.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 04/2006; 33(4):296-301. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present paper is to review available information on the treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.
The results of animal research and human studies are presented. Proposed strategies for the treatment of peri-implantitis presented in the literature are also included.
Most of the information accessible at this time derives from case reports. The reports provide evidence that efforts to reduce the submucosal infection may result in short-term improvements of the peri-implant lesion. They also indicate that regenerative procedures in intrabony peri-implant defects can result in the formation of new bone.
Several uncertainties remain regarding the treatment of peri-implantitis. Properly conducted long-term follow-ups of consecutively treated cases would seem to be a realistic avenue for accumulation of more information. This may assist in establishing the predictability, magnitude and stability of improvements that can be achieved.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 07/2003; 30(6):467-85. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of bone morphogenetic protein on supracrestal bone growth around partially inserted implants in a dog model is described. The lower premolar teeth (P1, P2, P3 and P4) were extracted on both sides of the mandible in six dogs. At a surgical exposure 12 weeks later, two 10-mm turned titanium implants were partially inserted, approximately 15 mm apart, in the areas of the P1 and P3 in each side of the mandible, allowing five threads to protrude from the bone crest. A titanium mesh was fastened to the coronal aspect of the two fixtures and the space beneath the mesh was filled with bone morphogenetic protein (S300 BMP) in combination with an insoluble bone matrix carrier, or with the carrier alone. The mesh was covered with an ePTFE membrane. Thus, a space for potential bone formation was created between the two implants. The surgical flaps were coronally positioned and secured with vertical mattress sutures. After 16 weeks of healing, biopsy specimens were retrieved and examined histologically. Bone was not formed around the protruding implants or in the created space between the implants in any case. The carrier was incompletely resorbed. We conclude that supracrestal bone growth beyond the crestal limit with or without BMP in such a large space as in this experimental design may not be possible.
Clinical Oral Implants Research 05/2003; 14(2):219-25. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dog model for study of supracrestal bone growth around partially inserted implants is described. The mandibular premolar teeth (P1, P2, P3 and P4) were extracted on both sides of the mandible in four dogs. At a surgical exposure 12 weeks later, two 10 mm titanium implants were partially inserted on each side, 15 mm apart, in the areas of the P1 and the P3 so that five threads protruded from the bone crest. A titanium mesh was fastened to the coronal aspect of the two fixtures and covered with an ePTFE membrane. Thus, a space for potential bone formation was created between the two implants. The surgical flaps were coronally positioned and secured with vertical mattress sutures. After 12 weeks of healing, biopsy specimens were retrieved and examined histologically. In three of the four dogs under study, the partially inserted implants had integrated and the intended large wound spaces had been created around the noninserted parts of the implants. However, bone was not formed around the protruding implants. Accordingly, this experimental model may prove useful for future studies on the use of various procedures that hypothetically may enhance bone formation.
Clinical Oral Implants Research 11/2002; 13(5):455-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor