Yinshi Sun

Shandong Agricultural University, China

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Publications (20)31.88 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the four acetophenones, namely 4-hydroxyacetophenone (1), 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (2), baishouwubenzophenone (3) and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (4) from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei was developed. Three kinds of aqueous l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anion and alkyl chain were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids (ILs) showed remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of acetophenones. In addition, the ILUAE, including several ultrasonic parameters, such as the ILs concentration, solvent to solid ratio, power, particle size, temperature, and extraction time have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.6M [C(4)MIM]BF(4), solvent to solid ratio of 35:1, power of 175W, particle size of 60-80 mesh, temperature of 25°C and time of 50min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of four acetophenones 286.15, 21.65, 632.58 and 205.38μg/g, respectively. The proposed approach has been evaluated by comparison with the conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE) and regular UAE. The results indicated that ILUAE is an alternative method for extracting acetophenones from C. bungei.
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 07/2012; 20(1):180-6. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was shown to be more efficient in extracting anti-tumor bufadienolides (bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin) from important animal medicine of ChanSu than the maceration extraction (ME) and soxhlet extraction (SE) method. The effects of ultrasonic variables including extraction solvent, solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature, extraction time and particle size on the yields of three bufadienolides were investigated. The optimum extraction conditions found were: 70% (v/v) methanol solution, solvent to solid ratio of 10ml/g, ultrasound power of 125W, temperature of 20°C, extraction time of 20min and particle size of 60-80 mesh. The extraction yields of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 43.17±0.85, 52.58±1.12, 137.70±2.65mg/g, respectively. In order to achieve a similar yield as UAE, soxhlet extraction required 6h and maceration extraction required much longer time of 18h. The results indicated that UAE is an alternative method for extracting bufadienolides from ChanSu.
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 03/2012; 19(6):1150-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco consists of at least 3,800 chemical constituents. Among them, rutin is an important polyphenolic secondary metabolite in tobacco, which has positive actions such as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-protozoal properties. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze rutin in tobacco and filters, mainstream smoke, and burned ash of ten varieties of cigarettes made in China. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a Hypersil ODS2 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 350 nm using a photodiode array detector. The calibration curves for the determination of analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9998). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.59% and 1.53%. The recoveries were between 98.47 and 100.84%. Under the optimized conditions, namely 45 mL/g of solvent to solid ratio, 30 min of extraction time and 200 W of ultrasound power, the concentrations of rutin in tobacco and filter, mainstream smoke, burned ash of different brands cigarettes were 10.20-63.98, 0.10-0.32, 0.06-0.16 and 0 μg/per cigarette, respectively.
    Molecules 01/2012; 17(4):3751-60. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cynanchum bungei Decne (Baishouwu in China), is a famous traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used as a tonic medicine or health food for centuries. Bungeiside-A, bungeiside-B and baishouwubenzophenone, as the major bioactive constituents in C. bungei, are challenging to separate and purify since bungeiside-A and -B are present in very low concentrations and have similar structures and high polarity. To develop a method of isolation and purification of bungeiside-A and -B and baishouwubenzophenone from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei Decne by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The roots of C. bungei were extracted with light-petroleum (60-90 °C) and chloroform to remove the lipid substance. Then the residuals were extracted with methanol. The methanol extract was prepared for the subsequent HSCCC separation. The simple HSCCC method of separation and purification of bungeiside-A and -B and baishouwubenzophenone was established according to the solvent system, which was selected according to the measurement of partition coefficient (K). The purities of target compounds were test by HPLC and the structure was identified by ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Bungeiside-A (9.4 mg), bungeiside-B (8.6 mg) and baishouwubenzophenone (5.7 mg) were obtained from 1.5 g of the methanol extract with purities of 93.2, 98.7 and 95.4%, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that HSCCC is a powerful tool for isolating and purifying components with similar structures, low concentration and high polarity from medicinal plant, such as bungeiside-A and -B and baishouwubenzophenone.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2011; 22(6):526-31. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pasting viscosities of starches from Angelica dahurica (three cultivars named Chuan Baizhi, Yu Baizhi and Qi Baizhi in Chinese, respectively), in the presence of NaCl, Na2CO3, NaOH, glucose, fructose and sucrose were determined with a rapid visco analyser. The pasting peak, trough or final viscosities and the pasting temperatures (Pt) of Baizhi starches increased with NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 3.0%. The peak viscosities of Baizhi starches increased at 0.2% Na2CO3 concentration and then decreased with Na2CO3 concentration up to 0.8%. The trough and final viscosities and the Pt decreased with Na2CO3 concentration up to 0.8%. The peak viscosities increased in 0.1%, but decreased in 0.2% NaOH concentration. The trough and final viscosities and the Pt decreased in the presence of NaOH. With the concentration of sugar (glucose, fructose and sucrose) increased from 0 to 20%, the pasting peak, trough and final viscosities of these starches increased significantly. For the same Baizhi starch, the elevation of peak viscosity was the most significant when fructose was added, and the elevation of final viscosity was the greatest when sucrose was added.
    Starch - Starke 03/2011; 63(6):323 - 332. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Yinshi Sun, Wei Li, Jianhua Wang
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    ABSTRACT: We developed an ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the three isoflavones, namely tectoridin, iristectorin B and iristectorin A from Iris tectorum Maxim of the Iridaceae family. Three kinds of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different alkyl chain and anion were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids (ILs) showed remarkable effects on the extraction yield of isoflavones. In addition, the ILUAE, including several ultrasonic parameters, such as the concentration, extraction time and solvent to solid ratio have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 30 min extraction time and the solvent to solid ratio of 30 ml/g), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of tectoridin (37.45 mg/g), iristectorin B (2.88 mg/g) and iristectorin A (5.28 mg/g). Meanwhile, tectoridin, iristectorin B and iristectorin A in the ILUAE extract were separated and purified successfully through the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system consisting of n-butanol-water (1:1, v/v). The additional advantage of this approach is that 60.21 mg tectoridin, 4.33 mg iristectorin B and 8.24 mg iristectorin A with more than 95.0% purities have been obtained from 400 mg ILUAE extract of I. tectorum within 5 h and one-step elution under the most optimized conditions (e.g., a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min, 900 rpm and the wavelengh of 280 nm). The obtained fractions were successfully analyzed by HPLC and identified by (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 03/2011; 879(13-14):975-80. · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • Yinshi Sun, Zhengbo Liu, Jianhua Wang
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to improve the extraction efficiency of the classical solvent extraction techniques such as maceration extraction (ME) and soxhlet extraction (SE) to extract five isoflavones (tectoridin, iristectorin B, iristectorin A, tectorigenin and iristectorigenin A) from Iris tectorum. The effects of various factors such as extraction solvent, solvent concentration, temperature, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, extraction time and particle size on the yield of target components were investigated. The optimal UAE conditions found were: 70% (v/v) methanol solution, temperature 45 °C, solvent to solid ratio 15 ml/g, ultrasound power 150 W, extraction time 45 min and particle size 60–80 mesh. The results indicated that compared with ME at 18 h and SE at 6 h, UAE gave the highest extraction yields of tectoridin, iristectorin B, iristectorin A, tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A and total isoflavones at 45 min. The results indicated that UAE was an alternative method for extracting isoflavones from I. tectorum.Graphical abstractResearch highlights► Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was investigated to improve the extraction efficiency of five isoflavones (tectoridin, iristectorin B, iristectorin A, tectorigenin and iristectorigenin A) from Iris tectorum. ► The effects of various factors on the yield of target components were investigated. ► The results indicated that UAE effectively enhanced extraction yields of tectoridin, iristectorin B, iristectorin A, tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A and total isoflavones. UAE was an alternative method for extracting isoflavones from I. tectorum.
    Separation and Purification Technology 01/2011; 78(1):49-54. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C(18) column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit.
    Molecules 08/2010; 15(8):5378-88. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied to the extraction of saikosaponin a, saikosaponin c and saikosaponin d from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum. Main extraction parameters such as the extraction solvents, extraction temperature and static extraction time were investigated and optimized. The optimized procedure employed 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 120 degrees C of extraction temperature, 10 min of static extraction time, 60% of flush volume and the extraction recoveries of the three compounds were near to 100% with one extraction cycle. The extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. The HPLC conditions were as follows: Hypersil ODS2 (4.6 mmx250 mm, 5 microm) column, acetonitrile and water as mobile phase, flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection wavelength of 204 nm and injection volume of 20 microL. Compared with the traditional methods including heat-reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, the proposed ASE method was more efficient and faster to be operated. The results indicated that ASE was an alternative method for extracting saikosaponins from the roots of B. falcatum.
    Journal of Separation Science 06/2010; 33(12):1870-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Starches from three cultivars of Baizhi (Angelica dahurica; named Chuan Baizhi, Yu Baizhi, and Qi Baizhi, respectively) growing in Sichuan, Henan, and Hebei province in China were used to investigate the physicochemical properties, appearances, X-ray powder diffraction, thermal and pasting properties. These Baizhi starch granules were in irregular polygonal shape, and their sizes range from 1 to10 µm. The average granule diameter of Chuan Baizhi, Yu Baizhi, and Qi Baizhi starches was 6.78, 8.02, and 9.09 µm, respectively. Amylose content in Qi Baizhi, Yu Baizhi, and Chuan Baizhi was 9.98, 13.15, and 17.65%, respectively. These Baizhi starches exhibited “B” type X-ray pattern and the degrees of crystallinity were similar (16.7–17.1%). Yu Baizhi starch had the highest pasting temperature (DSC parameters was To 66.5°C, Tp 69.6°C, and Tc 75.8°C, respectively; RVA pasting temperature was 69.45°C). Qi Baizhi starch had the highest pasting viscosity (Pv 214.58, Tv 127.33, and Fv 201.08 RVU, respectively).
    Starch - Starke 04/2010; 62(3‐4):198 - 204. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract saikosaponins a, c and d from the root of Bupleurum falcatum. An orthogonal array design L(9)(3)(4) was employed as a chemometric method for the optimization of the SFE conditions. The effects of four factors including pressure (30-40 MPa), temperature (40-50 degrees C), ethanol concentration (60-100%) and time (2.5-3.5 h) on the yields of saikosaponins were investigated by a preparative SFE system in the SFE mode. Under the optimized conditions, namely 35 MPa of pressure, 45 degrees C of temperature, 80% of ethanol concentration and 3.0 h of time, the yields of saikosaponin c, saikosaponin a, saikosaponin d, total saikosaponins and SFE extract were 0.16, 0.12, 0.96, 1.24 and 16.48 mg/g, respectively. Determinations of the saikosaponins were performed by HPLC.
    Journal of Separation Science 02/2010; 33(8):1161-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study Chrysanthemum morifolium dry matter accumulation and absorption characteristics of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium at different growth stages. Through the field experiment and the sampling analysis, the absorbing capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as well as the growth of plant at different growth stages in Ch. morifolium were analyzed. The dry matter accumulation reached 70.4% of the total accumulation within 60-150 days after transplantation. Dry matter mainly distributed in leaf within 60 days after transplantation, the distribution ratio in the stem was higher than that in leaf within 60-150 days after transplantation, the highest distribution ratio was the flower, and the second was the root within 150-210 days after transplantation. The accumulative capacity of N, P and K by Ch. morifolium was lower within 45 days after transplantation, which only accounted for 16.14%, 13.39% and 10.19% of total absorptive capacity, respectively. But it increased rapidly within 45-150 days after transplantation, which accounted for 71.86%, 63.81% and 62.94% respectively. The nitrogen accumulation was slower, while the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium was increased rapidly, within 150-210 days after transplantation. The distribution ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was different within different organs in different growth stages. The distribution ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was mainly distributed in stem and leaf, within 150 days after transplantation, then transferring to the flower and root, the transferring efficiency was N > P > K. the absorption capacity of K was the highest, followed by N and P. The N : P205 : K2O ratio was 1 : 0.88 : 1.58. Correlation analysis showed that dry matter accumulation and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation correlated positively. For producing 1g dry matter, Ch. morifolium needed to absorb 5.198 1 mg N, 4.329 5 mg P205 and 7.138 5 mg K20 from soil and fertilizer.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 12/2009; 34(23):2999-3003.
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    ABSTRACT: Three flavones were prepared, isolated and purified from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A two-phase solvent system composed of light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:4:3:3, v/v/v/v) was used. Within 6 hours, 10.1 mg of heseridin, 49.8 mg of 5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone and 50.6 mg of 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone with their purities over 97.0% were obtained from 4.0 g of the crude extract of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae in one-step elution under the conditions of a flow rate of 1.70 mL/min, 800 r/min and the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The obtained fractions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and identified by mass spectrometry (MS), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR. The results indicate that HSCCC is a powerful technique for the purification of flavones from Citrus reticulata Blanco.
    Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 04/2009; 27(2):244-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Water-soluble salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were successfully isolated and purified from the crude extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The solvent system was n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:6:6:10, v/v/v/v). 4.27 mg of Sal A and 32.09 mg of Sal B were obtained from 260 mg of the crude sample. The purities of Sal A and Sal B were 96.67% and 97.43%, respectively. Their structures were identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Antioxidant activities of Sal A and Sal B were also evaluated and compared by the methods of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical cation decolourisation assay. Both Sal A and Sal B showed high radical scavenging activities with their EC(50) values being 1.43+/-0.09 and 1.81+/-0.01 microg/ml in DPPH radical method. The ABTS results showed that Sal A and Sal B exhibited high total antioxidant activities, their EC(50) values were 1.35+/-0.00 and 1.43+/-0.01 microg/ml, respectively.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 03/2009; 877(8-9):733-7. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of four acetophenones, namely 4-hydroxyacetophenone (I), 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (II), baishouwubenzophenone (III) and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (IV), in Radix Cynanchi bungei. The HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) detection was carried out on a Symmetry-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with CH3OH-H2O (26 : 74, v/v) as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and 30 degrees C. The compounds I , III, IV were monitored at 280 nm, and the compound II was at 224 nm. Four acetophenones (I - IV) had good linearities (r = 0.999 6 - 0.999 9) at the ranges of 0.080 - 0.560 microg, 0.080 -0.560 microg, 0.100 - 0.700 microg and 0.092 -0.644 microg, respectively. The average recoveries were from 98.0% to 104.0% with relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 0.8% to 2.6%. The method is of quick, simple and accurate. The method can be used for the quality control of this product.
    Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 02/2009; 27(1):114-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the dynamic changes of dry material accumulation and platycodin D content in Platycodon grandiflorum in different planting densities. Five different planting densities M1 (4 cm x 25 cm), M2 (6 cm x 25 cm), M3 (8 cm x 25 cm), M4 (10 cm x 25 cm) and M5 (12 cm x 25 cm) were designed in the plot experiment. The individual and colony biomass accumulation, dry material distribution, root yield and platycodin D content were measured in different stage. In a certain density range the individual biomass in P. grandiflorum obviously declined with increasing density with the exception of biomass M2 > biomass M3. On the contrary, the colony biomass increased with the increasing density. Dry material accumulation in each organ in P. grandiflorum in different planting densities showed significance (P<0.05). The dry material distribution in organs in the different planting densities showed significance (P<0.05), and the dry material distribution in flower and fruit reached the minimal level in M2, in the same planting density the distribution in root reached the maximal; The dry material in stem, flower and fruit obviously declined with the increasing density, while the dry material in leaf increased. The individual root output increased with the increasing density, and it reached the highest in M2. The colony root yield increased with the increasing density. The platycodin D content in P. grandiflorum reached the highest in M2. The result showed that a suitable planting density is very important to P. grandiflorum dry material accumulation and distribution, root yield, platycodin D content and colony yield.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 02/2009; 34(1):22-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and luteolin are the major phenolic compounds found in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Caulis Lonicerae. The separation and purification of the three compounds from the crude extract of Caulis Lonicerae was achieved by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate–ethanol–water (4:1:5, v/v). Caffeic acid (7.2 mg), chlorogenic acid (15.7 mg) and luteolin (18.8 mg) from 110 mg crude extract of Caulis Lonicerae were obtained and their purities were 95.55%, 97.24% and 98.11%, respectively.
    Separation and Purification Technology. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Four acetophenones, baishouwubenzophenone (1), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (2), 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (3) and 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (4), were successfully isolated and purified from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei Decne. by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using a pair of two solvent system, one consisting of light petroleum–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (2:5:3:3, v/v) and another of light petroleum–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (2:4:3:3, v/v). A total of 62.3 mg (1), 18.9 mg (2), 15.0 mg (3) and 4.5 mg (4) were purified from the n-butanol extract (600 mg) of crude sample of C. bungei Decne. in one-step separation within 5 h, each at over 96% purity as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were identified by Mass Spectrometer (MS), Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR).
    Separation and Purification Technology. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract paeonol from Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag. The extraction conditions including pressure, temperature, time and sample particle size were optimized with an orthogonal test. Under the optimized conditions of 15 MPa, 55 °C, 1.5 h and a sample particle size of 40–60 mesh, the process was repeated 10 times, and the extract was then collected. The yield of the crude extract from preparative SFE was 6.02%, which contained paeonol 72.02%. Paeonol of crude extract obtained by SFE, Ultrasonic Extraction (UE), Microwave-Assisted (MA), Steam Distillation (SD) and Soxhlet Extraction (SE) were further analyzed by HPLC-PDA to compare the extraction methods, and SFE is considered as the optimum one among the five processes. The SFE extract obtained was then purified successfully by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (2:6:3:4, v/v) in one-step separation. From 2.42 g of the crude extract, 1.07 g of paeonol was obtained at 99.4% purity as determined by HPLC-PDA. These results indicate that SFE and HSCCC are very powerful techniques for the extraction and purification of paeonol from C. paniculatum.
    Separation and Purification Technology. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: A preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography method for isolation and purification of three acetophenones, baishouwubenzophenone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was successfully established. With a two-phase solvent system composed of light petroleum (b.p. 60–90 °C)–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (4:9:6:6, v/v), about 20.2 mg compound 1, 35.0 mg compound 2 and 8.3 mg compound 3, each at over 95% purity as determined by LC, were obtained in one-step elution from 400 mg of the ethanol extract. The structures of these compounds were identified by UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Among them, compounds 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and 4-hydroxyacetophenone were obtained from C. auriculatum for the first time.
    Chromatographia 70(1-2). · 1.44 Impact Factor