[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic alterations are well documented in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element 1(LINE-1) promoter and its relationship with clinicopathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.
The bisulfite-specific PCR and DNA sequencing analysis was performed to assess the methylation status of LINE-1 promoter in a pilot cohort of 71 patients with HCC. Additionally, methylation levels of two hot CpG sites of LINE-1 promoter, site 7 and 18 were measured by real time-PCR and compared with clinicopathological parameters in a cohort of 172 HCC. All of the patients included were in BCLC stage A or B.
Most patients with HCC (87.3%) showed hypomethylation of LINE-1 promoter compared with HBV-related cirrhosis and normal controls (p<0.001). The HCC patients with LINE-1 promoter hypomethylation had a median tumor-free survival (TFS) and overall survival (OS) post resection of 22.0 (95% CI: 13.3 - 30.7) months and 35.0 (95% CI: 24.0 - 46.1) months, respectively, compared with 40 months and ~60 months for those with LINE-1 promoter hypermethylation (p<0.05). Multivariate analyses showed that the hypomethylation level at CpG site 7 and 18 of LINE-1 promoter, along with tumor size and tumor differentiation, were independently associated with both TFS and OS for patients with HCC after resection.
Promoter hypomethylation of LINE-1, especially at the CpG site7 and 18, was associated with a poor prognosis in HCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 06/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the specific roles and mechanisms of long interspersed nuclear element-1 ORF-1 protein [human long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1), ORF-1p] in chemotherapeutic drug resistance and cell proliferation regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
MTT assays were performed to identify the effect of the chemotherapeutic drug toxicity on HepG2 cells. Cell proliferation inhibition and the IC were calculated by the Origin 8.0 software. Western blotting assays were performed to investigate whether LINE-1 ORF-1p modulates the expression of some important genes, including , , , , , and . To corroborate the proliferation and anchor-independent growth results, the HepG2 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to investigate the effect of LINE-1 ORF-1p on the apoptosis regulation.
LINE-1 ORF-1p contributed to the resistance to several chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin and epirubicin) in HepG2 cells. The IC of the epirubicin and cisplatin increased from 36.04 nmol/L to 59.11 nmol/L or from 37.94 nmol/L to 119.32 nmol/L. Repression of LINE-1 ORF-1p expression by the siRNA could markedly enhance the response of HepG2 cells to the epirubicin and cisplatin. The IC correspondingly decreased from 28.06 nmol/L to 3.83 nmol/L or from 32.04 nmol/L to 2.89 nmol/L. Interestingly, down-regulation of LINE-1 ORF-1p level by siRNA could promote the response of HepG2 cells to the paclitaxel. The IC decreased from 35.90 nmol/L to 7.36 nmol/L. However, overexpression of LINE-1 ORF-1p did not modulate the paclitaxel toxicity in HepG2 cells. Further Western blotting revealed that LINE-1 ORF-1p enhanced and gene expression. As a protein arrested in the nucleus, LINE-1 ORF-1p may function through modulating transcriptional activity of some important transcription factors. Indeed, LINE-1 ORF-1p promoted HepG2 cell proliferation, anchor-independent growth and protected the cells against apoptosis through modulating the expression of , , , and genes.
LINE-1 ORF-1p promotes HepG2 cell proliferation and plays an important role in the resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs. By establishing novel roles and defining the mechanisms of LINE-1 ORF-1p in HCC chemotherapeutic drug resistance and cell proliferation regulation, this study indicates that LINE-1 ORF-1p is a potential target for overcoming HCC chemotherapeutic resistance.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2013; 19(7):1068-78. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cryoablation is one of the local therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its safety and effect has not been studied in patients with Child class A or B and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C HCC. Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis of HCC, but its predictive value to post-cryoablation outcomes remains unknown in patients with BCLC stage C HCC. METHODS: This study assessed the safety and outcomes of cryoablation measured by time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS), and predictive value of MACC1 mRNA and protein overexpression in tumorous tissue to post-cryoablation outcomes in 120 advanced HCC patients with child-pugh class A or B by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. The potenial correlation of MACC1 and c-Met expression to tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis was also analyzed. RESULTS: The cryoablation in patients with advanced unresectable HCC resulted in a median TTP and OS of 5.5 (4.2- 6.7) months and 10.5 (9.0-12.0) months, respectively and no significant complications, comparable to the historical report for RFA therapy. The MACC1 mRNA and nuclear protein expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues in these patients than that in normal liver tissue controls. Higher expression of MACC1 mRNA and nuclear protein in tumorous tissues in these patients was associated with shorter post cryoablation median TTP and OS than that with lower MACC1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Cryoablation is a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with advanced HCC and Child-pugh class A or B cirrhosis; and a higher intratumoral expression of MACC1 or nuclear translocation predicts poor outcomes of cryotherapy in these patients.
Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2013; 11(1):41. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the rate and risk factors for tumour seeding in a large cohort of patients.
Over an 8-year period, 1436 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with 2423 tumour nodules underwent 3015 image-guided percutaneous cryoablation sessions [1215 guided by ultrasonography and 221 by spiral computed tomography (CT)]. Follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging was performed every 3 mo. The detailed clinical data were recorded to analyse the risk factors for seeding.
The median follow-up time was 18 (range 1-90) mo. Seeding was detected in 11 patients (0.76%) at 1-24 (median 6.0) mo after cryoablation. Seeding occurred along the needle tract in 10 patients and at a distant location in 1 patient. Seeded tumours usually showed similar imaging and histopathological features to the primary HCCs. Univariate analyses identified subcapsular tumour location and direct subcapsular needle insertion as risk factors for seeding. Multivariate analysis showed that only direct subcapsular needle insertion was an independent risk factor for seeding (P = 0.017; odds ratio 2.57; 95%CI: 1.47-3.65). Seeding after cryoablation occurred earlier in patients with poorly differentiated HCC than those with well or moderately differentiated HCC [1.33 ± 0.577 mo vs 11.12 ± 6.896 mo; P = 0.042; 95%CI: (-19.115)-(-0.468)].
The risk of seeding after cryoablation for HCC is small. Direct puncture of subcapsular tumours should be avoided to minimise seeding.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2012; 18(45):6587-96. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the expression and clinical significance of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The expression and distribution of MACC1 were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) in a cohort of hepatitis B virus-related HCC, including 138 in early (A), 96 in intermediate (B) and 120 in advanced stages (C). The association of MACC1 mRNA with disease progression and outcomes was analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox analysis.
The intratumoral expressions of MACC1 mRNA in HCC stage I (0.001 76, range: 0.000 54 - 0.002 47), stage II (0.002 49, range: 0.000 55 - 0.006 78) and stage III (0.008 35, range: 0.006 86 - 0.009 88) were about 3-, 4- and 14-fold higher than that in the normal liver tissue (0.000 59, range: 0.000 57 - 0.000 60), respectively. Intratumoral expression of MACC1 mRNA increased with disease progression from stage I to stage III. HCC clinical staging classification, age, portal vein invasion and tumor differentiation were significantly associated with intratumoral high expression of MACC1 mRNA (All P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that there was an increased MACC1 expression in cytoplasm of HCC cells and positive nuclear staining in some cases. Increased MACC1 mRNA expression could predict poor outcome and recurrence in stage A and B HCC postoperatively. The median tumor-free survival and total survival of patients with high MACC1 mRNA expression were 34.0 and 40 months, respectively, significantly lower than that in those with low expression (48.0 and 48.0 months) (all P < 0.01). Cox analysis showed that Child-Pugh grading and high expression of MACC1 mRNA were independent predictive factors, and high expression of MACC1 was an independent predictive factor affecting the tumor-free survival.
MACC1 mRNA up-regulation is a feature of disease progression in HCC. MACC1 mRNA expression in the HCC may become an independent predictive factor for recurrence and survival in postoperative HCC patients.
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] 10/2012; 34(10):748-52.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the intratumoral expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) and c-Met and determine their clinical values associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
A retrospective study admitted three hundred fifty-four patients with HBV-related HCC. The expression and distribution of MACC1 and c-Met were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry staining. Prognostic factors influencing survival, metastasis and recurrence were assessed.
Intratumoral MACC1 level was found to be associated with HCC disease progression. Both median tumor-free survival (TFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly shorter in the postoperative HCC patients with high intratumoral MACC1 expression, as compared to those with low intratumoral MACC1 levels (TFS: 34 mo vs 48.0 mo, P < 0.001; OS: 40 mo vs 48 mo, P < 0.01). Multivariable analysis indicated that high MACC1 expression or co-expression with c-Met were independent predictors for HCC clinic outcome (P < 0.001).
High intratumoral MACC1 expression can be associated with enhanced tumor progression and poor outcome of HBV-related HCC. MACC1 may serve as a prognostic biomarker for postoperative HCC.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2012; 18(23):2995-3003. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The programmed cell death-1 receptor/programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway plays a crucial role in tumor evasion from host immunity. This study was designed to evaluate the association between circulating PD-L1/PD-1 and prognosis after cryoablation in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
In the present study, 141 HBV-related HCC patients were enrolled and of those 109 patients received cryoablation. Circulating PD-L1/PD-1 expression was tested by flow cytometry, and 23 patients were simultaneously evaluated for intratumoral PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemical staining. Circulating PD-1/PD-L1 expression was associated with severity of diseases in patients with HCC, and the circulating PD-L1 expression was closely correlated with intratumoral PD-L1 expression. Of the clinical parameters, PD-1/PD-L1 expression was associated with tumor size, blood vessel invasion and BCLC staging. Moreover, PD-1/PD-L1 expression dropped after cryoablation while being elevated at the time of tumor recurrence. Patients with higher expression of circulating PD-L1, as well as circulating PD-1, had a significantly shorter overall survival and tumor-free survival than those with lower expression. Multivariate analysis confirmed that circulating PD-L1 could serve as an independent predictor of overall survival and tumor-recurrence survival in HCC patients after cryoablation.
Upregulation of circulating PD-L1/PD-1 is associated with poor post-cryoablation prognosis in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e23621. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We carried out this study to evaluate the association between regulatory T cells (Treg) and prognosis and progression after cryoablation in patients with hepatitis-B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Peripheral Treg frequency in 111 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was detected by flow cytometry. Treg frequency and function were re-examined during patient follow up. A possible association between Treg and α-fetoprotein (AFP) was also analyzed, and the distribution of resident CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and FoxP3(+) T cells in the liver tissue of patients with HCC was examined by immunohistochemistry.
Treg frequency significantly increased with disease progression. Our longitudinal study showed that Treg frequency had significantly decreased in 17 patients with HCC regression following cryoablation, but the frequency had dramatically increased in 14 patients with HCC recurrence or progression. Furthermore, AFP levels varied in a way comparable with Treg frequency in patients with elevated AFP recorded before therapy. Significantly increased suppressive effects of Treg on proliferation and cytokine secretion of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells were observed during follow up in patients with tumor progression, but not in patients with tumor response. Moreover, the numbers of CD8(+), CD4(+), and FoxP3(+) cells infiltrating the tumors around the cryotherapeutic zones were significantly decreased after argon-helium cryoablation, and this was associated with a reduction in the FoxP3/CD8 ratio. Importantly,increased quantities of circulating CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg and tumor infiltrating FoxP3(+) cells before cryoablation were associated with high recurrence or risk of progression in HCC patients after cryoablation.
Treg variation is associated with tumor regression or progression in HCC following cryoablation and may be used as a marker to estimate HCC progression.
Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2010; 45(9):968-78. · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent years, great progression has been made in treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with argon-helium cryosurgical ablation. This study was to evaluate its efficacy on unresectable primary HCC.
A total of 124 primary HCC patients were divided into early stage, middle stage and advanced stage groups according to BCLC staging classification. Clinical symptoms, tumor size, serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), complications, and survival time were analyzed.
After cryoablation of the tumors, serum level of AFP was reduced in 76 (82.6%) patients, 205 (92.3%) of the 222 tumor lesions were diminished or unchanged. Untill April 2008, 14 patients survived and 110 died. The median survival time was 31.25 months in early stage group, 17.41 months in middle stage group and 6.82 months in advanced stage group.
For the patients with unresectable HCC, argon-helium cryosurgical ablation has the advantages of few complications and certain efficacy.
Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer 02/2009; 28(1):45-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis and its receptor expression in Kupffer cells in rat carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis.
Kupffer cells, isolated from the livers of control and CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats, were placed in serum-free medium overnight. PAF saturation binding, ET-1 saturation and competition binding were assayed. ET-1 induced PAF synthesis, mRNA expression of PAF, preproendothelin-1, endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors were also determined.
A two-fold increase of PAF synthesis (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.66 +/- 0.04 pg/microg DNA) and a 1.48-fold increase of membrane-bound PAF (1.02 +/- 0.06 vs 0.69 +/- 0.07 pg/microg DNA) were observed in activated Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rats. The application of ET-1 to Kupffer cells induced PAF synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cirrhotic and normal rats via ETB receptor, but PAF synthesis in the activated Kupffer cells was more effective than that in the normal Kupffer cells. In activated Kupffer cells, PAF receptor expression and PAF binding capacity were markedly enhanced. Activated Kupffer cells raised the [125 I]-ET-1 binding capacity, but changed neither the affinity of the receptors, nor the expression of ETA receptor.
Kupffer cells in the course of CCl4-induced cirrhosis are the main source of increased PAF. ET-1 is involved endogenously in stimulating the PAF synthesis in activated Kupffer cells via ETB receptor by paracrine. ETA receptor did not appear in activated Kupffer cells, which may exacerbate the hepatic and extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2008; 14(5):764-70. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor expression in cirrhotic hepatic stellate cells.
Hepatic stellate cells, isolated from the livers of control and CCl(4)-induced cirrhotic rats, were placed in serum-free medium after overnight culture. We determined the PAF receptor in hepatic stellate cells by saturation binding technique and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the effects of PAF and its antagonist BN52021 on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release by stellate cells.
Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of PAF receptor with dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.66 nmol/L and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 24.65 fmol/microg in cirrhotic stellate cells. Compared with the control, the maximum PAF binding capacity increased significantly (Bmax: 24.65 +/- 1.96 fmol/microg. DNA, R = 0.982 vs 5.74 +/- 1.55 fmol/microg. DNA, R = 0.93; P < 0.01), whereas receptor affinity had no significant difference (Kd of 4.66 +/- 0.33 nmol/L for the cirrhosis and 3.51 +/- 0.26 nmol/L for the control; P > 0.05). Consistent with the receptor binding data, the mRNA expression of PAF receptor was increased significantly in cirrhotic stellate cells. PAF in a concentration-dependent manner induced PGE(2) synthesis in cirrhotic hepatic stellate cells, but the effects were blocked significantly by BN52021.
Cirrhosis sensitizes hepatic stellate cells to PAF by elevating its receptor level and hepatic stellate cells maybe potential effectors of PAF induced portal hypertension.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2008; 14(2):218-23. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the effects of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) on Kupffer cells and to determine whether ALR promotes hepatocyte proliferation induced by Kupffer cells.
Kupffer cells and hepatocytes were cultured in vitro and various concentrations of recombinant rat ALR (rrALR) were added. 3H-thymidine, BrdU and 3H-leucine incorporation was determined in cultured Kupffer cells and hepatocytes, in hepatocytes conditioned by Kupffer cells, and in associated medium. rrALR was labeled by iodination and used to determine its binding activity by Scatchard analysis in Kupffer cells and primarily cultured rat hepatocytes.
rrALR stimulated DNA replication in Kupffer cells and protein synthesis both in cells and in medium in a non-concentration-dependent manner. The effect was significant at the concentration of 1 microg/L ALR. However, rrALR had no effect on primarily cultured hepatocytes, when hepatocytes were cultured with the Kupffer cell medium conditioned by ALR, DNA replication and protein synthesis in hepatocytes increased significantly at the concentration of 1 microg/L ALR. When the ALR concentration was increased, its effect on hepatocyte proliferation decreased to the basal level. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of a single class of high affinity receptors with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.883 nmol/L and a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 126.1 pmol/g protein in the rat Kupffer cells.
ALR can promote hepatocyte proliferation induced by Kupffer cells, which is associated with the concentration of ALR, suggesting that Kupffer cells play a dual role in liver regeneration.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2006; 12(30):4859-65. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the changes in hepatic platelet activating factor (PAF) and its receptors and their effect on portal pressure of cirrhotic rats induced by CCl4.
A model of liver cirrhosis was replicated in rats by intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4 for 8 wk. We determined the effect of hepatic PAF and its receptor level on portal and arterial pressure by EIA, saturation binding and RT-PCR technique.
Compared to control rats, cirrhotic rats had higher hepatic PAF levels and output as well as higher plasma PAF levels (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively). Both hepatic PAF receptor mRNA levels and PAF binding were nearly 3-fold greater in cirrhotic rats (P<0.01). Portal injection of PAF (1 g/kg WT) increased the portal pressure by 22% and 33% in control and cirrhotic rats, respectively. In contrast, the arterial pressure was decreased in the both groups (54% in control rats and 42% in cirrhotic rats). Injection of the PAF antagonist BN52021 (5 mg/kg WT) decreased the portal pressure by 16% in cirrhotic rats but had no effect in the control rats.
The upregulation of the PAF system contributes to hepatic hemodynamic and metabolic abnormalities in cirrhosis, and the increased release of PAF into the circulation has impacts on the systemic hemodynamics.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2006; 12(5):709-15. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of platelet activating factor (PAF) and its antagonist BN52021 on portal hypertension associated with liver cirrhosis.
Ten SD rats were injected intraperitoneally with carbon tetrachloride to establish a liver cirrhosis model and 10 rats were injected with olive oil as controls. The concentrations of PAF in the blood and liver was examined by rapid (3)H-PAF scintillation proximity assay and the hepatic PAF binding capacity was examined by receptor saturation binding technique. The pressure of portal vein and pressure of femoral artery were measured by intubation method. BN52021 was infused into the portal vein to observe its influence on the blood pressure.
The hepatic PAF levels of the cirrhotic rats was 4.0 ng/g +/- 0.4 ng/g, significantly higher than that of the control rats (2.7 ng/g +/- 0.5 ng/g, P < 0.01). The hepatic efflux PAF level of the cirrhotic rats was 6.3 ng/g +/- 0.6 ng/g, significantly higher than that of the control rats (3.4 ng/g +/- 0.6 ng/g, P < 0.01). The hepatic output PAF levels of the cirrhotic rats was 1.0 ng/g +/- 0.6 ng/g, significantly lower than that of the control rats (0.3 ng/g +/- 0.5 ng/g, P < 0.01). The maximum PAF binding capacity of the cirrhotic rats was 2.8 +/- 0.21 fmol/microg protein, significantly higher than that of the control rats (0.9 +/- 0.06 fmol/microg protein, P < 0.01). However, the receptor affinity was not significantly different between these 2 groups. The portal pressure of the cirrhotic rats was 12.2 mm Hg +/- 0.7 mm Hg, significantly higher than that of the control rats (5.3 mm Hg +/- 0.6 mm Hg, P < 0.01). The femoral arterial pressure of the cirrhotic rats was 82 mm Hg +/- 10 mm Hg, significantly lower than that of the control rats (114 mm Hg +/- 9 mm Hg, P < 0.01). Infusion of PAF via the portal vein increased the portal pressure from 12.1 mm Hg +/- 0.6 mm Hg with an increase of 32% (P < 0.01) in the cirrhotic rats, and from 7.7 mm Hg +/- 0.8 mm Hg with an increase of 23%. The PAF response of the cirrhotic rats was 4.1 mm Hg +/- 1.0 mm Hg (227%), significantly higher than that of the control rats (1.8 mm Hg +/- 0.3 mm Hg, P < 0.01). The femoral artery pressure decreased from 82 mm Hg +/- 10 mm Hg to 48 mm Hg +/- 4 mm Hg (P < 0.01) in the cirrhotic rats, and from 114 mm Hg +/- 9 mm Hg to 52 mm Hg +/- 4 mm Hg (P < 0.01). After portal infusion of BN52021 the portal pressure decreased from 14.6 mm Hg +/- 1.6 mm Hg to 12.3 mm Hg +/- 0.8 mm Hg (P < 0.05) with a decrease of 16%, however, did not significantly influenced the femoral arterial pressure in the cirrhotic rats, and did not significantly influenced the portal pressure and femoral arterial pressure in the control rats.
The increased hepatic PAF synthesis in cirrhotic is the major source of elevated circulating PAF It upregulates the hepatic hemodynamics that contributes to portal hypertension. The increased portal pressure by endogenous PAF can be decreased to a certain extent by BN52021 which may be used in treatment of portal hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the case of one 58-year-old man with advancd hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis-B virus-related liver cirrhosis who received hepatic cryoablation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple liver tumors and the diameter of the largest tumor was more than 10cm. The patient received 2 percutaneous cryoablations in December 2009 and January 2010. Ten months later, MRI showed that not only the treated areas underwent necrosis but also the non-treated area decreased. The a-fetoprotein (AFP) level and the frequency of circulated regulatory T cell (Treg) before treatment were 13,800ng/mL and 15.6%, respectively. Following the cryoablations they dropped to 436ng/mL and 7.6%, respectively, 10 months later. The patient remains in good condition until now.