[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is the primary regulator of the tissue factor (TF) coagulation pathway. As such, TFPI may regulate the proangiogenic effects of TF. TFPI may also affect angiogenesis independently of TF, through sequences within its polybasic carboxyl terminus (TFPI C terminus [TFPIct]). We aimed to determine the effects of TFPI on angiogenesis and the role of TFPIct.
Transgenic overexpression of TFPI attenuated angiogenesis in the murine hindlimb ischemia model and an aortic sprout assay. In vitro, TFPI inhibited endothelial cell migration. Peptides within the human TFPIct inhibited endothelial cell cord formation and migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 165 but not VEGF121. Furthermore, exposure to human TFPIct inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 at residue Lys951, a residue known to be critical for endothelial cell migration. Finally, systemic delivery of a murine TFPIct peptide inhibited angiogenesis in the hindlimb model.
These data demonstrate an inhibitory role for TFPI in angiogenesis that is, in part, mediated through peptides within its carboxyl terminus. In addition to its known role as a TF antagonist, TFPI, via its carboxyl terminus, may regulate angiogenesis by directly blocking VEGF receptor 2 activation and attenuating the migratory capacity of endothelial cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoiesis originates from the dorsal aorta during embryogenesis. Although adult blood vessels harbor progenitor populations for endothelial and smooth muscle cells, it is not known if they contain hematopoietic progenitor or stem cells. Here, we hypothesized that the arterial wall is a source of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in postnatal life.
Single-cell aortic disaggregates were prepared from adult chow-fed C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E-null (ApoE(-/-)) mice. In short- and long-term methylcellulose-based culture, aortic cells generated a broad spectrum of multipotent and lineage-specific hematopoietic colony-forming units, with a preponderance of macrophage colony-forming units. This clonogenicity was higher in lesion-free ApoE(-/-) mice and localized primarily to stem cell antigen-1-positive cells in the adventitia. Expression of stem cell antigen-1 in the aorta colocalized with canonical hematopoietic stem cell markers, as well as CD45 and mature leukocyte antigens. Adoptive transfer of labeled aortic cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic donors to irradiated C57BL/6 recipients confirmed the content of rare hematopoietic stem cells (1 per 4 000 000 cells) capable of self-renewal and durable, low-level reconstitution of leukocytes. Moreover, the predominance of long-term macrophage precursors was evident by late recovery of green fluorescent protein-positive colonies from recipient bone marrow and spleen that were exclusively macrophage colony-forming units. Although trafficking from bone marrow was shown to replenish some of the hematopoietic potential of the aorta after irradiation, the majority of macrophage precursors appeared to arise locally, suggesting long-term residence in the vessel wall.
The postnatal murine aorta contains rare multipotent hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells and is selectively enriched with stem cell antigen-1-positive monocyte/macrophage precursors. These populations may represent novel, local vascular sources of inflammatory cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a commonly recognized complication of chronic respiratory disease. Enhanced vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and in situ thrombosis contribute to the increased pulmonary vascular resistance observed in PH associated with hypoxic lung disease. The tissue factor pathway regulates fibrin deposition in response to acute and chronic vascular injury. We hypothesized that inhibition of the tissue factor pathway would result in attenuation of pathophysiologic parameters typically associated with hypoxia-induced PH. We tested this hypothesis using a chronic hypoxia-induced murine model of PH using mice that overexpress tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) via the smooth muscle-specific promoter SM22 (TFPI(SM22)). TFPI(SM22) mice have increased pulmonary TFPI expression compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, exposure to chronic hypoxia (28 d at 10% O(2)) resulted in increased systolic right ventricular and mean pulmonary arterial pressures, changes that were significantly reduced in TFPI(SM22) mice. Chronic hypoxia also resulted in significant pulmonary vascular muscularization in WT mice, which was significantly reduced in TFPI(SM22) mice. Given the pleiotropic effects of TFPI, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms for these hemodynamic effects were considered. TFPI(SM22) mice had less pulmonary fibrin deposition than WT mice at 3 days after exposure to hypoxia, which is consistent with the antithrombotic effects of TFPI. Additionally, TFPI(SM22) mice had a significant reduction in the number of proliferating (proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive) pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells compared with WT mice, which is consistent with in vitro findings. These findings demonstrate that overexpression of TFPI results in improved hemodynamic performance and reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling in a murine model of hypoxia-induced PH. This improvement is in part due to the autocrine and paracrine effects of TFPI overexpression.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 08/2009; 43(1):35-45. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternative RNA splicing may provide unique opportunities to identify drug targets and therapeutics. We identified an alternative spliced transcript for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) resulting from intronic retention. This transcript is present in failing human hearts and is reduced following mechanical unloading. The intron-retained transcript would generate a unique 34 amino acid (aa) carboxyl terminus while maintaining the remaining structure of native BNP. We generated antisera to this carboxyl terminus and identified immunoreactivity in failing human heart tissue. The alternatively spliced peptide (ASBNP) was synthesized and unlike BNP, failed to stimulate cGMP in vascular cells or vasorelax preconstricted arterial rings. This suggests that ASBNP may lack the dose-limiting effects of recombinant BNP. Given structural considerations, a carboxyl-terminal truncated form of ASBNP was generated (ASBNP.1) and was determined to retain the ability of BNP to stimulate cGMP in canine glomerular isolates and cultured human mesangial cells but lacked similar effects in vascular cells. In a canine-pacing model of heart failure, systemic infusion of ASBNP.1 did not alter mean arterial pressure but increased the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), suppressed plasma renin and angiotensin, while inducing natriuresis and diuresis. Consistent with its distinct in vivo effects, the activity of ASBNP.1 may not be explained through binding and activation of NPR-A or NPR-B. Thus, the biodesigner peptide ASBNP.1 enhances GFR associated with heart failure while lacking the vasoactive properties of BNP. These findings demonstrate that peptides with unique properties may be designed based on products of alternatively splicing.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2009; 106(27):11282-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is an abundant source of endothelial cells as well as stem and progenitor cells which can develop an endothelial phenotype. It has been demonstrated that these cells have distinct angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. However, whether these cells have the capacity to directly improve large vessel form and function after vascular injury remains unknown. To define whether delivery of adipose-derived endothelial cells (ADECs) would improve healing of injured carotid arteries, a rabbit model of acute arterial injury was used.
Autologous rabbit ADECs were generated using defined culture conditions. To test the ability of ADECs to enhance carotid artery repair, cells were delivered intraarterially after acute balloon injury. Additional delivery studies were performed after functional selection of cells before delivery.
After rabbit omental fat harvest and digestion, a proliferative, homogenous, and distinctly endothelial population of ADECs was identified. Direct delivery of autologous ADECs resulted in marked reendothelialization 48 hours after acute vascular injury as compared to saline controls (82.2+/-26.9% versus 4.2+/-3.0% P<0.001). Delivery of ADECs that were selected for their ability to take up acetylated LDL significantly improved vasoreactivity and decreased intimal formation after vascular injury.
Taken together, these data suggest that ADECs represent an autologous source of proliferative endothelial cells, which demonstrate the capacity to rapidly improve reendothelialization, improve vascular reactivity, and decrease intimal formation in a carotid artery injury model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells with an endothelial phenotype can be cultured from peripheral blood. These cells include cells of a monocytic origin with endothelial features (culture-modified mononuclear cells, CMMCs) and, at later time points, blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs). Both are promising candidates for systemic cell-based cardiovascular therapies and each may have unique capabilities. Indeed, the combined use of both cell types has been shown to have synergistic therapeutic features requiring simultaneous delivery. However, the majority of preclinical studies of cell delivery have used splenectomized animals to increase systemic distribution. The goal of this study was to directly compare the distribution of these two cell types following systemic delivery in an intact animal model. A similar pattern of delivery was seen following delivery of both cell types with detection in the lung, liver, bone marrow, and spleen. Taken together, the data suggest that strategies using systemic delivery of circulation-derived cells must consider the distribution and efficiency of delivery in intact animals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-based delivery of therapeutic viruses has potential advantages over systemic viral administration, including attenuated neutralization and improved viral targeting. One of the exciting new areas of investigation is the potential ability of endothelial-lineage cells to deliver genes to the areas of neovascularization. In the present study, we compared two types of endothelial-lineage cells [outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) and culture-modified mononuclear cells (CMMCs), also known as "endothelial progenitor cells"] for their ability to be infected with adenovirus and to home to the areas of neovascularization. Both cell types were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy human donors and expanded in culture. We demonstrate that OECs are more infectable and home better to tumors expressing VEGF on systemic administration. Furthermore, we used an adenoviral/retroviral chimeric system to convert OECs to retrovirus-producing cells. When injected systemically into tumor-bearing mice, OECs retain their ability to produce retrovirus and infect surrounding tumor cells. Our data demonstrate that OECs could be efficient carriers for viral delivery to areas of tumor neovascularization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that regulates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation by inhibiting the factor VIIa/tissue factor (TF) catalytic complex. TFPI is expressed by both endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the vasculature and circulates at low levels. The role of local vascular TFPI in thrombosis and the development of vascular disease is unknown. To establish an experimental animal model to directly modulate smooth muscle cell-derived TFPI on the development of arterial thrombosis, transgenic mice in which a cDNA encoding murine TFPI is expressed from the murine SM22alpha promoter were generated. Expression of transgenic mRNA was 4-fold higher than the level of endogenous TFPI mRNA in arteries from transgenic mice. In situ hybridization confirmed that expression of the transgene was limited to medial vascular smooth muscle cells. Vascular TFPI activity was increased to 2 to 3-fold in carotid homogenates. There was no difference in plasma TFPI levels or hemostatic measures (PT, aPTT and tail vein bleeding times) between these mice and their wildtype littermates. In a ferric chloride-induced model of carotid thrombosis, homozygotic transgenic mice demonstrated resistance to thrombotic occlusion compared to wildtype littermates. In transgenic mice 22% occluded within 30 minutes of application while 84% of wild type mice occluded within the same time frame (p<0.01). Heterozygotic transgenic mice had an intermediate thrombotic phenotype. Taken together, these data indicated that local VSMC-specific TFPI overexpression attenuated ferric chloride-induced thrombosis without systemic or hemostatic effects. Furthermore, this transgenic mouse model should prove useful for studying the role of TFPI in the development and progression of vascular disease.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 09/2004; 92(3):495-502. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delivery of a heterogeneous population of cells with endothelial phenotype derived from peripheral blood has been shown to improve vascular responses after balloon arterial injury in an endothelium-dependent manner. Refinement of culture techniques has enabled the generation of outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs), a homogeneous population of distinctly endothelial cells expanded from circulating progenitor cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that OEC delivery would confer vascular protection after balloon arterial injury in a rabbit model. Rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in endothelial growth medium for 4-5 wk, yielding proliferative OECs with distinct endothelial phenotype (morphology, incorporation of acetylated LDL, and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and caveolin-1 but not CD14). Animals underwent balloon carotid injury immediately followed by local delivery of autologous OECs for 20 min. Fluorescent-labeled OECs were detected in all layers at 4 wk, with immunostaining revealing maintenance of endothelial phenotype (von Willebrand factor-positive and RAM-11-negative) by luminal and nonluminal cells. To evaluate functional effects, additional animals received autologous OECs, saline, or freshly harvested PBMCs as noncultured cell controls by local dwell after balloon injury. Local OEC delivery improved endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity (P < 0.05 vs. saline and PBMC) and similarly reduced neointimal formation (P < 0.05 vs. saline and PBMC). These data suggest that OECs can be detected in injured arterial segments at 4 wk. Moreover, delivery of OECs confers greater vascular protection than PBMCs or saline controls and may thus offer a novel, autologous strategy to limit the response to mechanical injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolin-1 is a regulator of signaling events originating from plasma membrane microdomains termed caveolae. This study was performed to determine the regulatory role of caveolin-1 on the proliferative events induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).
Treatment of VSMCs with PDGF for 24 hours resulted in a loss of caveolin-1 protein expression and plasma membrane-associated caveolae, despite a 3-fold increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Pretreatment of VSMCs with chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosomal function, inhibited the PDGF-induced loss of caveolin-1. These studies demonstrated that caveolin-1 was a target of PDGF signaling events. Adenoviral overexpression of caveolin-1 was associated with a switch in PDGF-induced signaling events from a proliferative response to an apoptotic response. This overexpression inhibited PDGF-induced expression of cyclin D1 in the presence of unaffected mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.
Taken together, these studies suggest that caveolin-1 is an inhibitor of PDGF proliferative responses and might be capable of transforming PDGF-induced proliferative signals into death signals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to contribute to endothelial replacement after vascular injury. In vitro culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells produces cells with phenotypic characteristics of endothelium. To test the hypothesis that delivery of autologous culture-modified mononuclear cells (CMMCs) to injured arteries could attenuate the vascular response to injury, a rabbit model was studied.
Rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in endothelial growth media for 7 to 12 days, yielding highly proliferative cells with distinct endothelial phenotype (expressing CD31 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase and capable of acetylated LDL uptake). A rabbit model of balloon carotid injury was used to evaluate the effect of day 7 CMMC delivery on vascular responses. Animals underwent balloon injury and immediate delivery of autologous CMMCs or buffered saline by 20 minutes of local dwelling. Fluorescence-labeled CMMCs were detected in all vessel layers 4 weeks after delivery. Colonies of cells that localized to the lumen and stained for endothelial markers were also identified. Local CMMC administration at the time of balloon injury accelerated reendothelialization at 4 weeks compared with saline (P<0.05). Moreover, CMMC delivery markedly improved endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity at 4 weeks compared with saline (P<0.005). Finally, CMMC treatment reduced neointimal formation by 55% at 4 weeks (P<0.05).
These data demonstrate that delivery of CMMCs to balloon-injured arteries is associated with accelerated reendothelialization, enhanced endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity, and reduced neointimal formation. Thus, delivery of autologous CMMCs represents a novel vasculoprotective approach to attenuate the response to acute vascular injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is a small-molecular-weight glycoprotein that initiates the extrinsic coagulation pathway but may have important noncoagulation vascular functions as well. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a major physiological inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation. Enhancement of vascular TFPI either by overexpression using gene transfer or delivery of protein to the vessel has been shown to reduce neointimal formation. However, the inherent role of TFPI in this process has not been defined. To do so, we utilized a murine model of vascular remodeling using flow cessation in mice, which are heterozygous for a genetic deletion of the first Kunitz domain of TFPI or wild type littermates. The heterozygotic mice had 50% of wild type TFPI activity in plasma as well as vascular homogenates. To study the effect of TFPI deficiency on neointimal formation, age matched TFPI(K1)+/- and wildtype littermates underwent unilateral common carotid artery ligation. Mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks and the ligated carotid arteries were analyzed. There was a significantly greater neointima to media ratio and less luminal area in the TFPI(K1)+/- mice compared to their TFPI(K1)+/+ littermates. The proliferative index of intimal cells in TFPI(K1)+/- mice at 1 week was significantly higher compared to TFPI(K1)+/+ mice. We conclude that TFPI deficiency enhances neointimal formation and proliferation associated with flow cessation. This suggests that TFPI may regulate vascular remodeling primarily through modulation of neointimal formation.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2003; 89(4):747-51. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a mechanical method for delivery of adenoviral vector to the adventitial surface of arteries and to other tissues. Our goal was to characterize, principally in intact carotid artery, the morphological, biochemical, and functional effects of mechanical delivery of a recombinant beta-galactosidase-expressing adenoviral vector following its direct application using a small paintbrush. Our ex vivo and in vivo data demonstrate efficient, accurate, and rapid transduction of arteries without compromise of their morphological, biochemical, and functional integrity. We also demonstrate the general applicability of this technique in vivo via transduction of skeletal muscle, fibrotendinous tissue, peritoneum, serosal surface of bowel, and wounded skin. We conclude that direct mechanical delivery of an adenoviral vector to tissues using a suitable paintbrush represents an intuitive, accurate, and effective means of augmenting gene transfer efficiency, and may be a useful adjunct to other delivery methods.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] has been associated with both anti-fibrinolytic and atherogenic effects. However, no direct link currently exists between this atherogenic lipoprotein and intravascular coagulation. The current study examined the binding and functional effects of Lp(a), its lipoprotein constituents, apoliprotein (a) [apo(a)] and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and lysine-plasminogen (L-PLG), which shares significant homology with apo(a), on tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a major regulator of tissue factor-mediated coagulation. Results indicate that Lp(a), apo(a), and PLG but not LDL bound recombinant TFPI (rTFPI) in vitro and that apo(a) bound to a region spanning the last 37 amino acid residues of the c-terminus of TFPI. The apparent binding affinity for TFPI was much higher for Lp(a) (KD approximately 150 nM) compared to PLG (KD approximately 800 nM) and nanomolar concentrations of apo(a) (500 nM) inhibited PLG binding to TFPI. Lp(a) also inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner rTFPI activity and endothelial cell surface TFPI activity in vitro, whereas PLG had no such effect. Moreover physiologic concentrations of PLG (2 microM) had no effect on the concentration-dependent inhibition of TFPI activity induced by Lp(a). In human atherosclerotic plaque, apo(a) and TFPI immunostaining were shown to coexist in smooth muscle cell-rich areas of the intima. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby Lp(a) through its apo(a) moiety may promote thrombosis by binding and inactivating TFPI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is a low-molecular-weight glycoprotein that initiates the extrinsic clotting cascade and is considered a major regulator of arterial thrombogenicity. TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a major physiological inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation. The aim of this study was to define the complex interplay between TF and TFPI and the regulation of vascular thrombogenicity in a model of vascular remodeling. To determine the levels and pattern of vascular expression of TF and TFPI associated with vascular remodeling, a murine model of flow cessation was studied. TF activity of the arteries increased after ligation (P<0.05). Quantitative analysis of homogenates of remodeled carotid arteries revealed increased TF expression but unchanged TFPI expression compared with normal carotid arteries, resulting in enhanced TF activity. To determine the potential therapeutic role of TFPI in this thrombogenic state, mice were treated with intravascular adenoviral delivery of either murine TFPI (Ad-mTFPImyc) or a control adenovirus (Ad-DeltaE1). Overexpression of TFPI decreased vascular TF activity compared with viral control (P<0.01). Overexpression of TFPI inhibited neointimal formation (P=0.038), resulting in enhanced luminal area (P=0.001) 4 weeks after flow cessation. In this murine model of vascular remodeling, an imbalance between TF and TFPI expression is generated, resulting in increased TF activity. Overexpression of TFPI in this model inhibits vascular TF activity and results in attenuation of vascular remodeling associated with flow interruption.
Circulation Research 08/2001; 89(1):71-6. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolae have been implicated in growth factor receptor and G-protein coupled receptor signaling in vascular cells. It has been postulated that caveolin, the structural protein of caveolae, may act as a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor by binding and inhibiting signaling molecules involved in the activation of the MAP kinase proliferation cascade. Using an in vitro model of VSMC proliferation, we found that serum stimulation caused a dose dependent decrease in both caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 protein levels in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Heparin, an inhibitor of VSMC proliferation, inhibited the serum-induced loss of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2. In addition, heparin caused an increase in both caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 localization to caveolae-enriched sucrose gradient membrane fractions when compared to serum alone. Taken together, caveolin may play an important role in the regulation of VSMC proliferation and heparin and serum have opposing effects on caveolin expression and localization in VSMC.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/1999; 265(3):722-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plaque disruption and exposure of subendothelial procoagulants such as tissue factor (TF) to circulating factor VII/VIIa (FVII/VIIa) lead to intravascular thrombosis. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is an endogenous inhibitor of TF-induced coagulation that binds to factor Xa and the TF-FVIIa catalytic complex in a two-step process. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of TFPI within human atherosclerotic plaque and its role in modulation of TF activity.
We measured the level of TFPI antigen in human carotid plaque and determined the relationship between TFPI and TF activity within plaque. Furthermore, we examined the biological activity and immunolocalization patterns of TFPI within carotid plaque. TFPI was detectable (TFPI+ group) in 22 of 34 specimens (mean+/-SEM, 404. 4+/-91.8 pg/mg) and undetectable (TFPI- group) in 12 of 34 specimens. In the TFPI- group, normalized TF activity was significantly greater than that in the TFPI+ group (0.28+/-0.04 vs 0.14+/-0.02 U/pg, P=0.002). Furthermore, neutralization of TFPI activity using a polyclonal antibody resulted in an 8-fold increase in TF activity in the TFPI+ group (P=0.001) but had no effect in the TFPI- group. Immunostaining for TFPI showed localization to endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells within the fibrous cap region of the plaque, and macrophages within the shoulder region of the plaque.
Taken together, these data suggest that biologically active TFPI is present within human atherosclerotic plaque and is associated with attenuated TF activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in vivo is thought to be synthesized mainly by endothelial cells. To date, no significant regulator of TFPI synthesis has been described. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) express tissue factor in vitro and in vivo, which may contribute to vascular thrombosis. We hypothesized that VSMC might also express TFPI. To determine this, we examined growth-arrested coronary VSMC in culture and found that VSMC secreted an amount of TFPI similar to that seen in endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry of normal human coronary arteries showed TFPI staining throughout the media and intima of the vessel with localization to VSMC and endothelial cells. To determine regulation of TFPI expression in VSMC, we examined the effects of serum stimulation on TFPI secretion and found that FBS induced a 5-fold increase in TFPI antigen and activity levels in conditioned medium at 48 hours (P<0.001) when compared with serum-free conditions. A similar stimulatory effect was seen with 10% pooled human serum. Moreover, epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-B increased TFPI secretion by 4- to 5-fold and 2- to 3-fold, respectively (P<0.05), and these growth factors accounted for approximately 50% of the TFPI secretion effects of human serum. The serum effect was associated with a 3-fold increase in TFPI mRNA 24 hours after release from growth arrest and a 50% decrease in TFPI secretion after treatment with actinomycin D. Taken together, this study suggests that there is significant TFPI expression in VSMC in culture and in VSMC within the intima and media of the normal coronary artery wall. We present the first evidence for TFPI regulation by serum in VSMC and more specifically by its constituent growth factors, epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-B.
Circulation Research 83(12):1264-70. · 11.86 Impact Factor