Sanjay Srivastava

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (56)235.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon found in high amounts in vehicular exhaust and tobacco smoke. Exposure to traffic pollutants or chronic tobacco smoke exposure induces cardiovascular injury, suppresses circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), and increases thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine whether benzene exposure is associated with CAC levels and cardiovascular injury in humans. Methods: Benzene exposure was assessed in 240 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the benzene metabolite – trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Because benzene is both environmental pollutant and a tobacco smoke constituent, urine cotinine levels were also measured. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between benzene exposure and parameters of CVD risk and injury and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: The study population was 51±10 years old, 41% African American, 47% female, and 39% current smokers. As expected, urinary t,t-MA levels were higher in smokers than non-smokers and positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urine t,t-MA level was inversely associated with residential proximity to roadways. Urinary t,t-MA levels are inversely related to both early (AC133+) and late (AC133–) CACs. However, no association was observed between t,t-MA and inflammation or thrombosis. In non-smokers, t,t-MA levels were positively associated with increased Framingham Risk Scores. Conclusions: Regardless of the source of benzene exposure (e.g., tobacco smoke, or traffic emissions), benzene may increase cardiovascular disease risk in part through decreased levels of CACs and subsequent suppression of vascular repair.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple epidemiological investigations have established that roadway proximity is associated with adverse cardiovascular conditions. Recent literature indicates circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), types vascular progenitor cells, may be indicators of exposure to roadway-generated pollutants. Our study advances cardiovascular science by describing associations between CACs and geographic roadway exposure metrics. Methods: Peripheral blood CAC levels of participants in the Louisville, KY Healthy Heart Study (n=240) were quantified using flow cytometry. Roadway exposure was assessed by utilizing GIS to measure distance to nearest roadway, total length of major roadways, total length of all roadways, and vehicle distance travelled, all within buffer areas between 50 and 300 meter intervals from subject residences. Generalized Linear Modeling was used to assess associations between roadway exposure and CAC levels. Results: CACs positive for early progenitor cell marker, AC133+, were elevated in blood of individuals residing closer to major roadways (p<0.05). Associations of all early CACs were significantly higher in subjects living within 50m of a major roadway. Levels of some AC133+positive cells also were significantly associated with total roadway length and vehicle distance travelled within buffer. Associations were found with CACs in all exposure metrics. Strength of associations was dependent on size of assessed buffer areas. Discussion: These findings suggest that early CACs are increased as residential distance to major roadways decreases. Distance at which specific CAC associations become significant may indicate what types of exposures from roadways may be leading to associations. CACs are mobilized by some environmental insults as a means of vascular protection.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to transient myocardial ischemia that protects the heart from subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects remain unclear.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2014; 3(4).
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    Kota V. Ramana, Sanjay Srivastava, Sharad S. Singhal
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    ABSTRACT: We would like to thank all the editorial staff, authors, and reviewers who took part in the success of this special issue.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 11/2013; 2013. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic lesions are associated with the accumulation of reactive aldehydes derived from oxidized lipids. Although inhibition of aldehyde metabolism has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis and enhance the accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in atherosclerotic plaques, no therapeutic interventions have been devised to prevent aldehyde accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions.Approach and Results-We examined the efficacy of carnosine, a naturally occurring β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide, in preventing aldehyde toxicity and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. In vitro, carnosine reacted rapidly with lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. Gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis showed that carnosine inhibits the formation of free aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malonaldialdehyde in Cu(2+)-oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Preloading bone marrow-derived macrophages with cell-permeable carnosine analogs reduced 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis. Oral supplementation with octyl-D-carnosine decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic valves of apolipoprotein E-null mice and attenuated the accumulation of protein-acrolein, protein-4-hydroxyhexenal, and protein-4-hydroxynonenal adducts in atherosclerotic lesions, whereas urinary excretion of aldehydes as carnosine conjugates was increased. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that carnosine inhibits atherogenesis by facilitating aldehyde removal from atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous levels of carnosine may be important determinants of atherosclerotic lesion formation, and treatment with carnosine or related peptides could be a useful therapy for the prevention or the treatment of atherosclerosis.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), cause endothelial activation, and they increase the adhesion of the endothelium to circulating leukocytes. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. We observed that in HNE-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, some of the protein-HNE adducts colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that HNE forms covalent adducts with several ER chaperones that assist in protein folding. We also found that at concentrations that did not induce apoptosis or necrosis, HNE activated the unfolded protein response, leading to an increase in XBP-1 splicing, phosphorylation of protein kinase-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, and the induction of ATF3 and ATF4. This increase in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation was prevented by transfection with protein kinase-like ER kinase siRNA. Treatment with HNE increased the expression of the ER chaperones, GRP78 and HERP. Exposure to HNE led to a depletion of reduced glutathione and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, glutathione depletion and ROS production by tert-butyl-hydroperoxide did not trigger the unfolded protein response. Pretreatment with a chemical chaperone, phenylbutyric acid, or adenoviral transfection with ATF6 attenuated HNE-induced monocyte adhesion and IL-8 induction. Moreover, phenylbutyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid attenuated HNE-induced leukocyte rolling and their firm adhesion to the endothelium in rat cremaster muscle. These data suggest that endothelial activation by HNE is mediated in part by ER stress, induced by mechanisms independent of ROS production or glutathione depletion. The induction of ER stress may be a significant cause of vascular inflammation induced by products of oxidized lipids.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2012; 287(14):11398-409. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The generation of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins has been linked to vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions. Products of phospholipid oxidation increase endothelial activation; however, their effects on macrophages are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether these effects are regulated by the biochemical pathways that metabolize oxidized phospholipids. We found that incubation of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) with THP-1-derived macrophages upregulated the expression of cytokine genes, including granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. In these cells, reagent POVPC was either hydrolyzed to lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) or reduced to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-hydroxy-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PHVPC). Treatment with the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor, pefabloc, decreased POVPC hydrolysis and increased PHVPC accumulation. Pefabloc also increased the induction of cytokine genes in POVPC-treated cells. In contrast, PHVPC accumulation and cytokine production were decreased upon treatment with the aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, tolrestat. In comparison with POVPC, lyso-PC led to 2- to 3-fold greater and PHVPC 10- to 100-fold greater induction of cytokine genes. POVPC-induced cytokine gene induction was prevented in bone-marrow derived macrophages from AR-null mice. These results indicate that although hydrolysis is the major pathway of metabolism, reduction further increases the proinflammatory responses to POVPC. Thus, vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions is likely to be regulated by metabolism of phospholipid aldehydes in macrophages.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2011; 52(12):2209-25. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental triggers of dilated cardiomyopathy are poorly understood. Acute exposure to acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, impairs cardiac function and cardioprotective responses in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic oral exposure to acrolein induces inflammation and cardiomyopathy. C57BL/6 mice were gavage-fed acrolein (1 mg/kg) or water (vehicle) daily for 48 days. The dose was chosen based on estimates of human daily unsaturated aldehyde consumption. Compared with vehicle-fed mice, acrolein-fed mice exhibited significant (P < 0.05) left ventricular (LV) dilatation (LV end-diastolic volume 36 ± 8 vs. 17 ± 5 μl), contractile dysfunction (dP/dt(max) 4,697 ± 1,498 vs. 7,016 ± 1,757 mmHg/s), and impaired relaxation (tau 15.4 ± 4.3 vs. 10.4 ± 2.2 ms). Histological and biochemical evaluation revealed myocardial oxidative stress (membrane-localized protein-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal adducts) and nitrative stress (increased protein-nitrotyrosine) and varying degrees of plasma and myocardial protein-acrolein adduct formation indicative of physical translocation of ingested acrolein to the heart. Acrolein also induced myocyte hypertrophy (~2.2-fold increased myocyte area, P < 0.05), increased apoptosis (~7.5-fold), and disrupted endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the heart. DNA binding studies, immunohistochemistry, and PCR revealed significant (P < 0.05) activation of nuclear factor-κB in acrolein-exposed hearts, along with upregulated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Long-term oral exposure to acrolein, at an amount within the range of human unsaturated aldehyde intake, induces a phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy in the mouse. Human exposure to acrolein may have analogous effects and raise consideration of an environmental, aldehyde-mediated basis for heart failure.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2011; 301(5):H2050-60. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g., 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently, we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O(2), and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ≅ P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 and rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice a diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and α-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of the reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in the liver.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2011; 24(8):1223-30. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aldehydes are ubiquitous natural constituents of foods, water and beverages. Dietary intake represents the greatest source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. Oral acrolein induces dyslipidemia acutely and chronically increases atherosclerosis in mice, yet the mechanisms are unknown. Because lipid synthesis and trafficking are largely under hepatic control, we examined hepatic genes in murine models of acute and chronic oral acrolein exposure. Changes in hepatic gene expression were examined using a Steroltalk microarray. Acute acrolein feeding modified plasma and hepatic proteins and increased plasma triglycerides within 15  min. By 6  h, acrolein altered hepatic gene expression including Insig1, Insig2 and Hmgcr genes and stimulated an acute-phase response (APR) with up-regulation of serum amyloid A genes (Saa) and systemic hypoalbuminemia. To test if decreased HMG-CoA reductase activity could modify acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or the APR, mice were pretreated with simvastatin. Statin treatment, however, did not alter acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or hypoalbuminemia associated with an APR. Few hepatic genes were dysregulated by chronic acrolein feeding in apoE-null mice. These studies confirmed that acute acrolein exposure altered expression of hepatic genes involved with lipid synthesis and trafficking and APR, and thus, indicated a hepatic locus of acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and APR that was independent of HMG CoA-reductase. Dietary intake of acrolein could contribute to cardiovascular disease risk by disturbing hepatic function.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 08/2011; 55(9):1411-22. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes results in enhanced chemical modification of proteins by advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) precursors. These modifications have been linked to the development of several secondary diabetic complications. Our previous studies showed that aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B3) catalyzes the reduction of ALEs and AGEs precursors; however, the in vivo significance of this metabolic pathway during diabetes and obesity has not been fully assessed. Therefore we examined the role of AR in regulating ALEs and AGEs formation in murine models of diet-induced obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In comparison with wild-type (WT) and AR-null mice fed normal chow, mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet (42% kcal fat) showed increased accumulation of AGEs and protein-acrolein adducts in the plasma. AGEs and acrolein adducts were also increased in the epididymal fat of WT and AR-null mice fed a HF diet. Deletion of AR increased the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) protein adduct in the plasma and increased the expression of the AGE receptor (RAGE) in HF fed mice. No change in AGEs formation was observed in the kidneys of HF-fed mice. In comparison, renal tissue from AR-null mice treated with streptozotocin showed greater AGE accumulation than streptozotocin-treated WT mice. These data indicated that AR regulated the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes and AGEs under conditions of severe, but not mild, hyperglycemia and that deletion of AR increased RAGE-induction via mechanisms that were independent of AGEs accumulation.
    Chemico-biological interactions 05/2011; 191(1-3):357-63. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    Immaculate Amunom, Sanjay Srivastava, Russell A Prough
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    ABSTRACT: This protocol describes the procedure for measuring the relative rates of metabolism of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes 9-anthracene aldehyde (9-AA) and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE). More specifically, these assays measure the aldehyde reduction reactions of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). They can be performed using liver microsomal or other tissue fractions, spherosome preparations of recombinant CYPs, or recombinant CYPs from other sources. The method for reduction of 9-AA (a model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde) by CYPs was adapted from an assay for 9-anthracene oxidation published by Marini et al. (2003). For reduction of the endogenous aldehyde 4-HNE, the substrate was incubated with CYP in the presence of oxygen and NADPH, and the metabolites were separated by HPLC, using an adaptation of the method by Srivastava et al. (2010). For both 9-AA and 4-HNE, the first step involves incubation of the substrate with the CYP in an appropriate medium. This is followed by quantification of metabolites through by spectrofluorometry (9-AA) or HPLC coupled with a radiometric assay (4-HNE). Metabolite identification can be achieved by HPLC GC/MS analysis. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 can be utilized to show the role of the hemoprotein or other enzymes in these reduction reactions. The reduction of CYPs is not inhibited by either anaerobiosis or inclusion of CO in the gaseous phase of the reaction mixture. These characteristics are similar to those reported for some cytochrome P450-catalyzed azo reduction reactions.
    Current protocols in toxicology 05/2011; Chapter 4:Unit4.37.
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    ABSTRACT: Acrolein is a dietary aldehyde that is present in high concentrations in alcoholic beverages and foods including cheese, donuts and coffee. It is also abundant in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and is generated in vivo during inflammation and oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of dietary acrolein on atherosclerosis. Eight-week-old male apoE-null mice were gavage-fed acrolein (2.5mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion formation and composition and plasma lipids and platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels were measured. Effects of acrolein and PF4 on endothelial cell function was measured in vitro. Acrolein feeding increased the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma. NMR analysis of the lipoproteins showed that acrolein feeding increased the abundance of small and medium VLDL particles. Acrolein feeding also increased atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic valve and the aortic arch. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased macrophage accumulation in the lesions of acrolein-fed mice. Plasma PF4 levels and accumulation of PF4 in atherosclerotic lesions was increased in the acrolein-fed mice. Incubation of endothelial cells with the plasma of acrolein-fed mice augmented transmigration of monocytic cells, which was abolished by anti-PF4 antibody treatment. Dietary exposure to acrolein exacerbates atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice. Consumption of foods and beverages rich in unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein may be a contributing factor to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions.
    Atherosclerosis 03/2011; 215(2):301-8. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress-induced inflammation is a major contributor to several disease conditions including sepsis, carcinogenesis and metastasis, diabetic complications, allergic asthma, uveitis and after cataract surgery posterior capsular opacification. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors are characteristics of inflammatory disorders, we envisioned that by blocking the molecular signals of ROS that activate redox-sensitive transcription factors, various inflammatory diseases could be ameliorated. We have indeed demonstrated that ROS-induced lipid peroxidation-derived lipid aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) and their glutathione-conjugates (e.g. GS-HNE) are efficiently reduced by aldose reductase to corresponding alcohols which mediate the inflammatory signals. Our results showed that inhibition of aldose reductase (AKR1B1) significantly prevented the inflammatory signals induced by cytokines, growth factors, endotoxins, high glucose, allergens and auto-immune reactions in cellular as well as animal models. We have demonstrated that AKR1B1 inhibitor, fidarestat, significantly prevents tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-, growth factors-, lipopolysachharide (LPS)-, and environmental allergens-induced inflammatory signals that cause various inflammatory diseases. In animal models of inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular, uveitis, asthma, and cancer (colon, breast, prostate and lung) and metastasis, inhibition of AKR1B1 significantly ameliorated the disease. Our results from various cellular and animal models representing a number of inflammatory conditions suggest that ROS-induced inflammatory response could be reduced by inhibition of AKR1B1, thereby decreasing the progression of the disease and if the therapy is initiated early, the disease could be eliminated. Since fidarestat has already undergone phase III clinical trial for diabetic neuropathy and found to be safe, though clinically not very effective, our results indicate that it can be developed for the therapy of a number of inflammation-related diseases. Our results thus offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat a wide array of inflammatory diseases.
    Chemico-biological interactions 02/2011; 191(1-3):330-8. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5ppm for 6h) or sub-chronic (1ppm, 6h/day for 4days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2010; 248(2):100-10. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress-response protein that imparts antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. However, its pathophysiological role in cardiac remodeling and chronic heart failure (HF) is unknown. We hypothesized that induction of HO-1 in HF alleviates pathological remodeling. Adult male nontransgenic and myocyte-restricted HO-1 transgenic mice underwent either sham operation or coronary ligation to induce HF. Four weeks after ligation, nontransgenic HF mice exhibited postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and reduced capillary density, associated with a 2-fold increase in HO-1 expression in noninfarcted myocardium. Compared with nontransgenic mice, HO-1 transgenic HF mice exhibited significantly (P<0.05) improved postinfarction survival (94% versus 57%) and less LV dilatation (end-diastolic volume, 46+/-8 versus 85+/-32 microL), mechanical dysfunction (ejection fraction, 65+/-9% versus 49+/-16%), hypertrophy (LV/tibia length 4.4+/-0.4 versus 5.2+/-0.6 mg/mm), interstitial fibrosis (11.2+/-3.1% versus 18.5+/-3.5%), and oxidative stress (3-fold reduction in tissue malondialdehyde). Moreover, myocyte-specific HO-1 overexpression in HF promoted tissue neovascularization and ameliorated myocardial p53 expression (2-fold reduction) and apoptosis. In isolated mitochondria, mitochondrial permeability transition was inhibited by HO-1 in a carbon monoxide (CO)-dependent manner and was recapitulated by the CO donor tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3). HO-1-derived CO also prevented H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cell death. Finally, in vivo treatment with CORM-3 alleviated postinfarction LV remodeling, p53 expression, and apoptosis. HO-1 induction in the failing heart is an important cardioprotective adaptation that opposes pathological LV remodeling, and this effect is mediated, at least in part, by CO-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition and apoptosis. Augmentation of HO-1 or its product, CO, may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for ameliorating HF.
    Circulation 05/2010; 121(17):1912-25. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aldehydes such as acrolein are ubiquitous pollutants present in automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. Such aldehydes are also constituents of several food substances and are present in drinking water, irrigation canals, and effluents from manufacturing plants. Oral intake represents the most significant source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. To study the effects of short-term oral exposure to acrolein on lipoprotein levels and metabolism, adult mice were gavage-fed 0.1 to 5 mg acrolein/kg bwt and changes in plasma lipoproteins were assessed. Changes in hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism and cytokines were examined by qRT-PCR analysis. Acrolein feeding did not affect body weight, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, electrolytes, cytokines or liver enzymes, but increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Similar results were obtained with apoE-null mice. Plasma lipoproteins from acrolein-fed mice showed altered electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels. Chromatographic analysis revealed elevated VLDL cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides levels with little change in LDL or HDL. NMR analysis indicated shifts from small to large VLDL and from large to medium-small LDL with no change in the size of HDL particles. Increased plasma VLDL was associated with a significant decrease in post-heparin plasma hepatic lipase activity and a decrease in hepatic expression of hepatic lipase. These observations suggest that oral exposure to acrolein could induce or exacerbate systemic dyslipidemia and thereby contribute to cardiovascular disease risk.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/2010; 243(1):1-12. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidation of lipids generates large quantities of highly reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (enals). Enals and their protein adducts accumulate in the tissues of several pathologies. In vitro, low concentrations of enals such as HNE (4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal) affect cell signaling whereas high concentrations of enals are cytotoxic. Direct conjugation of the C2-C3 double bond of enals with the sulfhydryl group of GSH is a major route for the metabolism and detoxification of enals. Recently, we found that glutathionyl conjugate of HNE (GS-HNE) enhances the peritoneal leukocyte infiltration and stimulates the formation of proinflammatory lipid mediators. Moreover, the reduced form of the glutathione conjugate of HNE (GS-DHN) elicits strong mitogenic signaling in smooth muscle cells. In this chapter we discuss the methods to study the metabolism of enals and the redox signaling properties of glutathionyl conjugates of HNE.
    Methods in enzymology 01/2010; 474:297-313. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic lesion formation is associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids. Products of lipid oxidation, particularly aldehydes, stimulate cytokine production and enhance monocyte adhesion; however, their contribution to atherosclerotic lesion formation remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of aldehyde removal by aldose reductase (AR), which metabolizes both free and phospholipid aldehydes, exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation. In atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein (apo)E-null mice, AR protein was located in macrophage-rich regions and its abundance increased with lesion progression. Treatment of apoE-null mice with AR inhibitors sorbinil or tolrestat increased early lesion formation but did not affect the formation of advanced lesions. Early lesions of AR(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice maintained on high-fat diet were significantly larger when compared with age-matched AR(+/+)/apoE(-/-) mice. The increase in lesion area attributable to deletion of the AR gene was seen in both male and female mice. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of AR also increased the lesion formation in male mice made diabetic by streptozotocin treatment. Lesions in AR(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice exhibited increased collagen and macrophage content and a decrease in smooth muscle cells. AR(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice displayed a greater accumulation of the AR substrate 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE) in the plasma and protein-HNE adducts in arterial lesions than AR(+/+)/apoE(-/-) mice. These observations indicate that AR is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and it protects against early stages of atherogenesis by removing toxic aldehydes generated in oxidized lipids.
    Circulation Research 10/2009; 105(8):793-802. · 11.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
235.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • University of Louisville
      • • Diabetes and Obesity Center
      • • Institute of Molecular Cardiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
  • 1997–2008
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Galveston, TX, United States
  • 2005
    • Texas A&M University - Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States