Sanjay Srivastava

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (63)283.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that residential proximity to a roadway is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Yet, the nature of this association remains unclear, and its effect on individual cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to determine whether residential proximity to roadways influences systemic inflammation and the levels of circulating angiogenic cells. In a cross-sectional study, cardiovascular disease risk factors, blood levels of C-reactive protein, and 15 antigenically defined circulating angiogenic cell populations were measured in participants (n=316) with moderate-to-high cardiovascular disease risk. Attributes of roadways surrounding residential locations were assessed using geographic information systems. Associations between road proximity and cardiovascular indices were analyzed using generalized linear models. Close proximity (<50 m) to a major roadway was associated with lower income and higher rates of smoking but not C-reactive protein levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, the levels of circulating angiogenic cells in peripheral blood were significantly elevated in people living in close proximity to a major roadway (CD31(+)/AC133(+), AC133(+), CD34(+)/AC133(+), and CD34(+)/45(dim)/AC133(+) cells) and positively associated with road segment distance (CD31(+)/AC133(+), AC133(+), and CD34(+)/AC133(+) cells), traffic intensity (CD31(+)/AC133(+) and AC133(+) cells), and distance-weighted traffic intensity (CD31(+)/34(+)/45(+)/AC133(+) cells). Living close to a major roadway is associated with elevated levels of circulating cells positive for the early stem marker AC133(+). This may reflect an increased need for vascular repair. Levels of these cells in peripheral blood may be a sensitive index of cardiovascular injury because of residential proximity to roadways. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 08/2015; DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305724 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. However, the contribution of aldehydes to myocardial I/R injury has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that removal of aldehydes by glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) diminishes I/R injury. In adult male C57BL/6 mouse hearts, Gstp1/2 was the most abundant GST transcript followed by Gsta4 and Gstm4.1, and GSTP activity was a significant fraction of the total GST activity. mGstp1/2 deletion reduced total GST activity, but no compensatory increase in GSTA and GSTM or major antioxidant enzymes was observed. Genetic deficiency of GSTP did not alter cardiac function, but in comparison with hearts from wild-type (WT) mice, the hearts isolated from GSTP-null mice were more sensitive to I/R injury. Disruption of the GSTP gene also increased infarct size after coronary occlusion in situ. Ischemia significantly increased acrolein in hearts, and GSTP deficiency induced significant deficits in the metabolism of the unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein, but not in the metabolism 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) or trans-2-hexanal; and, upon ischemia, the GSTP-null hearts accumulated more acrolein-modified proteins than WT hearts. GSTP-deficiency did not affect I/R-induced free radical generation, JNK activation or depletion of reduced glutathione. Acrolein-exposure induced a hyperpolarizing shift in INa, and acrolein-induced cell death was delayed by SN-6, a Na(+)/Ca(++)exchange inhibitor. Cardiomyocytes isolated from GSTP-null hearts were more sensitive than WT myocytes to acrolein-induced protein crosslinking and cell death. GSTP protects the heart from I/R injury by facilitating the detoxification of cytotoxic aldehydes such as acrolein.
    Circulation Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.305518 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate apoptosis, yet their role in regulated necrosis remains unknown. miR-21 is overexpressed in nearly all human cancer types and its role as an oncogene is suggested to largely depend on its anti-apoptotic action. Here we show that miR-21 is overexpressed in a murine model of acute pancreatitis, a pathologic condition involving RIP3-dependent regulated necrosis (necroptosis). Therefore, we investigate the role of miR-21 in acute pancreatitis injury and necroptosis. miR-21 deficiency protects against caerulein- or L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. miR-21 inhibition using locked-nucleic-acid-modified oligonucleotide effectively reduces pancreatitis severity. miR-21 deletion is also protective in tumour necrosis factor-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These data suggest that miRNAs are critical participants in necroptosis and miR-21 enhances cellular necrosis by negatively regulating tumour suppressor genes associated with the death-receptor-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway, and could be a therapeutic target for preventing pathologic necrosis.
    Nature Communications 05/2015; 6:7151. DOI:10.1038/ncomms8151 · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • 05/2015; 1:15005. DOI:10.1038/celldisc.2015.5
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    ABSTRACT: By generating prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2/Ptgs2) plays a critical role in regulating inflammatory responses. While several inflammatory stimuli have been shown to increase Ptgs2 expression, less is known about how the transcription of this gene is terminated. Here we show that stimulation of macrophages with yeast zymosan, a TLR2/6 and dectin-1 agonist, causes a transient increase in the expression of Ptgs2 accompanied by a simultaneous increase in the expression of the transcriptional repressor, Activating transcription factor-3 (Atf3). The expression of Ptgs2 was significantly higher in resident peritoneal macrophages isolated from Atf3-/− mice than that from Atf3+/+ mice and was associated with higher prostaglandin production upon stimulation with zymosan. In activated macrophages, Atf3 accumulated in the nucleus and chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that Atf3 is recruited to the Ptgs2 promoter region. In acute peritonitis and in cutaneous wounds, there was increased leukocyte accumulation and higher levels of prostaglandins (PGE2/PGD2) in inflammatory exudates of Atf3-/− mice compared with WT mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate that during acute inflammation Atf3 negatively regulates Ptgs2 and therefore dysregulation of this axis could potentially contribute to aberrant Ptgs2 expression in chronic inflammatory diseases. Moreover, this axis could be a new therapeutic target for suppressing Ptgs2 expression and the resultant inflammatory responses.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 01/2015; 116-117. DOI:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2015.01.001 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple epidemiological investigations have established that roadway proximity is associated with adverse cardiovascular conditions. Recent literature indicates circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), types vascular progenitor cells, may be indicators of exposure to roadway-generated pollutants. Our study advances cardiovascular science by describing associations between CACs and geographic roadway exposure metrics. Methods: Peripheral blood CAC levels of participants in the Louisville, KY Healthy Heart Study (n=240) were quantified using flow cytometry. Roadway exposure was assessed by utilizing GIS to measure distance to nearest roadway, total length of major roadways, total length of all roadways, and vehicle distance travelled, all within buffer areas between 50 and 300 meter intervals from subject residences. Generalized Linear Modeling was used to assess associations between roadway exposure and CAC levels. Results: CACs positive for early progenitor cell marker, AC133+, were elevated in blood of individuals residing closer to major roadways (p<0.05). Associations of all early CACs were significantly higher in subjects living within 50m of a major roadway. Levels of some AC133+positive cells also were significantly associated with total roadway length and vehicle distance travelled within buffer. Associations were found with CACs in all exposure metrics. Strength of associations was dependent on size of assessed buffer areas. Discussion: These findings suggest that early CACs are increased as residential distance to major roadways decreases. Distance at which specific CAC associations become significant may indicate what types of exposures from roadways may be leading to associations. CACs are mobilized by some environmental insults as a means of vascular protection.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon found in high amounts in vehicular exhaust and tobacco smoke. Exposure to traffic pollutants or chronic tobacco smoke exposure induces cardiovascular injury, suppresses circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), and increases thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine whether benzene exposure is associated with CAC levels and cardiovascular injury in humans. Methods: Benzene exposure was assessed in 240 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the benzene metabolite – trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Because benzene is both environmental pollutant and a tobacco smoke constituent, urine cotinine levels were also measured. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between benzene exposure and parameters of CVD risk and injury and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: The study population was 51±10 years old, 41% African American, 47% female, and 39% current smokers. As expected, urinary t,t-MA levels were higher in smokers than non-smokers and positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urine t,t-MA level was inversely associated with residential proximity to roadways. Urinary t,t-MA levels are inversely related to both early (AC133+) and late (AC133–) CACs. However, no association was observed between t,t-MA and inflammation or thrombosis. In non-smokers, t,t-MA levels were positively associated with increased Framingham Risk Scores. Conclusions: Regardless of the source of benzene exposure (e.g., tobacco smoke, or traffic emissions), benzene may increase cardiovascular disease risk in part through decreased levels of CACs and subsequent suppression of vascular repair.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to transient myocardial ischemia that protects the heart from subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects remain unclear. Myocardium of adult male C57/BL6 mice, preconditioned by 6 cycles of 4 minute coronary occlusion and reperfusion, showed nuclear translocation of ATF3 and ATF6 and PERK phosphorylation 30 min after PC. The abundance of ER proteins, ATF3 and ATF4 was increased 24 h after PC; however, there was no evidence of IRE-1 activation inliVT or ER-stress activated indicator (ERAI) mice expressing XBP-1-Venus fusion protein. PC-induced nuclear translocation of ATF3 was attenuated in transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of inducible ATF6. Ischemic PC increased the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, heme oxygenase-1 and aldose reductase to levels similar between \NT and ATF3-null hearts; however, the increase in IL-6 and ICAM-1 was exaggerated in ATF3-null hearts. Genetic deletion of ATF3 did not increase infarct size in non-preconditioned hearts but abolished the cardioprotective effects of PC. Larger infarct size in preconditioned ATF3-null hearts was associated with greater neutrophil infiltration in the myocardium, but no ATF3-dependent changes in the total or relative abundance of inflammatory monocytes were observed. Ischemic PC activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the activation of ATF3 by ER stress is essential for the cardioprotective effects of late PC. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.08.011 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background-Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods and Results-Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite-3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133(+)) and late (AC133(-)) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3-HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3-HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C-reactive protein were associated with 3-HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Conclusions-Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 06/2014; 3(4). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.000934 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    Kota V. Ramana · Sanjay Srivastava · Sharad S. Singhal
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    ABSTRACT: We would like to thank all the editorial staff, authors, and reviewers who took part in the success of this special issue.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 11/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/583438 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic lesions are associated with the accumulation of reactive aldehydes derived from oxidized lipids. Although inhibition of aldehyde metabolism has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis and enhance the accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in atherosclerotic plaques, no therapeutic interventions have been devised to prevent aldehyde accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions.Approach and Results-We examined the efficacy of carnosine, a naturally occurring β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide, in preventing aldehyde toxicity and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. In vitro, carnosine reacted rapidly with lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. Gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis showed that carnosine inhibits the formation of free aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malonaldialdehyde in Cu(2+)-oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Preloading bone marrow-derived macrophages with cell-permeable carnosine analogs reduced 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis. Oral supplementation with octyl-D-carnosine decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic valves of apolipoprotein E-null mice and attenuated the accumulation of protein-acrolein, protein-4-hydroxyhexenal, and protein-4-hydroxynonenal adducts in atherosclerotic lesions, whereas urinary excretion of aldehydes as carnosine conjugates was increased. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that carnosine inhibits atherogenesis by facilitating aldehyde removal from atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous levels of carnosine may be important determinants of atherosclerotic lesion formation, and treatment with carnosine or related peptides could be a useful therapy for the prevention or the treatment of atherosclerosis.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2013; 33(6). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300572 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Starvation, like many other catabolic conditions, induces loss of skeletal muscle mass by promoting fiber atrophy. In addition to the canonical processes, the starvation-induced response employs many distinct pathways that make it a unique atrophic program. However, in the multiplex of the underlying mechanisms, several components of starvation-induced atrophy have yet to be fully understood and their roles and interplay remain to be elucidated. Here we unveiled the role of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a unique E3 ubiquitin ligase and adaptor protein, in starvation-induced muscle atrophy. Targeted ablation of TRAF6 suppresses the expression of key regulators of atrophy, including MAFBx, MuRF1, p62, LC3B, Beclin1, Atg12, and Fn14. Ablation of TRAF6 also improved the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a and inhibited the activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle in response to starvation. In addition, our study provides the first evidence of the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolding protein response pathways in starvation-induced muscle atrophy and its regulation through TRAF6. Finally, our results also identify lysine 63-linked autoubiquitination of TRAF6 as a process essential for its regulatory role in starvation-induced muscle atrophy.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/2012; 32(7):1248-59. DOI:10.1128/MCB.06351-11 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), cause endothelial activation, and they increase the adhesion of the endothelium to circulating leukocytes. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. We observed that in HNE-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, some of the protein-HNE adducts colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that HNE forms covalent adducts with several ER chaperones that assist in protein folding. We also found that at concentrations that did not induce apoptosis or necrosis, HNE activated the unfolded protein response, leading to an increase in XBP-1 splicing, phosphorylation of protein kinase-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, and the induction of ATF3 and ATF4. This increase in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation was prevented by transfection with protein kinase-like ER kinase siRNA. Treatment with HNE increased the expression of the ER chaperones, GRP78 and HERP. Exposure to HNE led to a depletion of reduced glutathione and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, glutathione depletion and ROS production by tert-butyl-hydroperoxide did not trigger the unfolded protein response. Pretreatment with a chemical chaperone, phenylbutyric acid, or adenoviral transfection with ATF6 attenuated HNE-induced monocyte adhesion and IL-8 induction. Moreover, phenylbutyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid attenuated HNE-induced leukocyte rolling and their firm adhesion to the endothelium in rat cremaster muscle. These data suggest that endothelial activation by HNE is mediated in part by ER stress, induced by mechanisms independent of ROS production or glutathione depletion. The induction of ER stress may be a significant cause of vascular inflammation induced by products of oxidized lipids.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2012; 287(14):11398-409. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.320416 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The generation of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins has been linked to vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions. Products of phospholipid oxidation increase endothelial activation; however, their effects on macrophages are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether these effects are regulated by the biochemical pathways that metabolize oxidized phospholipids. We found that incubation of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) with THP-1-derived macrophages upregulated the expression of cytokine genes, including granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. In these cells, reagent POVPC was either hydrolyzed to lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) or reduced to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-hydroxy-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PHVPC). Treatment with the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor, pefabloc, decreased POVPC hydrolysis and increased PHVPC accumulation. Pefabloc also increased the induction of cytokine genes in POVPC-treated cells. In contrast, PHVPC accumulation and cytokine production were decreased upon treatment with the aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, tolrestat. In comparison with POVPC, lyso-PC led to 2- to 3-fold greater and PHVPC 10- to 100-fold greater induction of cytokine genes. POVPC-induced cytokine gene induction was prevented in bone-marrow derived macrophages from AR-null mice. These results indicate that although hydrolysis is the major pathway of metabolism, reduction further increases the proinflammatory responses to POVPC. Thus, vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions is likely to be regulated by metabolism of phospholipid aldehydes in macrophages.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2011; 52(12):2209-25. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M013854 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental triggers of dilated cardiomyopathy are poorly understood. Acute exposure to acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, impairs cardiac function and cardioprotective responses in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic oral exposure to acrolein induces inflammation and cardiomyopathy. C57BL/6 mice were gavage-fed acrolein (1 mg/kg) or water (vehicle) daily for 48 days. The dose was chosen based on estimates of human daily unsaturated aldehyde consumption. Compared with vehicle-fed mice, acrolein-fed mice exhibited significant (P < 0.05) left ventricular (LV) dilatation (LV end-diastolic volume 36 ± 8 vs. 17 ± 5 μl), contractile dysfunction (dP/dt(max) 4,697 ± 1,498 vs. 7,016 ± 1,757 mmHg/s), and impaired relaxation (tau 15.4 ± 4.3 vs. 10.4 ± 2.2 ms). Histological and biochemical evaluation revealed myocardial oxidative stress (membrane-localized protein-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal adducts) and nitrative stress (increased protein-nitrotyrosine) and varying degrees of plasma and myocardial protein-acrolein adduct formation indicative of physical translocation of ingested acrolein to the heart. Acrolein also induced myocyte hypertrophy (~2.2-fold increased myocyte area, P < 0.05), increased apoptosis (~7.5-fold), and disrupted endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the heart. DNA binding studies, immunohistochemistry, and PCR revealed significant (P < 0.05) activation of nuclear factor-κB in acrolein-exposed hearts, along with upregulated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Long-term oral exposure to acrolein, at an amount within the range of human unsaturated aldehyde intake, induces a phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy in the mouse. Human exposure to acrolein may have analogous effects and raise consideration of an environmental, aldehyde-mediated basis for heart failure.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2011; 301(5):H2050-60. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00120.2011 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aldehydes are ubiquitous natural constituents of foods, water and beverages. Dietary intake represents the greatest source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. Oral acrolein induces dyslipidemia acutely and chronically increases atherosclerosis in mice, yet the mechanisms are unknown. Because lipid synthesis and trafficking are largely under hepatic control, we examined hepatic genes in murine models of acute and chronic oral acrolein exposure. Changes in hepatic gene expression were examined using a Steroltalk microarray. Acute acrolein feeding modified plasma and hepatic proteins and increased plasma triglycerides within 15  min. By 6  h, acrolein altered hepatic gene expression including Insig1, Insig2 and Hmgcr genes and stimulated an acute-phase response (APR) with up-regulation of serum amyloid A genes (Saa) and systemic hypoalbuminemia. To test if decreased HMG-CoA reductase activity could modify acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or the APR, mice were pretreated with simvastatin. Statin treatment, however, did not alter acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or hypoalbuminemia associated with an APR. Few hepatic genes were dysregulated by chronic acrolein feeding in apoE-null mice. These studies confirmed that acute acrolein exposure altered expression of hepatic genes involved with lipid synthesis and trafficking and APR, and thus, indicated a hepatic locus of acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and APR that was independent of HMG CoA-reductase. Dietary intake of acrolein could contribute to cardiovascular disease risk by disturbing hepatic function.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 09/2011; 55(9):1411-22. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201100225 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g., 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently, we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O(2), and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ≅ P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 and rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice a diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and α-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of the reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in the liver.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2011; 24(8):1223-30. DOI:10.1021/tx200080b · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    Shahid P Baba · Jason Hellmann · Sanjay Srivastava · Aruni Bhatnagar
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes results in enhanced chemical modification of proteins by advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) precursors. These modifications have been linked to the development of several secondary diabetic complications. Our previous studies showed that aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B3) catalyzes the reduction of ALEs and AGEs precursors; however, the in vivo significance of this metabolic pathway during diabetes and obesity has not been fully assessed. Therefore we examined the role of AR in regulating ALEs and AGEs formation in murine models of diet-induced obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In comparison with wild-type (WT) and AR-null mice fed normal chow, mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet (42% kcal fat) showed increased accumulation of AGEs and protein-acrolein adducts in the plasma. AGEs and acrolein adducts were also increased in the epididymal fat of WT and AR-null mice fed a HF diet. Deletion of AR increased the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) protein adduct in the plasma and increased the expression of the AGE receptor (RAGE) in HF fed mice. No change in AGEs formation was observed in the kidneys of HF-fed mice. In comparison, renal tissue from AR-null mice treated with streptozotocin showed greater AGE accumulation than streptozotocin-treated WT mice. These data indicated that AR regulated the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes and AGEs under conditions of severe, but not mild, hyperglycemia and that deletion of AR increased RAGE-induction via mechanisms that were independent of AGEs accumulation.
    Chemico-biological interactions 05/2011; 191(1-3):357-63. DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2011.01.024 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    Immaculate Amunom · Sanjay Srivastava · Russell A Prough
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    ABSTRACT: This protocol describes the procedure for measuring the relative rates of metabolism of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes 9-anthracene aldehyde (9-AA) and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE). More specifically, these assays measure the aldehyde reduction reactions of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). They can be performed using liver microsomal or other tissue fractions, spherosome preparations of recombinant CYPs, or recombinant CYPs from other sources. The method for reduction of 9-AA (a model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde) by CYPs was adapted from an assay for 9-anthracene oxidation published by Marini et al. (2003). For reduction of the endogenous aldehyde 4-HNE, the substrate was incubated with CYP in the presence of oxygen and NADPH, and the metabolites were separated by HPLC, using an adaptation of the method by Srivastava et al. (2010). For both 9-AA and 4-HNE, the first step involves incubation of the substrate with the CYP in an appropriate medium. This is followed by quantification of metabolites through by spectrofluorometry (9-AA) or HPLC coupled with a radiometric assay (4-HNE). Metabolite identification can be achieved by HPLC GC/MS analysis. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 can be utilized to show the role of the hemoprotein or other enzymes in these reduction reactions. The reduction of CYPs is not inhibited by either anaerobiosis or inclusion of CO in the gaseous phase of the reaction mixture. These characteristics are similar to those reported for some cytochrome P450-catalyzed azo reduction reactions.
    Current protocols in toxicology 05/2011; Chapter 4:Unit4.37. DOI:10.1002/0471140856.tx0437s48
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    ABSTRACT: Acrolein is a dietary aldehyde that is present in high concentrations in alcoholic beverages and foods including cheese, donuts and coffee. It is also abundant in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and is generated in vivo during inflammation and oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of dietary acrolein on atherosclerosis. Eight-week-old male apoE-null mice were gavage-fed acrolein (2.5mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion formation and composition and plasma lipids and platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels were measured. Effects of acrolein and PF4 on endothelial cell function was measured in vitro. Acrolein feeding increased the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma. NMR analysis of the lipoproteins showed that acrolein feeding increased the abundance of small and medium VLDL particles. Acrolein feeding also increased atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic valve and the aortic arch. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased macrophage accumulation in the lesions of acrolein-fed mice. Plasma PF4 levels and accumulation of PF4 in atherosclerotic lesions was increased in the acrolein-fed mice. Incubation of endothelial cells with the plasma of acrolein-fed mice augmented transmigration of monocytic cells, which was abolished by anti-PF4 antibody treatment. Dietary exposure to acrolein exacerbates atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice. Consumption of foods and beverages rich in unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein may be a contributing factor to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions.
    Atherosclerosis 03/2011; 215(2):301-8. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.01.001 · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
283.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2015
    • University of Louisville
      • • Institute of Molecular Cardiology
      • • Diabetes and Obesity Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Experimental Therapeutics
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Galveston, Texas, United States