[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) are known to be a component of the tumor microenvironment. BMSCs are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, epithelial cells and endothelial cells. Stem cells found in niches or transplanted into injured tissues constantly encounter hypoxic stress. Areas with very low to no oxygen pressure exist in solid tumors. The differentiation capacity of BMSCs under hypoxic conditions remains controversial.
In this study, a hypoxic workstation, set at an oxygen concentration of 0.2% was used to mimic the hypoxic microenvironment of cancer in vivo. Oil red O staining and alkaline phosphatase staining were used to examine the adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, respectively, of BMSCs. Real-time PCR was performed to explore the expression of adipocyte- or osteocyte-specific genes. An RT2 Profiler(TM) PCR Array was used to screen a panel of 84 genes associated with human adipogenesis in BMSCs under normal and hypoxic conditions. A dual-luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were applied to analyze promoter activity to evaluate the possible regulatory mechanism of adipocyte-specific gene expression.
We found that this extreme hypoxia impaired osteogenic differentiation as indicated by the attenuation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the reduced expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin and osteopontin. Moreover, extreme hypoxia enhanced adipogenic differentiation, as indicated by the accumulation of lipid droplets and the expression of the adipocyte-specific genes leptin, LPL, CFD, PGAR and HIG2. In the extreme hypoxic conditions (0.2% oxygen), the overexpression of CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), especially C/EBPδ, and HIF-1A upregulated the promoter activities of adipocyte-specific genes such as leptin, CFD, HIG2, LPL, PGAR. In the present study, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) exerted a negative effect on the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes.
In view of these findings, extreme hypoxia induced the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs through HIF-1A and C/EBPs. These findings might provide clues regarding the roles of BMSCs in the cancer microenvironment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer has become the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. A large number of patients become resistant to drug chemotherapy. Paclitaxel (Taxol) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used to treat cancer patients. Taxol has been widely used in human malignancies including breast cancer because it can stabilize microtubules resulting in cell death by causing an arrest during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) plays an important role in Taxol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer. In our present study, we investigated the expression of the Bak protein and clinicopathological correlations in a large sample of breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. We found that the percentage of high scores of Bak expression in breast cancer was significantly lower than that of the non-cancerous breast control tissue. In addition, lower Bak expression was positively associated with the clinical TNM stage of breast cancer with a significant decrease in overall survival compared with those with higher Bak expression especially in the Luminal and HER2 subtypes. Importantly, higher Bak expression predicted a favorable clinical outcome in the cases treated with Taxol indicated by a higher overall survival than that of patients with lower Bak expression especially in Luminal and HER2 subtypes. Furthermore, these results were confirmed in vitro since overexpression of Bak sensitized breast cancer cells to Taxol by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis; in contrast, downregulation of Bak through siRNA transfection inhibited Taxol induced-apoptosis. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Bak acts as a sensitive biomarker and favorable prognostic factor for Taxol treatment in breast cancer. The restoration of Bak expression would be therapeutically beneficial for Taxol resistant breast cancer patients.
PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(9):e0138955. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0138955 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Fra-1 (FOSL1) plays important roles in oncogenesis in various malignancies. We investigated the expression of Fra-1 in gastric cancer (GC) tissues by qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot technologies. The results showed that Fra-1 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues compared with the adjacent non‑cancerous tissues. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in GC, we elucidated the effect of Fra-1 in the apoptosis and cell cycle of gastric cancer cells, AGS, and found that a considerable decrease in apoptotic cells and increase of S phase rate were observed for AGS cells with Fra-1 overexpession. We identified and confirmed that Fra-1 affected the expression level of CTTN and EZR in vitro through LC-MS/MS analyses and western blot technology. Furthermore, we found that Fra-1 was correlated with dysregulation PI3K/Akt and p53 signaling pathway in gastric cancer tissues in vitro. Moreover, we found that Fra-1 overexpression affected the expression of PI3K, Akt, MDM2 and p53 in vivo. In summary, our results suggest that Fra-1 is upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and plays its function by affecting the PI3K/Akt and p53 signaling pathway in gastric cancer.
International Journal of Oncology 09/2015; DOI:10.3892/ijo.2015.3146 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cluster of differentiation 90 (CD90) (Thy-1) plays important roles in the oncogenesis in various types of malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CD90 in gastric cancer (GC) tissues by q-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blot technologies. The results showed that CD90 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues compared with the level in the adjacent non‑cancerous tissues. To explore the possible mechanism of CD90 in GC, we elucidated the effect of CD90 on the apoptosis of AGS gastric cancer cells, and found that a considerable decrease in apoptotic cells was observed for AGS cells with CD90 overexpression. Meanwhile, the rate of apoptotic cells was increased in the AGS cells with CD90 interference (siCD90) compared with that in the AGS cells. Cell apoptosis is closely related to a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations. Our results showed that overexpression of CD90 in the AGS gastric cancer cells led to an increase in ΔΨm and a decrease in intracellular ROS and Ca2+ concentrations. At the same time, siCD90 reduced ΔΨm and the increase in intracellular ROS and Ca2+ concentrations. Furthermore, we identified and confirmed that CD90 functions by modulating the expression level of secreted protein, acidic, cysteine‑rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) in vitro through LC‑MS/MS analyses and western blot technology. In summary, our results suggest that CD90 is upregulated in gastric cancer and inhibits gastric cancer cell apoptosis by modulating the expression level of SPARC protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a major regulator of cancer. Significant fraction of lncRNAs is represented on widely used microarray platforms; however, many of which have no known function. To discover novel lung cancer-related lncRNAs, we analyzed the lncRNA expression patterns in five sets of previously published lung cancer gene expression profile data that were represented on Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array, and identified dysregulated lncRNAs in lung cancer. One lncRNA, actin filament associated protein 1 antisense RNA1 (AFAP1-AS1), was the most significantly upregulated in lung cancer and associated with poor prognosis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that AFAP1-AS1 knockdown significantly inhibited the cell invasive and migration capability in lung cancer cells. AFAP1-AS1 knockdown also increased the expression of its antisense protein coding gene, actin filament associated protein 1 (AFAP1), and affected the expression levels of several small GTPase family members and molecules in the actin cytokeratin signaling pathway, which suggested that AFAP1-AS1 promoted cancer cell metastasis via regulation of actin filament integrity. Our findings extend the number of noncoding RNAs functionally implicated in lung cancer progression and highlight the role of AFAP1-AS1 as potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target of lung cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyglycolide (PGA) is considered an attractive candidate for bone regeneration because of its good biodegradability as well as biocompatibility. However, its insufficient mechanical strength and inadequate bioactivity limit the applications. In this research, diopside (DIOP) was incorporated into PGA scaffolds for enhancing mechanical and biological properties. The porous scaffolds were fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS). The effect of DIOP content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, bioactivity as well as cytocompatibility of the porous scaffolds was studied. The results showed that DIOP particles were homogenously distributed within the PGA matrix, which contained up to 10 wt%. This led to an improvement of 171.2% in compressive strength and 46.2% in compressive modulus. In vitro studies demonstrated that the highest apatite forming ability was obtained on the scaffolds surface with the highest amount of DIOP after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), suggesting the bioactivity of the scaffolds increased with increasing DIOP. In addition, a cytocompatibility study showed that the scaffolds exhibited a higher degree of cells attachment, growth as well as differentiation than the pure PGA scaffolds. These indicated that the PGA scaffolds modified with DIOP possessed the suitable properties, which could be used for bone tissue regeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The calcium sulfate (CaSO4) bone scaffolds with high porosity and interconnectivity and controllable pore size were prepared by using selective laser sintering. The phase composition, micro morphology and biocompatibility were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and microculture tetrazolium test. The results showed that the CaSO4 powders fused better and a more compact structure was built due to the decrease of holes in the scaffold at laser power of 7 W compared with 6 W or lower. At this time, both compressive strength and fracture toughness were optimal. While CaSO4 decomposed and resulted in the mechanical properties decreasing when laser power further increased. Consequently, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds decreased. Moreover, the osteoblast-like cells attached on the scaffolds were obtained by cell culture in vitro. The results revealed that the cells could adhere and grow well on the scaffolds.
Journal of Porous Materials 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10934-015-9993-x · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioactive glasses have wide application prospects in bone replacement and regeneration owing to the unique osteoconductivity and osteostimulativity. However, the high brittleness and poor compressive strength limit their applications in load-bearing positions. In this study, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to toughen bioactive glass (13-93 glass), and their nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effect of CNTs amount (1-5 wt.%) on mechanical properties of the scaffolds was investigated. The results showed that CNTs were effective to improve the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite scaffolds by virtue of the toughening mechanisms of bridging, pull-out and crack deflection. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness reached to 37.32 MPa and 1.58 MPa·m1/2, respectively, by adding the appropriate amount of CNTs (3 wt.%). In addition, the bone-like hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer was formed on the surface of the nanocomposite scaffolds after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 10 days. And the cell culture test showed that the scaffolds should have good cytocompatibility. The research indicated that the 13-93 glass-CNTs nanocomposites scaffolds are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering applications.
Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan 06/2015; 123(1438):485-491. DOI:10.2109/jcersj2.123.485 · 0.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Akermanite (AKM) is considered to be a promising bioactive material for bone tissue engineering due to the moderate biodegradability and excellent biocompatibility. However, the major disadvantage of AKM is the relatively inadequate fracture toughness, which hinders the further applications. In the study, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) reinforced AKM scaffolds are fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of BNNSs on the mechanical properties and microstructure are investigated. The results show that the compressive strength and fracture toughness increase significantly with BNNSs increasing from 0.5 to 1.0 wt%. The remarkable improvement is ascribed to pull out and grain wrapping of BNNSs with AKM matrix. While, overlapping sheets is observed when more BNNSs are added, which results in the decline of mechanical properties. In addition, it is found that the composite scaffolds possess good apatite-formation ability when soaking in simulated body fluids, which have been confirmed by energy dispersed spectroscopy and flourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, MG63 osteoblast-like cells and human bone marrow stromal cells are seeded on the scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirms that both cells adhere and proliferate well, indicating favorable cytocompatibility. All the facts demonstrate the AKM scaffolds reinforced by BNNSs have potential applications for tissue engineering.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 05/2015; 26(5):5513. DOI:10.1007/s10856-015-5513-4 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nano SiO2 and MgO particles were incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds to improve the mechanical and biological properties. The porous cylindrical β-TCP scaffolds doped with 0.5 wt % SiO2, 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % SiO2 + 1.0 wt % MgO were fabricated via selective laser sintering respectively and undoped β-TCP scaffold was also prepared as control. The phase composition and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were evaluated. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the phase transformation from β-TCP to α-TCP was inhibited after the addition of MgO. The compressive strength of scaffold was improved from 3.12 ± 0.36 MPa (β-TCP) to 5.74 ± 0.62 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2), 9.02 ± 0.55 MPa (β-TCP/MgO) and 10.43 ± 0.28 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2/MgO), respectively. The weight loss and apatite-forming ability of the scaffolds were evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid. The results demonstrated that both SiO2 and MgO dopings slowed down the degradation rate and improved the bioactivity of β-TCP scaffolds. In vitro cell culture studies indicated that SiO2 and MgO dopings facilitated cell attachment and proliferation. Combined addition of SiO2 and MgO were found optimal in enhancing both the mechanical and biological properties of β-TCP scaffold.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 04/2015; 16(4):6818-30. DOI:10.3390/ijms16046818 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioactive glass (BG) is widely used for bone tissue engineering. However, poor mechanical properties are the major shortcomings. In the study, hydroxyapatite nanowhisker (HANw) was used as a reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties. 63s glass/HANw scaffolds were successfully fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS). It was found that the optimal compressive strength and fracture toughness were achieved when 10 wt.% HANw was added. This led to 36% increase in compressive strength and 83% increase in fracture toughness, respectively, compared with pure 63s glass scaffolds. Different reinforcement mechanisms were analyzed based on the microstructure investigation. Whisker bridging and whisker pulling-out were efficient in absorbing crack propagating energy, resulting in the improvement of the mechanical properties. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the scaffolds were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that composite scaffolds with 10 wt.% HANw exhibited good apatite-forming ability and cellular affinity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, graphene oxide (GO) is incorporated into poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for the purpose of improving the mechanical properties. Nanocomposite scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure are fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS). The results indicate that the highest improvements in mechanical properties are obtained, that is, a 60%, 152% and 69% improvement of compressive strength, Young’s modulus and tensile strength is achieved at the GO loading of 2.5 wt%, respectively. The reason can be attributed to the enhanced load transfer due to the homogeneous dispersion of GO sheets and the strong hydrogen bonding interactions between GO and PVA matrix. While the agglomerates and restacking of GO sheets occur with further increasing the GO loading, which leads to the decreasing in mechanical properties. In addition, osteoblast-like cells attach and grow well on the surface of scaffolds, and proliferate with increasing time of culture. The GO/PVA nanocomposite scaffolds are potential candidates for bone tissue engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) as a liquid phase was introduced into hydroxyapatite (HAp) to prepare bone scaffolds. The effects of the CAS content (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt%) on microstructure and mechanical properties of HAp ceramics were investigated. The optimal compression strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness reached 22.22 MPa, 1.68MPa·m1/2 and 4.47GPa when 3 wt% CAS was added, which were increased by 105%, 63% and 11% compared with those of HAp ceramics without CAS, respectively. The improvement of the mechanical properties was attributed to the improved densification, which was caused by the solid particle to rearrange during liquid phase sintering. Moreover, simulated body fluid (SBF) study indicated the HAp ceramics could maintain the mechanical properties and form a bone-like apatite layer when they were immersed in SBF. Cell culture was used to evaluate biocompatibility of the HAp ceramics. The results demonstrated MG-63 cells adhered and spread well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetraneedlelike ZnO whiskers (T-ZnOw) reinforced forsterite/bioglass scaffolds were achieved using selective laser sintering. The effects of T-ZnOw on the mechanical properties and on microstructure of the scaffolds were studied. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness were 59.17±2.07 MPa and 2.61±0.09 MPa. m1/2 respectively when T-ZnOw was 3 wt.%, which were about 155.26% and 141.08% that of the T-ZnOw free scaffold. The strengthening mechanisms were ascribed to the unique tetraneedlelike structure of T-ZnOw and the corresponding stress transfer. The toughening mechanisms were characterized by crack deflection, crack bridging, crack tip, T-ZnOw pull out and the change of fracture mode. In addition, cell culture test illustrated that T-ZnOw improved the adhesion and spread of MG-63 cells. The study indicated that the reinforced forsterite/bioglass scaffolds have a great potential for load-bearing applications.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds 02/2015; 636. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.02.077 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds were prepared by selective laser sintering. The effects of laser energy density, ranging from 0.66 to 2.16 J/mm2, on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. At low energy density levels, PVDF particles could fuse well and the structure becomes dense with the increase of the energy density. Smoke and defects (such as holes) were observed when the energy density increased above 1.56 J/mm2 which indicated decomposition of the PVDF powder. The scaffolds appeared to be light yellow and there was a reduction in tensile strength. The fabricated scaffolds were immersed into simulated body fluid for different time to evaluate biostability. In addition, MG63 cells were seeded and cultured for different days on the scaffolds. The testing results showed that the cells grew and spread well, indicating that PVDF scaffolds had good biocompatibility.
International Journal of Polymer Science 01/2015; 2015:1-9. DOI:10.1155/2015/132965 · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Akermanite possesses excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, while low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited it use in load bearing sites of bone tissue. In this work, nano-titania (nano-TiO2) was dispersed into the ceramic-matrix to enhance the mechanical properties of porous akermanite scaffolds fabricated with selective laser sintering (SLS). The fabrication process, microstructure and mechanical and biological properties were investigated. The results showed that the nano-TiO2 particles were dispersed both within the akermanite grains and along the grain boundaries. The grain size of akermanite was refined due to the pinning effect of the nano-TiO2 particles on the grain boundaries. The crack deflection around the nano-TiO2 particles was observed due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between TiO2 and akermanite. The fracture mode changed from intergranular fracture to more and more transgranular fracture as the concentration of nano-TiO2 increased from 0 to 5 wt%. Meanwhile, the fracture toughness, Vickers hardness, compressive strength and stiffness were significantly increased with increasing nano-TiO2. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to the grain size refinement, the crack deflection, as well as the fracture mode transition. The bone like apatite was formed on the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF). The human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells (MG-63 cells) adhered and grew well on the scaffolds. The porous akermanite scaffolds reinforced with nano-TiO2 have considerable potential for application in bone tissue engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed that long non-coding RNAs participate in all steps of cancer initiation and progression by regulating protein-coding genes at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels. Long non-coding RNAs are in turn regulated by other genes, forming a complex regulatory network. The regulation networks between the p53 tumor suppressor and these RNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the regulatory roles of the TP53 gene in regulating long non-coding RNA expression profiles and to study the function of a TP53-regulated long non-coding RNA (LOC401317) in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HNE2. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling indicated that 133 long non-coding RNAs were upregulated in the human NPC cell line HNE2 cells following TP53 overexpression, while 1057 were downregulated. Among these aberrantly expressed long non-coding RNAs, LOC401317 was the most significantly upregulated one. Further studies indicated that LOC401317 is directly regulated by p53 and that ectopic expression of LOC401317 inhibits HNE2 cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. LOC401317 inhibited cell cycle progression by increasing p21 expression and decreasing cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expression and promoted apoptosis through the induction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3 cleavage. Collectively, these results suggest that LOC401317 is directly regulated by p53 and exerts antitumor effects in HNE2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e110674. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110674 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated that the NGX6b gene acts as a suppressor in the invasion and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Recently we identified the novel isoform NGX6a which is longer than NGX6b. In this study, we firstly found that NGX6a was degraded in NPC cells and that this degradation was mediated by ezrin, a linker between membrane proteins and the cytoskeleton. Specific siRNAs against ezrin increase the protein level of NGX6a in these cells. During degradation, NGX6a is not ubiquitinated but is degraded through a proteasome-dependent pathway. The distribution pattern of ezrin was negatively associated with NGX6a in an immunochemistry (IHC) analysis of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue microarray (TMA) and fetus multiple organ tissues and western blot analysis in nasopharyngeal (NP) and NPC cell lines, suggesting that ezrin and NGX6a are associated and are involved in the progression and invasion of NPC. By mapping the interacting binding sites, the seven-trans-membrane domain of NGX6a was found to be the critical region for the degradation of NGX6a, and the amino-terminus of ezrin is required for the induction of NGX6a degradation. The knockdown of ezrin or transfection of the NGX6a mutant CO, which has an EGF-like domain and a trans-membrane 1 domain, resulted in no degradation, significantly reducing the ability of invasion and migration of NPC cells. This study provides a novel molecular mechanism for the low expression of NGX6a in NPC cells and an important molecular event in the process of invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m1/2) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications.