[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protocolized hemodynamic resuscitation in severe sepsis or septic shock is not universally applied in all emergency departments and general hospital wards around the world. It is unknown whether ScvO2 levels are associated with the clinical outcome of severe sepsis or septic shock under non-protocolized resuscitation. In this prospective study, we enrolled 124 non-cirrhotic patients who were admitted to intensive care units for severe sepsis or septic shock. The average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 25.3±7.6. According to ScvO2 levels after initial resuscitation before ICU admission, patients were divided into high (ScvO2 ≥ 70%, n=63) and low (ScvO2 < 70%, n=61) ScvO2 groups. Compared to high ScvO2 groups, low ScvO2 groups showed no significant differences in 28-day mortality (25.4% vs. 24.6%; P = 0.943) or hospital mortality (30.2% vs. 31.1%; P = 0.794). Multivariate logistic regression models showed low mean arterial pressure (MAP) (hazard ratio 0.967, 95% CI 0.94~0.994, P=0.019) and high central venous pressure (CVP) (hazard ratio 1.150, 95% CI 1.057~1.251, P=0.001) after initial resuscitation were associated with higher 28-day mortality. On the contrary, ScvO2 levels after resuscitation were not related to 28-day or hospital mortality. In conclusion, our results showed MAP and CVP were still the most important hemodynamic variables in initial hemodynamic resuscitation. Low postresuscitation ScvO2 was not associated with a worse outcome. It is possible that ScvO2 less than 70% might not necessarily be associated with tissue hypoxia, and critical ScvO2 levels require to be determined by further studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This two-part study aimed to investigate compliance with the sepsis resuscitation bundle (SRB) and the barriers to its implementation for patients developing septic shock in the general medical wards.
In the first part, medical records of patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit from the general medical wards due to septic shock were reviewed. Compliance rates with the six SRB components were assessed. In the second part, responsible junior physicians (first-year and second-year residents) in the general wards and senior physicians (third-year residents and fellows) were randomly invited for questionnaire-based interviews.
In the first part, during the 6-month study period, 40 patients were included. Overall compliance with the SRB within 6 h was only 2.5%, mainly due to femoral catheterization (42.5%) and the lack of measuring central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO₂). Delayed completion of SRB components contributed little to the low compliance rate. In the second part, based on the questionnaire results of 71 junior physicians and 64 senior physicians, the junior physicians were less familiar with the SRB guidelines, particularly regarding the meaning of ScvO₂ (p = 0.01) and management of low ScvO₂ (p = 0.04). Junior physicians were also more reluctant to measure the central venous pressure (CVP; p = 0.04) and the ScvO₂ (p = 0.01), and were also less confident with internal jugular vein or subclavian vein catheterization (p < 0.001).
Compliance with the SRB for patients developing septic shock in the general medical wards is very low. Besides providing educational programs to improve awareness and acceptance of the SRB, measures to help in central venous catheterization and completion of SRB may be considered.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 02/2012; 111(2):77-82. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comorbidity may be an important prognostic factor in the treatment of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). This study aimed to investigate the prognostic values of simplified comorbidity score (SCS) in the treatment of patients with SCLC.
The patients with SCLC admitted to the National Taiwan University Hospital during the period from January 2000 to December 2006 were included. The medical records were reviewed and analyzed. The SCS was used to evaluate comorbidities of the patients. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age, gender, and factors significantly associated with survival identified in univariate analyses.
A total of 172 patients were included; 56 patients had limited-stage disease and 116 had extensive-stage disease. Patients with an SCS more than 9 had shorter overall survival than those with SCS ≤ 9 both in limited-stage (372 days versus 581 days, p = 0.01) and extensive-stage disease (215 days versus 324 days, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that SCS more than 9 was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with limited-stage disease (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.12-4.21) and extensive-stage disease (HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.12-2.72), respectively. For patients with extensive-stage disease, SCS more than 9 was associated with poor treatment response (> 9 versus ≤ 9, disease response rate: 60.0% versus 82.4%, p = 0.02).
The SCS may be an independent prognostic factor for patients with SCLC. Large-scale prospective studies may be required to validate the prognostic value of the SCS for SCLC.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 02/2011; 6(2):378-83. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has been shown to have survival benefit over conventional CPR (CCPR) in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin. We compared the survival of patients who had return of spontaneous beating (ROSB) after ECPR with the survival of those who had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after conventional CPR.
Propensity score-matched cohort of adults with in-hospital prolonged CPR (>10min) of cardiac origin in a university-affiliated tertiary extracorporeal resuscitation center were included in this study. Fifty-nine patients with ROSB after ECPR and 63 patients with sustained ROSC by CCPR were analyzed. Main outcome measures were survival at hospital discharge, 30 days, 6 months, and one year, and neurological outcome.
There was no statistical difference in survival to discharge (29.1% of ECPR responders vs. 22.2% of CCPR responders, p=0.394) and neurological outcome at discharge and one year later. In the propensity score-matched groups, 9 out of 27 ECPR patients survived to one month (33.3%) and 7 out of 27 CCPR patients survived (25.9%). Survival analysis showed no survival difference (HR: 0.856, p=0.634, 95% CI: 0.453-1.620) between the groups, either at 30 days or at the end of one year (HR: 0.602, p=0.093, 95% CI: 0.333-1.088).
This study failed to demonstrate a survival difference between patients who had ROSB after institution of ECMO and those who had ROSC after conventional CPR. Further studies evaluating the role of ECMO in conventional CPR rescued patients are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infection in medical intensive care unit (ICU) is still unclear.
We conducted a retrospective study in the medical ICUs of a medical center in Taiwan from January 1999 to June 2007. Patients with NTM isolated from respiratory specimens within 1 month before or during the ICU course were identified. Those who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of NTM pulmonary infection were identified and compared with patients with NTM colonization and control subjects who were culture-negative for mycobacteria.
Among the 5,378 patients admitted to medical ICUs, 2,866 (53.3%) had received mycobacterial culture for respiratory specimens. NTM were isolated from 169 (5.8%) patients. Of them, 47 (27.8%) were considered NTM pulmonary infection. M. avium complex and M. abscessus were the most common pathogens. Within 100 days after ICU admission, significantly more patients with NTM infection died than those with NTM colonization and control subjects (47 vs. 8 vs. 14%, P < 0.001). Twenty-one (49%) patients with NTM pulmonary infection received anti-NTM treatment, with four experiencing adverse effects. Although statistically insignificant, anti-NTM treatment was associated with prolonged survival for those who died in the ICU and shorter ICU stay for those who survived the ICU course.
Our findings suggest that NTM pulmonary infection seems to associate with higher mortality in medical ICUs. Anti-NTM treatment is probably associated with a better outcome. Therefore, keeping a high suspicion when NTM is isolated and using careful consideration when starting anti-NTM treatment should be emphasized.
Intensive Care Medicine 12/2008; 34(12):2194-201. · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence and associated presentations of hypoglycemia in bacteremic pneumococcal infections, and serotypes of the isolates.
This was a retrospective study of 70 episodes of pneumococcal bacteremia that occurred in 2004 and 2005.
We found hypoglycemia (plasma glucose<3.05 mmol/l)) in six (8.6%) episodes. The patients were three children (mean age 3 years 1 month; range 1 year 5 months-4 years 5 months) and three adults (mean age 73.3 years; range 63-84 years). One child with asplenia and cyanotic heart disease had primary pneumococcal bacteremia. Of the other two children, one had meningitis and the other pneumonia. All the adults had cancer with previous chemotherapy and multilobar pneumonia, which progressed rapidly to respiratory failure. All patients developed their first hypoglycemic episode within two hours after presentation. The average plasma glucose during hypoglycemia was 1.78+/-0.78 mmol/l (range 0.33-2.94 mmol/l). One child and all of the adults died. Serotypes of isolates were those usually associated with severe pneumococcal infection: 6B and 19F in the children; 3, 14, and 23F in the adults. Only the asplenic child had received pneumococcal vaccine.
Hypoglycemia occurred in 8.6% of bacteremic pneumococcal infections and was associated with high mortality and serotypes that cause severe invasive disease. All patients suspected of having septicemia should have their glucose checked to avoid missing hypoglycemia leading to a worsening of their already poor condition.
International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 12/2008; 13(5):570-6. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal life-support as an adjunct to cardiac resuscitation has shown encouraging outcomes in patients with cardiac arrest. However, there is little evidence about the benefit of the procedure compared with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), especially when continued for more than 10 min. We aimed to assess whether extracorporeal CPR was better than conventional CPR for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin.
We did a 3-year prospective observational study on the use of extracorporeal life-support for patients aged 18-75 years with witnessed in-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin undergoing CPR of more than 10 min compared with patients receiving conventional CPR. A matching process based on propensity-score was done to equalise potential prognostic factors in both groups, and to formulate a balanced 1:1 matched cohort study. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge, and analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00173615.
Of the 975 patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest events who underwent CPR for longer than 10 min, 113 were enrolled in the conventional CPR group and 59 were enrolled in the extracorporeal CPR group. Unmatched patients who underwent extracorporeal CPR had a higher survival rate to discharge (log-rank p<0.0001) and a better 1-year survival than those who received conventional CPR (log rank p=0.007). Between the propensity-score matched groups, there was still a significant difference in survival to discharge (hazard ratio [HR] 0.51, 95% CI 0.35-0.74, p<0.0001), 30-day survival (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.28-0.77, p=0.003), and 1-year survival (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.83, p=0.006) favouring extracorporeal CPR over conventional CPR.
Extracorporeal CPR had a short-term and long-term survival benefit over conventional CPR in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin.
The Lancet 07/2008; 372(9638):554-61. · 39.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest remains very poor. Reports have shown patients often have clinically abnormal events prior to arrest. To improve patient outcome and prevent arrest, detection of the abnormal events with early intervention has been advocated. However, the incidence of these events in Taiwan and their clinical significance remain unclear.
We conducted a prospective observational study with the implementation of the clinical alert system (CAS) in a university-affiliated tertiary referral medical center. Clinically abnormal events were detected using the CAS criteria for acute physiologic deterioration, and reported to experienced physicians for management. Patient and report data were retrieved, collected and analyzed.
During the 14-month study period, a total of 2,050 events were detected in 1,640 patients. The estimated incidence of the events was 3.19 per 1,000 bed-days, which occurred in 2.14% of admissions. The most common event was abnormal heart rate (36.5%), followed by desaturation (26.7%), abnormal respiratory rate (24.5%), and abnormal blood pressure (23.1%). The majority of the events were reported in the day time, and nurses contributed most of the reports (66.4%). The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 26.3% and 34%, respectively. Multivariate survival analysis showed that desaturation (relative risk [RR] = 1.715; p < 0.001), abnormal respiratory rate (RR = 1.652; p < 0.001), abnormal blood pressure (RR = 1.460; p = 0.001), coma (RR = 1.918; p < 0.001), and oliguria (RR = 1.424; p = 0.0024) were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality of patients in the last 2 months was significantly lower than that in the first 2 months (20.5% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001), which suggests the effectiveness of the CAS.
The development of clinically abnormal events is associated with poor outcome, which suggests that early detection and timely management of these events is necessary. Implementation of the CAS may improve the in-hospital outcome of these patients.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 05/2008; 107(5):396-403. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transthoracic ultrasound (US) has become an important diagnostic tool in modern chest medicine. The range of thoracic lesions for which transthoracic US may yield useful diagnostic information has expanded to include not only chest wall and pleural lesions, but also peripheral lung nodules, pulmonary consolidations, necrotizing pneumonias and lung abscesses, tumors with obstructive pneumonitis, mediastinal masses, and peridiaphragmatic lesions. A variety of ultrasound features and signs of chest diseases have been well characterized and widely applied in clinical practice. US guidance increases the diagnostic success rate and decreases the complications associated with interventional procedures such as thoracentesis, closed tube drainage for pleural effusion, and needle biopsy of the pleura. Transthoracic needle aspiration or biopsy, under real-time US guidance, is a relatively safe and easy procedure, and may provide adequate tissue sampling of lesions for cytologic, histologic or microbiologic analysis. This article presents the general techniques and wide applications of transthoracic US and US-guided invasive procedures in the diagnosis and management of various chest diseases.
Journal of Medical Ultrasound 01/2008; 16(1):7-25.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injurious mechanical ventilation can cause a pro-inflammatory reaction in the lungs. Recent evidence suggests an association of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with lung inflammation. A study was undertaken to investigate the pathogenic role of the RAS in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and to determine whether VILI can be attenuated by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were mechanically ventilated for 4 h with low (7 ml/kg) or high (40 ml/kg) tidal volumes; non-ventilated rats were used as controls. Lung injury and inflammation were measured by the lung injury score, protein leakage, myeloperoxidase activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity. Expression of the RAS components was also assessed. Some rats were pretreated with the ACE inhibitor captopril (10 mg/kg) for 3 days or received a concomitant infusion with losartan or PD123319 (type 1 or type 2 angiotensin II receptor antagonist) during mechanical ventilation to assess possible protective effects on VILI.
In the high-volume group (n=6) the lung injury score, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentration, pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activities were significantly increased compared with controls (n=6). Lung tissue angiotensin II levels and mRNA levels of angiotensinogen and type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II receptors were also significantly increased in the high-volume group. Pretreatment with captopril or concomitant infusion with losartan or PD123319 in the high-volume group attenuated the lung injury and inflammation (n=6 for each group).
The RAS is involved in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonists can attenuate VILI in this rat model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Web-Based Registry System on In-hospital Resuscitation (WRSIR) is the first prospective, web-based, multi-site, and Utstein-based reporting system in Taiwan. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system in one of the participating hospitals and identify prognostic factors associated with survival.
The WRSIR is an on-line registry system coded with the active server page (ASP) programming method. Information was gathered and entered on-line by trained staff using spreadsheets that could be automatically created according to the updated Utstein in-hospital template. Through the implementation of the system, in a tertiary teaching hospital we evaluated all adults with in-hospital cardiac arrest receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 1 October 2004 and 30 September 2005. The main outcome measures were return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital discharge, and cerebral performance category score at the time of discharge. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of survival.
A total of 330 cases experienced in-hospital resuscitation. ROSC occurred in 233 cases (71%) and 61 patients (18%) survived to hospital discharge. Thirty-five patients (58%) had a good neurological outcome with the cerebral performance category (CPC) score of 1 or 2 among survivors. The major predictor of ROSC was initial rhythm of VT/VF (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.78).
This study examined the feasibility of a web-based registry system on in-hospital resuscitation using the Utstein style in an oriental country. It provides a comprehensive and standardised method for on-line registry of data collection, allowing individual hospitals to track each case for quality improvement. A further nationwide registry will enforce the possibility of data analysis and future perspective research of in-hospital resuscitation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been increasing evidence that angiotensin II may play an important role in the pathogenesis and in the evolution of acute lung injury. It was therefore hypothesized that polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene affects the risk and outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Prospective, observational study.
The ARDS group consisted of 101 patients treated at the medical intensive care unit; the control groups consisted of 138 "at-risk" patients treated at the medical intensive care unit due to acute respiratory failure but did not meet the ARDS criteria throughout the hospital course, and 210 non-at-risk subjects.
The ARDS patients and control subjects were genotyped for the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. Association of the polymorphism and the risk and the outcome of ARDS was analyzed. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of the genotypes between the ARDS, at-risk, and non-at-risk groups. The 28-day mortality rates were significantly different between the three angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes (42%, 65%, and 75% for II, ID, and DD, respectively; p = .036). Survival analysis showed that the II genotype favorably affected 28-day survival (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.81; p = .007), whereas ARDS caused by hospital-acquired pneumonia had a negative effect (hazard ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.40; p = .008). The II genotype (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.87; p = .012) and ARDS caused by hospital-acquired pneumonia (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.68; p = .006) were also significant prognostic factors for the in-hospital mortality.
The angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism is a significant prognostic factor for the outcome of ARDS. Patients with the II genotype have a significantly better chance of survival. This study did not show an increased risk for ARDS in Chinese patients with the D allele.
Critical Care Medicine 05/2006; 34(4):1001-6. · 6.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the initial serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins and their correlations with the clinical outcome for patients with severe sepsis. The ability of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production was also examined in vitro.
Prospective, observational cohort study.
Medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-level university hospital.
Sixty-three consecutive patients with severe sepsis.
Blood samples were drawn within the first day of severe sepsis and the subsequent 14 days. Clinical outcome, including length of ICU stay, infection subsequent to hospital stay, and death, were monitored prospectively.
Compared with the survivors, patients who died within 30 days had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I during the first 4 days of severe sepsis. On day 1, HDL cholesterol levels correlated inversely with interleukin-6 (r = -0.72; p < .01) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (r = -0.70; p < .01) concentrations. Not only the overall and sepsis-attributable 30-day mortality rates but also the risk of prolonged ICU stay (>7 days) and the hospital-acquired infection rate were increased among patients with day 1 levels of HDL cholesterol of <20 mg/dL and apolipoprotein A-I of <100 mg/dL. Multivariate analysis identified an HDL cholesterol level of <20 mg/dL on day 1 (odds ratio, 12.92; 95% confidence interval, 2.73-61.29) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.26) as independent predictors of the overall 30-day mortality rate. In human macrophages, LPS-induced TNF-alpha release was attenuated by incremental doses of HDL cholesterol added simultaneously (p < .01). However, HDL failed to suppress LPS-induced TNF-alpha production when administered after macrophages were exposed to LPS.
A low HDL cholesterol level on day 1 of severe sepsis is significantly associated with an increase in mortality and adverse clinical outcomes. In cultured macrophages, HDL can attenuate LPS-induced TNF-alpha production only if added concomitantly with, but not after, LPS exposure.
Critical Care Medicine 08/2005; 33(8):1688-93. · 6.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical characteristics of community-acquired thoracic empyema in older and younger patients and to analyze the effect of various factors on outcome.
A retrospective, comparative observational study.
A university-affiliated tertiary medical center.
Forty-six patients aged 65 and older (older group) and 86 patients aged 18 to 64 (younger group).
Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were reviewed.
Older patients were more likely to have dyspnea but less likely to have chest pain or fever (P<.05 for all). The causative organisms were similar between the two groups, with anaerobes and facultative streptococci the most common pathogens. Older patients had increased morbidity and longer hospital stay (median 29.5 vs 20 days, P<.001), but the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between the two groups (13% vs 8%, P=.37). Multivariate analysis showed that coexisting malignancy (odds ratio (OR)=10.33, P=.01), lack of fever higher than 38 degrees C (OR=17.97, P=.03), and isolation of fungi from pleural fluid (OR=32.66, P=.01) were independently and significantly associated with in-hospital deaths.
The microbiology and mortality of community-acquired thoracic empyema were similar between the two age groups. Difference in chronological age did not explain in-hospital death. This finding highlights the importance of effective treatment to obtain better outcomes for older patients.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 07/2005; 53(7):1203-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report two elderly women who presented with hypertensive crisis and acute pulmonary oedema, which responded poorly to antihypertensive therapy. The patients were later diagnosed as having hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulinaemia.
The Medical journal of Australia 02/2005; 182(1):38-40. · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tracheostomy is frequently performed in critically ill patients for prolonged intubation. However, the optimal timing of tracheostomy, and its impact on weaning from mechanical ventilation and outcomes in critically ill patients who require mechanical ventilation remain controversial.
The medical records of patients who underwent tracheostomy in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary medical centre from July 1998 to June 2001 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, length of stay in the ICU, rates of post-tracheostomy pneumonia, weaning from mechanical ventilation and mortality rates were analyzed.
A total of 163 patients (93 men and 70 women) were included; their mean age was 70 years. Patients were classified into two groups: successful weaning (n = 78) and failure to wean (n = 85). Shorter intubation periods (P = 0.02), length of ICU stay (P = 0.001) and post-tracheostomy ICU stay (P = 0.005) were noted in patients in the successful weaning group. Patients who underwent tracheostomy more than 3 weeks after intubation had higher ICU mortality rates and rates of weaning failure. The length of intubation correlated with the length of ICU stay in the successful weaning group (r = 0.70; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that tracheostomy after 3 weeks of intubation, poor oxygenation before tracheostomy (arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen ratio <250) and occurrence of nosocomial pneumonia after tracheostomy were independent predictors of weaning failure.
The study suggests that tracheostomy after 21 days of intubation is associated with a higher rate of failure to wean from mechanical ventilation, longer ICU stay and higher ICU mortality.
Critical care (London, England) 02/2005; 9(1):R46-52. · 5.04 Impact Factor