[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of neurologic complications after hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Canine genome sequencing allows profiling of genomic changes after HCA and CPB alone. We hypothesize that gene regulation will increase with increased severity of injury.
Dogs underwent 2-hour HCA at 18 degrees C (n = 10), 1-hour HCA (n = 8), or 2-hour CPB at 32 degrees C alone (n = 8). In each group, half were sacrificed at 8 hours and half at 24 hours after treatment. After neurologic scoring, brains were harvested for genomic analysis. Hippocampal RNA isolates were analyzed using canine oligonucleotide expression arrays containing 42,028 probes.
Consistent with prior work, dogs that underwent 2-hour HCA experienced severe neurologic injury. One hour of HCA caused intermediate clinical damage. Cardiopulmonary bypass alone yielded normal clinical scores. Cardiopulmonary bypass, 1-hour HCA, and 2-hour HCA groups historically demonstrated increasing degrees of histopathologic damage (previously published). Exploratory analysis revealed differences in significantly regulated genes (false discovery rate < 10%, absolute fold change > or = 1.2), with increases in differential gene expression with injury severity. At 8 hours and 24 hours after insult, 2-hour HCA dogs had 502 and 1,057 genes regulated, respectively; 1-hour HCA dogs had 179 and 56 genes regulated; and CPB alone dogs had 5 and 0 genes regulated.
Our genomic profile of canine brains after HCA and CPB revealed 1-hour and 2-hour HCA induced markedly increased gene regulation, in contrast to the minimal effect of CPB alone. This adds to the body of neurologic literature supporting the safety of CPB alone and the minimal effect of CPB on a normal brain, while illuminating genomic results of both.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2010; 89(6):1965-71. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged hypothermic circulatory arrest results in neuronal cell death and neurologic injury. We have previously shown that hypothermic circulatory arrest causes both neuronal apoptosis and necrosis in a canine model. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase reduced neuronal apoptosis, while glutamate receptor antagonism reduced necrosis in our model. This study was undertaken to determine whether glutamate receptor antagonism reduces nitric oxide formation and neuronal apoptosis after hypothermic circulatory arrest.
Sixteen hound dogs underwent 2 hours of circulatory arrest at 18 degrees C and were sacrificed after 8 hours. Group 1 (n = 8) was treated with MK-801, 0.75 mg/kg intravenously prior to arrest followed by 75 microg/kg/hour infusion. Group 2 dogs (n = 8) received vehicle only. Intracerebral levels of excitatory amino acids and citrulline, an equal coproduct of nitric oxide, were measured. Apoptosis, identified by hematoxylin and eosin staining and confirmed by electron microscopy, was blindly scored from 0 (normal) to 100 (severe injury), while nick-end labeling demonstrated DNA fragmentation.
Dogs in groups 1 and 2 had similar intracerebral levels of glutamate. However, MK-801 significantly reduced intracerebral glycine and citrulline levels compared with hypothermic circulatory arrest controls. The MK-801 significantly inhibited apoptosis (7.92 +/- 7.85 vs 62.08 +/- 6.28, group 1 vs group 2, p < 0.001).
Our results showed that glutamate receptor antagonism significantly reduced nitric oxide formation and neuronal apoptosis. We provide evidence that glutamate excitotoxicity mediates neuronal apoptosis in addition to necrosis after hypothermic circulatory arrest. Clinical glutamate receptor antagonists may have therapeutic benefits in ameliorating both types of neurologic injury after hypothermic circulatory arrest.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2010; 89(2):440-5. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of specific biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of neuronal injury is of paramount importance in cardiac surgery. Alpha II-spectrin is a structural protein abundant in neurons of the central nervous system and cleaved into signature fragments by proteases involved in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. We measured cerebrospinal fluid alpha II-spectrin breakdown products (alphaII-SBDPs) in a canine model of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and cardiopulmonary bypass.
Canine subjects were exposed to either 1 hour of HCA (n = 8; mean lowest tympanic temperature 18.0 +/- 1.2 degrees C) or standard cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 7). Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected before treatment and 8 and 24 hours after treatment. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, SBDPs were isolated and compared between groups using computer-assisted densitometric scanning. Necrotic versus apoptotic cell death was indexed by measuring calpain and caspase-3 cleaved alphaII-SBDPs (SBDP 145+150 and SBDP 120, respectively).
Animals undergoing HCA demonstrated mild patterns of histologic cellular injury and clinically detectable neurologic dysfunction. Calpain-produced alphaII-SBDPs (150 kDa+145 kDa bands-necrosis) 8 hours after HCA were significantly increased (p = 0.02) as compared with levels before HCA, and remained elevated at 24 hours after HCA. In contrast, caspase-3 alphaII-SBDP (120 kDa band-apoptosis) was not significantly increased. Animals receiving cardiopulmonary bypass did not demonstrate clinical or histologic evidence of injury, with no increases in necrotic or apoptotic cellular markers.
We report the use of alphaII-SBDPs as markers of neurologic injury after cardiac surgery. Our analysis demonstrates that calpain- and caspase-produced alphaII-SBDPs may be an important and novel marker of neurologic injury after HCA.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2009; 88(2):543-50. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have confirmed the neuroprotective effect of diazoxide in canines undergoing hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). A decreased N-acetyl-asparate:choline (NAA:Cho) ratio is believed to reflect the severity of neurologic injury. We demonstrated that noninvasive measurement of NAA:Cho with magnetic resonance spectroscopy facilitates assessment of neuronal injury after HCA and allows for evaluation of neuroprotective strategies.
Canines underwent 2 hours of HCA at 18 degrees C and were observed for 24 hours. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 15 in each group): normal (unoperated), HCA (HCA only), and HCA+diazoxide (pharmacologic treatment before HCA). The NAA:Cho ratios were obtained 24 hours after HCA by spectroscopy. Brains were immediately harvested for fresh tissue NAA quantification by mass spectrometry. Separate cohorts of HCA (n = 16) and HCA+diazoxide (n = 23) animals were kept alive for 72 hours for daily neurologic assessment.
Cortical NAA:Cho ratios were significantly decreased in HCA versus normal animals (1.01 +/- 0.29 versus 1.31 +/- 0.23; p = 0.004), consistent with severe neurologic injury. Diazoxide pretreatment limited neurologic injury versus HCA alone, reflected in a preserved NAA:Cho ratio (1.21 +/- 0.27 versus 1.01 +/- 0.29; p = 0.05). Data were substantiated with fresh tissue NAA extraction. A significant decrease in cortical NAA was observed in HCA versus normal (7.07 +/- 1.9 versus 8.54 +/- 2.1 micromol/g; p = 0.05), with maintenance of normal NAA levels after diazoxide pretreatment (9.49 +/- 1.1 versus 7.07 +/- 1.9 micromol/g; p = 0.0002). Clinical neurologic scores were significantly improved in the HCA+diazoxide group versus HCA at all time points.
Neurologic injury remains a significant complication of cardiac surgery and is most severe after HCA. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of NAA:Cho ratios offers an early, noninvasive means of potentially evaluating neurologic injury and the effect of neuroprotective agents.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2006; 81(5):1593-8. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anticonvulsant valproic acid (sodium valproate, Depacon) acts as a neuroprotectant in rodents, but has never been tested in larger animals. We used valproate in our canine model of hypothermic circulatory arrest to evaluate its neuroprotective benefit in complex cardiac surgical cases.
Thirteen dogs pretreated with valproate before 2 hours of hypothermic circulatory arrest survived for 24 hours (n = 7) or 72 hours (n = 6). Thirteen control animals (placebo only) also survived for 24 hours (n = 7) or 72 hours (n = 6) after hypothermic circulatory arrest. Blinded clinical neurologic evaluation was performed daily until sacrifice using the Pittsburgh Canine Neurologic Scoring System. Brains were harvested for blinded histopathologic analysis by a neuropathologist to determine the extent of apoptosis and necrosis in 11 brain regions (Total Brain Cell Death Score: 0 = normal, 99 = extensive neuronal death in all regions). Quantification of N-acetyl-aspartate, an established marker for brain injury, was performed with mass spectrometry.
Valproate dogs scored significantly better than control animals on clinical neurologic evaluation. Histopathologic examination revealed that valproate animals demonstrated less neuronal damage (by Total Brain Cell Death Score) than control animals at both 24 hours (16.4 versus 11.4; p = 0.03) and 72 hours (21.7 versus 17.7; p = 0.07). At 72 hours, the entorhinal cortex, an area involved with learning and memory, was significantly protected in valproate dogs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum demonstrated preservation of near-normal N-acetyl-aspartate levels after valproate pretreatment.
These data demonstrate clinical, histologic, and biochemical improvements in dogs pretreated with valproate before hypothermic circulatory arrest. This commonly used drug may offer a promising new approach to neuroprotection during cardiac surgery.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2006; 81(6):2235-41; discussion 2241-2. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is over-activated in the adult brain in response to ischemia and contributes to neuronal death, but its role in perinatal brain injury remains uncertain. To address this issue, 7-day-old wild-type (wt) and PARP-1 gene deficient (parp+/- and parp-/-) Sv129/CD-1 hybrid mice were subjected to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia and histologic damage was assessed 10 days later by two evaluators. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 knockout produced moderate but significant (p < 0.05) protection in the total group of animals, but analysis by sex revealed that males were strongly protected (p < 0.05) in contrast to females in which there was no significant effect. Separate experiments demonstrated that PARP-1 was activated over 1-24 h in both females and males after the insult in neonatal wt mice and rats using immnocytochemistry and western blotting for poly(ADP-ribose). Brain levels of NAD+ were also significantly reduced, but the decrease of NAD+ during the early post-hypoxia-ischemia (HI) phase was only seen in males. The results indicate that hypoxia-ischemia activates Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in the neonatal brain and that the sex of the animal strongly influences its role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.
Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2004; 90(5):1068-75. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity during the perinatal period, and currently no therapeutic drug is available. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects distinct from its antimicrobial effect in several neurological disorders including ischemic brain injury. We examined the effect of minocycline on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by using histologic scoring in both mouse and rat models. Mouse (C57Bl/6) and rat (SD) pups were exposed to a unilateral hypoxic-ischemic insult at 8 and 7 days of age, respectively. Minocycline hydrochloride was administered according to protocols that were reported to provide neuroprotection in adult or neonatal rats. Seven days after the insult, we examined brain injury in Nissl stained sections. Although minocycline ameliorated brain injury in the developing rat, it increased injury in the developing mouse. This detrimental effect in the mouse was consistent across different regions (cortex, striatum, and thalamus), with both single and multiple injection protocols and with both moderate and high-dose treatment (P < 0.05). The mechanism of the contrasting effects in mouse and rat is not clear and remains to be elucidated. Minocycline has been used as an antibiotic in the clinical setting for decades; therefore, it may be considered for use in infants with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, based on prior reports of neuroprotection in the rat. However, it is important to examine this drug carefully before clinical use in human infants, taking our data in the mouse model into consideration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of systemic erythropoietin pretreatment on hypoxic ischemic injury was examined in neonatal mice. Injury was significantly less in cortex, hippocampus, striatum and thalamus of erythropoietin-treated animals (5 U/g vs vehicle) 24 h after hypoxic ischemia and in all of these regions except hippocampus at 7 days. Activated caspase-3- and activated NFkappaB-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the injured areas; these areas were smaller in the erythropoietin group. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating persistent neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin in neonatal mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide mediates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity associated with cerebral hypoxia-ischemia through production in the brain by several isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We examined the influence of the selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), on brain NOS activity and its neuroprotective effects against cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury in the postnatal day (PND) 7 rat. In the first set of experiments, 7-NI (50 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) transiently inhibited NOS activity to 40% below the vehicle control level at 1 h after injection (P<0.001, analysis of variance (ANOVA)). In contrast, 7-NI (100 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited NOS activity to 56% below the control level at 1 h with prolonged suppression of NOS activity at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after injection. Two-factor ANOVA revealed an overall effect on NOS activity of 7-NI treatment (P<0.001) and time after injection (P<0.001). In the second set of experiments, 7-NI (50, 100 mg/kg) or an equal volume of vehicle was administered after unilateral carotid artery ligation, but 30 min before hypoxia in PND 7 rats. 7-NI (100 mg/kg) significantly protected against cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury (100 mg/kg of 7-NI, 1.7+/-1.0% damage; control, 8.7+/-1.6%,P<0.05). 7-NI administered 15 min after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia was not neuroprotective. The data suggest that the protective effect of 7-NI is dose dependent, and is related to the duration of suppressed NOS activity.
Brain and Development 08/2001; 23(5):349-54. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the response of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing CNS neurons in rats exposed to a unilateral hypoxic-ischemic insult at 7 days of age. Animals were sacrificed at several time points after the injury, up to and including 7 days (Postnatal Day 14). Brain regions ipsilateral to the injury (including cerebral cortex, caudate-putamen, and thalamus) exhibited delayed, focal increases in nNOS immunoreactivity. The increase in nNOS immunoreactive fiber staining was prominent in areas adjacent to severe neuronal damage, especially in the cortex and the thalamus, regions that are also heavily and focally injured in term human neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In cerebral cortex, these increases occurred despite modest declines in nNOS catalytic activity and protein levels. Proliferation of surviving nNOS immunoreactive fibers highlights regions of selective vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic insult in the neonatal brain and may also contribute to plasticity of neuronal circuitry during recovery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birth asphyxia can cause moderate to severe brain injury. It is unclear to what degree apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms of cell death account for damage after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In a 7-d-old rat HI model, we determined the contributions of apoptosis and necrosis to neuronal injury in adjacent Nissl-stained, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end-labeled sections. We found an apoptotic-necrotic continuum in the morphology of injured neurons in all regions examined. Eosinophilic necrotic neurons, typical in adult models, were rarely observed in neonatal HI. Electron microscopic analysis showed "classic" apoptotic and necrotic neurons and "hybrid" cells with intermediate characteristics. The time course of apoptotic injury varied regionally. In CA3, dentate gyrus, medial habenula, and laterodorsal thalamus, the density of apoptotic cells was highest at 24-72 hr after HI and then declined. In contrast, densities remained elevated from 12 hr to 7 d after HI in most cortical areas and in the basal ganglia. Temporal and regional patterns of neuronal death were compared with expression of caspase-3, a cysteine protease involved in the execution phase of apoptosis. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses showed increased caspase-3 expression in damaged hemispheres 24 hr to 7 d after HI. A p17 peptide fragment, which results from the proteolytic activation of the caspase-3 precursor, was detected in hippocampus, thalamus, and striatum but not in cerebral cortex. The continued expression of activated caspase-3 and the persistence of cells with an apoptotic morphology for days after HI suggests a prolonged role for apoptosis in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.
Journal of Neuroscience 12/2000; 20(21):7994-8004. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a feature of normal brain development and a response to brain injury. Cells undergoing apoptosis have a characteristic morphology that normally can only be appreciated at high magnification. Using dark-field transmitted light microscopy to examine Nissl-stained material, we detected groups of apoptotic cells at much lower magnifications than often were required in the two injury models we tested. This method was useful for screening entire brain sections to assess regional and global patterns of injury. We predict that this technique in which we detect the clumped chromatin associated with apoptosis can be applied to other types of tissue.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Prolonged hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) results in neurologic injury, but the mechanism of this injury is unknown. This study was undertaken to measure quantitatively intracerebral excitatory amino acids and citrulline, an equal coproduct of nitric oxide, during HCA. We hypothesized that HCA resulted in higher levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, causing increased intracellular calcium, and therefore, nitric oxide and citrulline.Methods. Ten dogs underwent intracerebral microdialysis and 2 hours of HCA at 18°C. Effluent was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Five dogs each were sacrificed at 8 and 20 hours after HCA. Neuronal apoptosis was scored from 0 (no injury) to 100 (severe injury).Results. Time course of HCA was divided into six periods. Peak levels of amino acids in each period were compared with those at baseline. Glutamate, coagonist glycine, and citrulline, an equal coproduct of nitric oxide, increased significantly over baseline during HCA, cardiopulmonary bypass, and 2 to 8 hours after HCA. Aspartate increased significantly during HCA and 8 to 20 hours after HCA. Apoptosis score was 65.56 ± 5.67 at 8 hours and 30.63 ± 14.96 at 20 hours after HCA.Conclusions. Our results provide direct evidence that HCA causes increased intracerebral glutamate and aspartate, along with coagonist glycine. We conclude that HCA causes glutamate excitotoxicity with subsequent nitric oxide production resulting in neurologic injury, which begins during arrest and continues until 20 hours after hypothermic circulation arrest. To provide effective cerebral protection, pharmacologic strategies to reduce glutamate excitotoxicity require intervention beyond the initial ischemic insult.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 03/1999; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) causes neurologic injury. However, the mechanism of this injury is unknown. We hypothesized that HCA causes nitric oxide production to result in neuronal necrosis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 17477AR reduces necrosis after HCA.
Thirty-two dogs underwent 2 hours of HCA at 18 degrees C. Nitric oxide synthase catalytic assay and intracerebral microdialysis for nitric oxide production were performed in acute nonsurvival experiments (n = 16). Sixteen animals survived for 72 hours after HCA: Group 1 (n = 9) was treated with 17477AR (Astra Arcus), and group 2 (n = 7) received vehicle only. Animals were scored from 0 (normal) to 500 (coma) for neurologic function and from 0 (normal) to 100 (severe) for neuronal necrosis.
Administration of 17477AR reduced nitric oxide production in the striatum by 94% (HCA alone), 3.65+/-2.42 micromol/L; HCA and 17477AR, 0.20+/-0.14 micromol/L citrulline). Dogs treated with 17477AR after HCA had superior neurologic function (62.22+/-29.82 for group 1 versus 141.86+/-61.53 for group 2, p = 0.019) and significantly reduced neuronal necrosis (9.33+/-4.67 for group 1 versus 38.14+/-2.23 for group 2, p<0.00001) compared with untreated HCA dogs.
Our results provide evidence that neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates neuronal necrosis after HCA and plays a significant role in HCA-induced neurotoxicity. Pharmacologic strategies to inhibit neuronal nitric oxide synthase after the ischemic period of HCA may be clinically beneficial.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 01/1999; 67(1):65-71. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Prolonged hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) causes clinical neurologic injury. This injury involves neuronal apoptosis, or programmed cell death. We have previously demonstrated that HCA causes glutamate excitotoxicity, increased nitric oxide (NO) production, and NO-mediated apoptosis. We hypothesized that monosialoganglioside GM1 inhibits NO synthase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GM1 inhibits NO production and neuronal apoptosis after HCA. Methods: Fourteen dogs underwent intracerebral microdialysis to measure excitatory amino acids, glutamate, aspartate, and citrulline, an equal coproduct of NO. They underwent 2 hours of HCA at 18° C and were sacrificed 8 hours after HCA. Group 1 (n = 6) was pretreated with GM1, 30 mg/kg intravenously every day for 3 days, as well as before and after HCA. Group 2 control dogs (n = 8) received vehicle only. Apoptosis was scored from 0 (normal) to 100 (severe injury). Results: Excitatory amino acids, aspartate and glutamate, coagonist glycine, and citrulline levels increased significantly over baseline during HCA and after HCA. GM1 pretreatment did not appreciably alter levels of glutamate, aspartate, and glycine; however, it substantially decreased citrulline and therefore NO production throughout the experiment. GM1 significantly inhibited apoptosis (group 1 vs group 2: 15.56 ± 13.60 vs 62.92 ± 6.17; P < .001). Conclusions: Our results provide the first direct evidence that GM1 inhibits NO synthase to reduce NO production and HCA-induced neuronal apoptosis. GM1 did not affect excitatory glutamate or aspartate levels. GM1 has been used in clinical trials of spinal cord injury and may be efficacious in reducing neurologic injury after HCA. (Surgery 1998;124:298-306.)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurologic injury, including choreoathetosis and learning and memory deficits, occurs after prolonged hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a possible cause of the neurologic injury seen after HCA. However, the mechanism of apoptosis is unknown. Hypothermic circulatory arrest causes glutamate excitotoxicity, resulting in increased nitric oxide production. We therefore hypothesized that nitric oxide mediates apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces neuronal apoptosis in an established canine model of HCA.
Fourteen male hound dogs (weight, 20 to 27 kg) were placed on closed-chest cardiopulmonary bypass, subjected to 2 hours of HCA at 18 degrees C, rewarmed to normothermia, and sacrificed 8 hours after HCA. Group 1 (n = 7) dogs were treated with the neuronal nitric oxide inhibitor 7-nitroindazole, 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally, before arrest and every 2 hours until sacrifice. Group 2 (n = 7) dogs received vehicle only. The brains were analyzed histopathologically. Apoptosis, identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, was confirmed by DNA terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assay and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was scored by a blinded neuropathologist from 0 (normal) to 100 (severe injury).
Apoptosis occurred early after HCA in select neuronal populations, including the hippocampus, stria terminalis, neocortex, and entorhinal cortex. Apoptotic neurons showed a characteristic shrunken cytoplasm and nuclear chromatin condensation. 7-Nitroindazole significantly inhibited apoptosis (group 1 versus 2: 19.17 +/- 14.39 versus 61.11 +/- 5.41; p < .001).
Our results provide evidence that apoptosis is associated with the neurologic injury that occurs after HCA and that nitric oxide mediates the apoptosis that occurs after HCA. Strategies for cerebral protection during HCA may include the inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 12/1997; 64(6):1639-47. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) has become routine practice in cardiac surgery, it is associated with substantial neurotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that increased nitric oxide production during HCA participates in neuronal death. We previously described a canine survival model of HCA that produces a consistent neurologic deficit and histopathologic pattern of selective neuronal death.
Adult male hound dogs (n = 17) were subjected to 2 hours of HCA at a brain temperature of 18 degrees C and reperfused to normothermia; they were sacrificed at various intervals up to 74 hours. Using in vivo cerebral microdialysis, dogs (n = 5) were given a simultaneous infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing L-[14C]arginine or L-[14C]arginine and L-nitroarginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) in contralateral hemispheres while undergoing 2 hours of HCA and reperfusion to normothermia.
L-[14C]citrulline recovery, a coproduct of nitric oxide, significantly increased during HCA in the hemisphere without the inhibitor (at 300 minutes: control, 236 +/- 94 fmol/min versus L-nitroarginine methyl ester, 6 +/- 6 fmol/min; p < 0.05). Citrulline production in vitro from canine cortical homogenates in the presence of calcium (n = 12) was significantly greater 8 and 20 hours after reperfusion (5.11 +/- 0.54 x 10(-7) mmol.mg-1.min-1 and 7.52 +/- 0.59 x 10(-7) mmol.mg-1.min-1, respectively) than before HCA (1.51 +/- 0.09 x 10(-7) mmol.mg-1.min-1; p < 0.05). Nitric oxide metabolites in the serum were also increased significantly early after reperfusion (baseline, 6.72 +/- 0.95 mmol/L; at 4 hours, 17.58 +/- 1.46 mmol/L; p < 0.05). Immunocytochemical staining of the cortex with neuronal nitric oxide synthase-specific monoclonal antibodies (Transduction Labs) revealed increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression 6 to 18 hours after HCA. Darkfield analysis demonstrated neuronal nitric oxide synthase localization to neuronal processes with widespread formation of dense plexi of nitric oxide synthase fibers.
We conclude that neurotoxicity after HCA involves a significant, early induction in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in neuronal processes leading to widespread augmented nitric oxide production in the brain.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 12/1996; 62(5):1313-20. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacologic inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor can reduce the neurologic injury associated with hypothermic circulatory arrest; however, other receptor subtypes, such as the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoazole-4-propionic acid/kainate or AMPA/kainate subtype, may predominate in the adult brain. In this experiment, a selective AMPA antagonist, NBQX, was used in a canine survival model of hypothermic circulatory arrest. Twelve male dogs (20 to 25 kg) were placed on closed-chest cardiopulmonary bypass, subjected to 2 hours of hypothermic circulatory arrest at 18 degrees C, and rewarmed on cardiopulmonary bypass. All were mechanically ventilated and monitored for 20 hours before extubation and survived for 3 days. Six dogs received NBQX beginning 2 hours after arrest (3 mg/kg for 3 hours then 1.5 mg/kg for 2 hours). Control dogs received vehicle only. Neurologic recovery was assessed every 12 hours using a species-specific behavior scale that yielded a neurodeficit score ranging from 0 (normal) to 500 (brain dead). After sacrifice at 72 hours, brains were examined by receptor autoradiography and histologically for patterns of selective neuronal necrosis and scored blindly from 0 (normal) to 100 (severe injury). Dogs given NBQX had better neurologic function compared with controls (neurodeficit score, 58.6 +/- 15 versus 204 +/- 30; p < 0.004) and had less neuronal injury (18.2 +/- 3 versus 52.5 +/- 6; p < 0.004). Densitometric receptor autoradiography revealed preservation of neuronal NMDA receptor expression only in dogs given NBQX. These results suggest that antagonism of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor AMPA may be neuroprotective in adults after hypothermic circulatory arrest.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 03/1995; 59(3):579-84. · 3.45 Impact Factor