Jane C Burns

Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (162)949.81 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions because of KD in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤40 years presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9%), of whom 9 presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n = 10), probable (n = 29), or equivocal (n = 7). Compared with the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults aged ≤40 years who underwent angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be because of missed KD in childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) is solely based on clinical findings and auxiliary laboratory tests, and is difficult to distinguish from HAdV. Objective: 1) To characterize the specific transcriptional profiles of KD patients versus acute HAdV infection 2) To determine whether the molecular distance to health (MDTH) score (a molecular score that reflects the perturbation derived from whole genome transcriptional analysis) correlates with response to therapy. Methods: RNA samples from peripheral whole blood were analyzed using Illumina chips and GeneSpring software from 76 pediatric patients with complete KD, 13 with incomplete KD, and 19 patients with HAdV and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). We used class comparison algorithms (Mann-Whitney p< 0.01, Benjamini-Hochberg, and 1.25 fold change filter) and modular analysis to define the KD profiles. Results: Statistical group comparisons identified 7,899 genes differentially expressed in 39 complete KD patients versus HC, and was subsequently validated in another 37 patients with complete KD and in 13 patients with incomplete KD. Using the KD biosignature, modular analysis demonstrated overexpression of inflammation, neutrophils, myeloid cell, coagulation cascade, and cell cycle genes in KD. To differentiate KD from HAdV, we used 25-classifier genes; cross-validation of the training set correctly classified 21 of 22 samples. In the validation analysis (test set) classifier genes correctly categorized 20 of 22 independent patient samples. Thus, the KNN algorithm demonstrated a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI [73%-99%]) and a specificity of 90% [67%-98%] to differentiate KD from HAdV. KD patients that remained febrile 36 hours after treatment with IVIG had higher baseline, pre-treatment MDTH values compared with responders [5572 in responders versus 12,290 for non-responders, p=0.009]. MDTH score significantly correlated with the baseline c-reactive protein (R=0.29, p=0.008), and was inversely related to the days of fever at the time of sample acquisition of the(R=-0.2, p=0.03). MDTH in KD patients was significantly higher than in HAdV patients 5097 [IQR 2772-8152] vs. 1331 [IQR 638-2058]. Conclusion: Transcriptional signatures can be used as a tool to discriminate between KD and HAdV infection, and may also provide prognostic information.
    IDWeek 2014 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2014
  • Michael Levin, Jane C Burns, John B Gordon
    Cardiology 10/2014; 129(3):174-177. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that children and adults with a history of Kawasaki disease (KD) are more likely to have abnormal lipoprotein particle profiles that could place them at increased risk for developing atherosclerosis later in life.
    Journal of Pediatrics 07/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To perform experimental validation of computa- tional fluid dynamics (CFD) applied to patient specific coronary aneurysm anatomy of Kawasaki disease. We quantified hemodynamics in a patient-specific coronary artery aneurysm physical phantom under physiologic rest and exercise flow conditions. Using phase contrast MRI (PCMRI), we acquired 3-component flow velocity at two slice locations in the aneurysms. We then performed numer- ical simulations with the same geometry and inflow condi- tions, and performed qualitative and quantitative comparisons of velocities between experimental measure- ments and simulation results. We observed excellent quali- tative agreement in flow pattern features. The quantitative spatially and temporally varying differences in velocity between PCMRI and CFD were proportional to the flow velocity. As a result, the percent discrepancy between simulation and experiment was relatively constant regardless of flow velocity variations. Through 1D and 2D quantitative comparisons, we found a 5–17% difference between mea- sured and simulated velocities. Additional analysis assessed wall shear stress differences between deformable and rigid wall simulations. This study demonstrated that CFD pro- duced good qualitative and quantitative predictions of velocities in a realistic coronary aneurysm anatomy under physiological flow conditions. The results provide insights on factors that may influence the level of agreement, and a set of in vitro experimental data that can be used by others to compare against CFD simulation results. The findings of this study increase confidence in the use of CFD for investigating hemodynamics in the specialized anatomy of coronary aneurysms. This provides a basis for future hemodynamics studies in patient-specific models of Kawasaki disease.
    Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology 06/2014; 5(2). · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that the densely cultivated region of northeastern China acts as a source for the wind-borne agent of Kawasaki disease (KD). KD is an acute, coronary artery vasculitis of young children, and still a medical mystery after more than 40 y. We used residence times from simulations with the flexible particle dispersion model to pinpoint the source region for KD. Simulations were generated from locations spanning Japan from days with either high or low KD incidence. The postepidemic interval (1987-2010) and the extreme epidemics (1979, 1982, and 1986) pointed to the same source region. Results suggest a very short incubation period (<24 h) from exposure, thus making an infectious agent unlikely. Sampling campaigns over Japan during the KD season detected major differences in the microbiota of the tropospheric aerosols compared with ground aerosols, with the unexpected finding of the Candida species as the dominant fungus from aloft samples (54% of all fungal strains). These results, consistent with the Candida animal model for KD, provide support for the concept and feasibility of a windborne pathogen. A fungal toxin could be pursued as a possible etiologic agent of KD, consistent with an agricultural source, a short incubation time and synchronized outbreaks. Our study suggests that the causative agent of KD is a preformed toxin or environmental agent rather than an organism requiring replication. We propose a new paradigm whereby an idiosyncratic immune response, influenced by host genetics triggered by an environmental exposure carried on winds, results in the clinical syndrome known as acute KD.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children and can result in life-threatening coronary artery aneurysms in up to 25 % of patients. These aneurysms put patients at risk of thrombus formation, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Clinicians must therefore decide which patients should be treated with anticoagulant medication, and/or surgical or percutaneous intervention. Current recommendations regarding initiation of anticoagulant therapy are based on anatomy alone with historical data suggesting that patients with aneurysms [Formula: see text]8 mm are at greatest risk of thrombosis. Given the multitude of variables that influence thrombus formation, we postulated that hemodynamic data derived from patient-specific simulations would more accurately predict risk of thrombosis than maximum diameter alone. Patient-specific blood flow simulations were performed on five KD patients with aneurysms and one KD patient with normal coronary arteries. Key hemodynamic and geometric parameters, including wall shear stress, particle residence time, and shape indices, were extracted from the models and simulations and compared with clinical outcomes. Preliminary fluid structure interaction simulations with radial expansion were performed, revealing modest differences in wall shear stress compared to the rigid wall case. Simulations provide compelling evidence that hemodynamic parameters may be a more accurate predictor of thrombotic risk than aneurysm diameter alone and motivate the need for follow-up studies with a larger cohort. These results suggest that a clinical index incorporating hemodynamic information be used in the future to select patients for anticoagulant therapy.
    Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 04/2014; 13(6). · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease, the most common cause of acquired heart disease in developed countries, is a self-limited vasculitis that is treated with high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin. Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in Kawasaki disease increases the risk of coronary artery aneurysms. We assessed whether the addition of infliximab to standard therapy (intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin) in acute Kawasaki disease reduces the rate of treatment resistance. We undertook a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in two children's hospitals in the USA to assess the addition of infliximab (5 mg per kg) to standard therapy. Eligible participants were children aged 4 weeks-17 years who had a fever (temperature ≥38·0°C) for 3-10 days and met American Heart Association criteria for Kawasaki disease. Participants were randomly allocated in 1:1 ratio to two treatment groups: infliximab 5 mg/kg at 1 mg/mL intravenously over 2 h or placebo (normal saline 5 mL/kg, administered intravenously). Randomisation was based on a randomly permuted block design (block sizes 2 and 4), stratified by age, sex, and centre. Patients, treating physicians and staff, study team members, and echocardiographers were all masked to treament assignment. The primary outcome was the difference between the groups in treatment resistance defined as a temperature of 38·0°C or higher at 36 h to 7 days after completion of the infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00760435. 196 patients were enrolled and randomised: 98 to the infliximab group and 98 to placebo. One patient in the placebo group was withdrawn from the study because of hypotension before receiving treatment. Treatment resistance rate did not differ significantly (11 [11·2%] for infliximab and 11 [11·3%] for placebo; p=0·81). Compared with the placebo group, participants given infliximab had fewer days of fever (median 1 day for infliximab vs 2 days for placebo; p<0·0001). At week 2, infliximab-treated patients had greater mean reductions in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0·009) and a two-fold greater decrease in Z score of the left anterior descending artery (p=0·045) than did those in the placebo group, but this difference was not significant at week 5. Participants in the infliximab group had a greater mean reduction in C-reactive protein concentration (p=0·0003) and in absolute neutrophil count (p=0·024) at 24 h after treatment than did those given placebo, but by week 2 this difference was not significant. At week 5, none of the laboratory values differed significantly compared with baseline. No significant differences were recorded between the two groups at any timepoint in proximal right coronary artery Z scores, age-adjusted haemoglobin values, duration of hospital stay, or any other laboratory markers of inflammation measured. No reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion occurred in patients treated with infliximab compared with 13 (13·4%) patients given placebo (p<0·0001). No serious adverse events were directly attributable to infliximab infusion. The addition of infliximab to primary treatment in acute Kawasaki disease did not reduce treatment resistance. However, it was safe and well tolerated and reduced fever duration, some markers of inflammation, left anterior descending coronary artery Z score, and intravenous immunoglobulin reaction rates. US Food and Drug Administration, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Janssen Biotech.
    The Lancet 02/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) is the treatment of choice for many immune-mediated diseases, yet its mechanisms of action are incompletely elucidated. We investigated the possibility that IVIG played a direct role in the expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) that recognize the heavy chain constant region of immunoglobulin G (Fc) as a mechanism for the recovery of Kawasaki disease (KD), a T cell mediated pediatric vasculitis of the coronary arteries. We successfully generated Fc-specific Treg clones from sub-acute KD subjects that did not develop arterial complications after IVIG and defined an unusual functional phenotype: Fc-specific Treg secrete IL-10 and small amounts of IL-4 but not TGF-β. Antigen presentation studies demonstrated that these Treg clones can be activated by autologous B cells that express IgG on their cell surface in the absence of exogenous Fc. The IgG molecule has to be canonically processed and presented by autologous MHC molecules to be recognized by Treg. In support of the importance of this novel Treg population in downsizing vascular inflammation, KD patients with dilated coronary arteries or aneurysms despite IVIG treatment failed to expand Fc-specific Treg. Our results point to a specificity of a previously un-described Treg population for the clinical benefit provided by IVIG therapy in children.
    Autoimmunity 02/2014; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global gene expression profiling can provide insight into the underlying pathophysiology of disease processes. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis whose etiology remains unknown. Although the clinical illness shares certain features with other pediatric infectious diseases, the occurrence of coronary artery aneurysms in 25% of untreated patients is unique to KD. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying KD, we investigated the acute and convalescent whole blood transcriptional profiles of 146 KD subjects and compared them with the transcriptional profiles of pediatric patients with confirmed bacterial or viral infection, and with healthy control children. We also investigated the transcript abundance in patients with different intravenous immunoglobulin treatment responses and different coronary artery outcomes. The overwhelming signature for acute KD involved signaling pathways of the innate immune system. Comparison with other acute pediatric infections highlighted the importance of pathways involved in cell motility including paxillin, relaxin, actin, integrins, and matrix metalloproteinases. Most importantly, the IL1β pathway was identified as a potential therapeutic target. Our study revealed the importance of the IL-1 signaling pathway and a prominent signature of innate immunity and cell migration in the acute phase of the illness.
    Genome Medicine 01/2014; 6(11):541. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thousands of large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian genome, many of which have important roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, we used a custom microarray to identify lincRNAs associated with activation of the innate immune response. A panel of 159 lincRNAs was found to be differentially expressed following innate activation of THP1 macrophages. Among them, linc1992 was shown to be expressed in many human tissues and was required for induction of TNFα expression. Linc1992 bound specifically to heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL) and formed a functional linc1992-hnRNPL complex that regulated transcription of the TNFα gene by binding to its promoter. Transcriptome analysis revealed that linc1992 was required for expression of many immune-response genes, including other cytokines and transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators of TNFα expression, and that knockdown of linc1992 caused dysregulation of these genes during innate activation of THP1 macrophages. Therefore, we named linc1992 THRIL (TNFα and hnRNPL related immunoregulatory LincRNA). Finally, THRIL expression was correlated with the severity of symptoms in patients with Kawasaki disease, an acute inflammatory disease of childhood. Collectively, our data provide evidence that lincRNAs and their binding proteins can regulate TNFα expression and may play important roles in the innate immune response and inflammatory diseases in humans.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is highly effective in Kawasaki disease (KD), mechanisms are not understood and 10-20% of patients are treatment-resistant, manifesting a higher rate of coronary artery aneurysms. Murine models suggest that α2-6-linked sialic acid (α2-6Sia) content of IVIG is critical for suppressing inflammation. However, pro-inflammatory states also up-regulate endogenous levels of β-galactoside:α2-6 sialyltransferase-I (ST6Gal-I), the enzyme that catalyzes addition of α2-6Sias to N-glycans. We asked whether IVIG failures correlated with levels of α2-6Sia on infused IVIG or on the patient's own endogenous IgG. We quantified levels of α2-6Sia in infused IVIG and endogenous IgG from 10 IVIG-responsive and 10 resistant KD subjects using multiple approaches. Transcript levels of ST6GAL1, in patient whole blood and B cell lines were evaluated by RT-PCR. Plasma soluble (s)ST6Gal-I levels were measured by ELISA. There was no consistent difference in median sialylation levels of infused IVIG between groups. However, α2-6Sia levels in endogenous IgG, ST6GAL1 transcript levels, and ST6Gal-I protein in serum from IVIG-resistant KD subjects were lower than in responsive subjects at both pre-treatment and one-year time points (p <0.001, respectively). Our data indicate sialylation levels of therapeutic IVIG are unrelated to treatment response in KD. Rather, lower sialylation of endogenous IgG and lower blood levels of ST6GALI mRNA and ST6Gal-I enzyme predict therapy resistance. These differences were stable over time, suggesting a genetic basis. Because IVIG-resistance increases risk of coronary artery aneurysms, our findings have important implications for the identification and treatment of such individuals.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81448. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Lori B Daniels, John B Gordon, Jane C Burns
    Circulation 11/2013; 128(19):e390. · 14.95 Impact Factor
  • Jane C. Burns
    IDWeek 2013 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding global seasonal patterns of Kawasaki disease (KD) may provide insight into the etiology of this vasculitis that is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries worldwide. Data from 1970-2012 from 25 countries distributed over the globe were analyzed for seasonality. The number of KD cases from each location was normalized to minimize the influence of greater numbers from certain locations. The presence of seasonal variation of KD at the individual locations was evaluated using three different tests: time series modeling, spectral analysis, and a Monte Carlo technique. A defined seasonal structure emerged demonstrating broad coherence in fluctuations in KD cases across the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical latitudes. In the extra-tropical latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, KD case numbers were highest in January through March and approximately 40% higher than in the months of lowest case numbers from August through October. Datasets were much sparser in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics and statistical significance of the seasonality tests was weak, but suggested a maximum in May through June, with approximately 30% higher number of cases than in the least active months of February, March and October. The seasonal pattern in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics was consistent across the first and second halves of the sample period. Using the first global KD time series, analysis of sites located in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics revealed statistically significant and consistent seasonal fluctuations in KD case numbers with high numbers in winter and low numbers in late summer and fall. Neither the tropics nor the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics registered a statistically significant aggregate seasonal cycle. These data suggest a seasonal exposure to a KD agent that operates over large geographic regions and is concentrated during winter months in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74529. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The BLK and CD40 loci have been associated with Kawasaki disease (KD) in two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in a Taiwanese population of Han Chinese ancestry (Taiwanese) and in Japanese cohorts. Here we build on these findings with replication studies of the BLK and CD40 loci in populations of Korean and European descent. The BLK region was significantly associated with KD susceptibility in both populations. Within the BLK gene the rs2736340-located linkage disequilibrium (LD ) comprising the promoter and first intron was strongly associated with KD, with the combined results of Asian studies including Taiwanese, Japanese, and Korean populations (2,539 KD patients and 7,021 controls) providing very compelling evidence of association (rs2736340, OR = 1.498, 1.354-1.657; P = 4.74×10(-31)). We determined the percentage of B cells present in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population and the expression of BLK in the peripheral blood leukocytes (leukocytes) of KD patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The percentage of B cells in the PBMC population and the expression of BLK in leukocytes were induced in patients in the acute stage of KD. In B cell lines derived from KD patients, and in purified B cells from KD patients obtained during the acute stage, those with the risk allele of rs2736340 expressed significantly lower levels of BLK. These results suggest that peripheral B cells play a pathogenic role during the acute stage of KD. Decreased BLK expression in peripheral blood B cells may alter B cell function and predispose individuals to KD. These associative data suggest a role for B cells during acute KD. Understanding the functional implications may facilitate the development of B cell-mediated therapy for KD.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):72037-. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) controls inflammation in children with acute Kawasaki disease (KD). Blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α is an emerging therapy for KD patients with refractory inflammation, but there is concern that this therapy could impede the host immune regulation. To define the effect of TNFα blockade, we conducted ex -vivo immune-monitoring in KD subjects who participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the addition of infliximab to standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. We enumerated circulating myeloid and plasmocytoid DC, Treg, and memory T cells (Tmem) in 14 consecutive, unselected KD patients (7 treated with IVIG, 7 with IVIG + infliximab) at 3 time points: 1) acute phase prior to treatment, 2) sub-acute phase 3) convalescent phase. Myeloid DC (mDC), but not plasmacytoid DC (pDC), were numerous in the peripheral blood in acute KD subjects and decreased in the sub-acute phase in both IVIG- and IVIG + infliximab-treated groups. The co-stimulatory molecule for antigen presentation to T cells, CD86, decreased in mDC from acute to sub-acute time points in both treatment groups, but not in the single patient who developed coronary artery aneurysms. We also defined tolerogenic mDC that expand in the sub-acute phase of KD not impaired by infliximab treatment. Treg and Tmem expanded after treatment with no significant differences between the two groups. Treatment of KD patients with infliximab does not adversely affect generation of tolerogenic mDC or the development of T cell regulation and memory.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 07/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been claimed that the aneurysm rate for Kawasaki disease (KD) patients in Japan is lower than in the U.S. However it has been difficult to compare coronary artery (CA) outcomes between the two countries because of different definitions for CA abnormalities. Therefore, we compared CA internal diameters between Japanese and U.S. KD patients using standard definitions and methods. We retrospectively reviewed CA outcomes in 1082 KD patients from 2 centers in the U.S. and 3 centers in Japan and compared Z-max scores (maximum internal diameter for the left anterior descending or right coronary artery expressed as standard deviation units from the mean (Z-score) normalized for body surface area) obtained within 12weeks after onset and calculated using two different regression equations from Canada (Dallaire) and Japan (Fuse). We defined a Z-max of <2.5 as normal and a Z-max of ≥10 as giant aneurysm. The median Z-max for the U.S. and Japanese subjects was 1.9 and 2.3 SD units, respectively (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in rates of patients with Z-max≥5.0 between the countries. In a multivariable model adjusting for age, sex, and treatment response, being Japanese was still associated with a higher Z-max score. Previously reported differences in aneurysm rates between Japan and the U.S. likely resulted from use of different definitions and nomenclature. Adoption of Z-scores as a standard for reporting CA internal diameters will allow meaningful comparisons among different countries and will facilitate international, collaborative clinical trials.
    International journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We noted that many patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) were hoarse at presentation and thusevaluated the frequency of hoarseness in children with acute KD. New onset hoarseness was noted in 86 of 287 (30%) prospectively assessed KD patients.Laryngoscopic examination of three hoarse patientswith acute KD revealed edema and erythema of the larynx.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Jane C Burns, Lori B Daniels
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2013; · 15.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
949.81 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • Rady Children's Hospital
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1994–2014
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2012
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2011
    • IC3 Catalan Climate Sciences Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Genome Institute of Singapore
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2010
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1987–2010
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education
      Atlanta, GA, United States
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2008
    • San Diego State University
      • Department of Geography
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2005
    • Vibra Hospital of San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Tennessee
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Knoxville, TN, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1989–1995
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991
    • SickKids
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada