Tomasz Gedrange

Wroclaw Medical University, Vrotslav, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (69)84.84 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone density and quantity are primary conditions for the insertion and stability of dental implants. In cases of a lack of adequate maxillary or mandibulary bone, bone augmentation will be necessary. The use of synthetic bioactive bone substitution materials is of increasing importance as alternatives to autogenously bone grafts. It is well known that bone can influence muscle function and muscle function can influence bone structures. Muscles have a considerable potential of adaptation and muscle tissue surrounding an inserted implant or bone surrogate can integrate changes in mechanical load of the muscle and hereupon induce signaling cascades with protein synthesis and arrangement of the cytoskeleton. The Musculus latissimus dorsi is very often used for the analyses of the in vivo biocompatibility of newly designed biomaterials. Beside macroscopically and histologically examination, biocompatibility can be assessed by analyses of the biomaterial influence of gene expression. This review discusses changes in the fiber type distribution, myosin heavy chain isoform composition, histological appearance and vascularization of the skeletal muscle after implantation of bone substitution materials. Especially, the effects of bone surrogates should be described at the molecular-biological and cellular level.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: New biomaterials and their various surface modifications should undergo in vitro and in vivo evaluation before clinical trials. The objective of our in vivo study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of newly created zirconium implant surfaces after implantation in the lower jaw of pigs and compare the osseointegration of these dental implants with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants.
    Implant dentistry. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced vertical bone level in the implantation area is often considered one of the limiting factors before implant insertion. Inserting implants of reduced length might be useful in order to avoid vertical bone augmentation prior to implantation. To the present day, no official guidelines exist as to the optimal length for these implants. It is nevertheless well known that the stability of an implant depends primarily on its osseointegration, which could otherwise be influenced by modifying implant surface texture. The aim of our study was to evaluate osseointegration in correlation with implant length and surface texture. Three different variations of titan implants (n = 5) were compared: two types, each with an acid-etched and ceramic blasted surface, were inserted in the upper jaw of adult female minipigs at different lengths (tioLogic ST Shorty, 5 mm length; tioLogic ST, 9 mm length) and were compared to a control group (tioLogic ST, 9 mm length, ceramic blasted surface). Eight weeks after unloaded healing, bone tissue specimens containing the implants were processed, stained with Masson-Goldner-trichrome and analyzed histologically. Regardless of implant length and surface texture, new bone formation with no signs of inflammation could be detected in the area of the threads. Implants with a modified surface showed no statistically significant difference in bone-implant-contact (BIC) (tioLogic ST Shorty, 56.5%; tioLogic©ST; 77.2%), but a statistically significant difference could be found, when the 9 mm implants were compared to the control group (BIC 48.9%). Surface modification could positively influence osseointegration as well as contribute to overcoming the adverse effects of length reduction.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 01/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the changes in bone density after insertion of dental implants and their relation to immediate loading is essential to achieving improvements in their survival rate. Histological investigations of the bone bed in humans are limited, which in turn hampers opportunities to deepen knowledge about the remodelling process around dental implants. The aim of the present study was to follow the change in bone density by measuring the grey values of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) at different periods subsequent to implant insertion. The CBCTs of twenty individual immediately loaded implants were evaluated at three time points: Prior to surgery, one month following, and six months after the operation. The grey values were measured at different regions around the implants. Reduction in the grey values was observed with respect to the reference values after one month and six months from implant insertion in the apical, middle, and cervical regions. No correlation was detected either between the change in grey values and drilling method or with the measured primary and secondary stabilities by Osstell ISQ instrument. Cone beam computed tomography can be used as a qualitative method to support clinical follow up and monitor the changes in bone density around implants in critical cases.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 01/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue engineered cell-seeded constructs with poly(3)hydroxybutyrate (PHB) induced ectopic bone formation after implantation into the back muscle of rats. The objective of our in vivo study was to evaluate the osteogenic potential of pure PHB patches in surgically created cranial defects. For this, PHB patches were analyzed after implantation in surgically created defects on the cranium of adult male rats. After healing periods of 4, 8 and 12 weeks, the bone tissue specimens containing PHB patches were processed and analyzed histologically as well as molecular-biologically. After 4 weeks, the PHB patches were completely embedded in connective tissue. Eight weeks after PHB insertion, bone regeneration proceeding from bearing bone was found in 50% of all treated animals, whereas all PHB treated cavities showed both bone formation and embedding of the patches in bone 12 weeks after surgery. Furthermore, all slices showed pronounced development of blood vessels. Histomorphometric analysis presented a regenerated bone mean value between 46.4 ± 16.1% and 54.2 ± 19.3% after 4 to 12 weeks of healing. Caveolin-1 staining in capillary-like structures showed a 1.16 to 1.38fold increased expression in PHB treated defects compared to controls. Real-time RT-PCR analyzes showed significantly lower expressions of Alpl, Col1a1 and VEGFA in cranium defects after treatment with PHB patches compared to untreated bony defects of the same cranium. Within the limits of the presented animal investigation, it could conclude that the tested PHB patches featured a good biocompatibility and an osteoconductive character.
    Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In orthodontics, bone structure, its density and dimensions play an essential role by explaining limitations in magnitude, size and extent of tooth movement. Severe anterior crowding is one of the most frequently encountered dental malocclusions. Its therapy is mostly limited by lack of basal and alveolar bone and it often involves tooth extractions. Mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis is a method of natural bone generation and also a treatment option to achieve space regaining in a much-reduced lower jaw with distinctive frontal place deficit and severe anterior crowding, without sacrificing permanent teeth. McCarthy and Guerrero were of the first researchers reporting on this method applied on human lower jaws and they increased clinical interest in this approach. Although this method has been clinically used ever since, many questions concerning effects on bone regeneration speed, bone quality, tooth movement into regenerated area, periodontal health and long-time stability of treatment outcomes have not been sufficiently investigated. This overview should present the current clinical and biological state of knowledge about bone gain and tooth movement through regenerate bone. Furthermore it should encourage interest in further research on this topic.
    Oral health and dental management. 12/2013; 12(4):305-312.
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    ABSTRACT: Masticatory muscle weakness in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy may influence cranial bone development and cause changes in cranio- and dentofacial morphology. To examine whether masticatory muscle weakness and thus disturbed muscle function is accompanied by changes of geometry of the craniofacial complex, we compared craniofacial morphology of dystrophic mdx mice with those of controls during growth and adulthood. For that 30, 100 and 365 days old control and mdx mice were investigated. Standardized radiographs and cone-beam computed tomographies of each mouse head were taken; cephalometric landmarks identified and processed by the computer programs FR-WIN and Osirix. In 30 days old mdx mice, which display muscle weakness, all measured dimensions were smaller compared to controls with exception of incisor length. Only four of eight analysed dimensions were found to be smaller through all age groups investigated when compared to controls. The reduction of measurements in young mdx mice suggests that muscle function may influence the geometry of the craniofacial complex during growth. Muscle regeneration and functional recovery that occur in older mice may compensate for bone growth deficiencies during earlier stages of development.
    Archives of oral biology 08/2013; · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Oral Implants Research 04/2013; 24(4). · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The paper presents clinical-radiological research on the impact of the new semi-cement luting agent in the immediately loaded implant-supported restoration on alveolar ridge resorption. 25 patients with a partially edentulous alveolar ridge in the anterior section of the maxilla or mandible were included in the study. The implants were inserted with the application of traditional burs or with a Piezosurgery device supplied by Mectron. Taking into account the method of implant bed preparation, the scientific material was divided into two groups. The implants were loaded immediately with single crown restorations cemented with the Implantlink semi cement application. The following indices were taken into consideration: pocket depth around implant calculated at four measuring points, marginal alveolar bone loss measured using radio-visiography, the 3-degree Wachtel scale of healing of the soft tissue. In addition, the presence and possible width or height of any recession around the implants was measured. The success of the implant treatment was assessed according to the Albrektsson success criteria. The research results were subjected to statistical analysis. The results of our study revealed no influence of the Implant-link semi cement on the crestal bone level, regardless of the bone bed preparation technique.
    Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis 01/2013; 59(1):66-75.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bone graft substitute consisting of 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) in comparison to a pure ß-TCP of identical shape and porosity. The materials were evaluated using an established rat cranial defect model in 24 animals. One bone defect with a diameter of 5 mm was created per animal. The defects were filled with either BCP or ß-TCP and left to heal for 4 weeks. Twelve samples (6 per material) were processed for histological evaluation and immunohistochemistry. The remaining 12 samples were processed for mRNA expression analysis. No signs of inflammation or adverse material reactions were detected. New bone formation in the former defect site did not differ between the two groups (BCP: 49.2%; ß-TCP: 52.4%). Osteoblast-like and TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells were found at the surface of the bone graft substitute granules. The ß-TCP group showed significantly higher mRNA levels for the bone resorption marker Acp5 and osteogenic differentiation marker Runx2. The expression of IGF1, IGF2, VEGF, Phex, Alpl, Col1, Col2, Bglap and MMP8 did not differ between the groups. The in vivo biocompatibility of BCP is to a large part identical to those of TCP. Within the limitation of the animal model, the implantation study shows that BCP can be used as bone graft substitute, due to the fact that the material integrates into tissue, remains stable in the implantation bed and serves as an osteoconductive scaffold.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 01/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In most cases, the natural healing of intrabony defects only leads to restoration of tissue continuity without differentiation and function. However, repair is not regarded to be an optimal treatment method, as confirmed in many clinical cases. Thus it is important to choose a surgical procedure which makes it possible to achieve restitution ad integrum of the bone structure. The choice of the GBR technique is crucial, in terms of the clinical conditions and limitations resulting from the use of a particular material. Objective The objective of this study has been the analysis of effectiveness of selected surgical treatment techniques of intrabony defects in rabbits. Materials and methods Research was conducted on 36 white rabbits. The operation technique was a criterion of division into 3 groups: BG/BOC (Bio-Oss Collagen® + Bio-Gide Perio®), BOC/PRP (Bio-Oss Collagen® + PRP), C (control group). Qualitative and quantitative histopathological evaluation was carried out after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results The highest value of the bone surface area 31.9% (SD 1.8) was achieved in BOC/BG group three months after the implantation, while the lowest was revealed in C – group – 12.5% (SD 1.32) one month following the procedure. Conclusions Upon quantitative histological assessment, the bone tissue presented the most intensive osteogenesis within one month from the application of BOC/PRP, whereas this was observed after the application of BOC/BG in later stages. The application of two regenerative methods influenced the rate, quality and overall treatment of intraosseus defects.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 11/2012; 194(6):549–555. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New biomaterials including surface modifications should undergo in vitro and in vivo evaluation before clinical trials. The objective of our in vivo study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of one of the newly fabricated zirconia implant surfaces, called "mds". For this purpose, the osseointegration of these implants was analyzed after implantation in surgically created defects in the cranium of adult male rats. After a healing period of 28 and 56 days, respectively, bone tissue specimens containing the implants were processed and histologically analyzed. For this purpose, sections were stained with haematoxylin/eosin and Masson Goldner trichrome. No signs of cellular inflammatory infiltrate were found in any of the animals. After 28 days, slices showed pronounced development of blood vessels and bone regeneration. After 56 days of healing, direct bridging of the bone defects was detectable with distinctly visible kit lines. There were cell rich areas of connective tissue/bone marrow between zirconia discs and bearing bone. Histomorphometric analysis presented a regenerated bone mean value of 36.3% after 28 days of healing. After 56 days of healing, a 1.6 fold increased bone mean value was observed (58.2%). Using the same analysis, 1% and 39.9% of bone-implant-contact was visible after both healing periods, respectively. On average, connective tissue/marrow spaces occupied 99% of implant-contact-area after 28 days of healing. This area was reduced to 60.1% after 56 days. Within the limits of the animal investigation presented, it was concluded that the tested surface modification of zirconia implants were biocompatible and osseoconductive.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 10/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of mucogingival problems is one of the main objectives of periodontal treatment. The insufficient or absent gingival attachment increases the risk of development of gingival recessions. Multiple gingival augmentation techniques of varying level of success are known. The aim of this study has been to clinically and histologically evaluate the integration process of scaffolds composed of primary human fibroblasts derived from keratinized gingiva on collagenous carriers. Ten patients exhibiting a mucogingival problem and gingival inflammation of the related teeth were included in the study. In total, 34 teeth in the anterior part of the maxilla and the mandible underwent treatment. Clinically, over a 6 month period of observation, a significant decrease in the distance from cemento-enamel junction to mucogingival junction (CEJ-MGJ) was revealed. Histologically, mature connective tissue covered by keratinized epithelium was found after 12 weeks. No specimens revealed an inflammatory response. A complete clinical healing was observed after 2 weeks in eight patients [early healing index (EHI)=I]. The results of clinical evaluation indicate that the method of primary culture of human fibroblasts on a collagenous carrier for gingival augmentation is an esthetic and effective method of mucogingival complex repair. The scaffolds were substituted and completely re-epithelialized within 12 weeks according to histologic results.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 05/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of BONITmatrix(®) and OSSA NOVA bone graft materials on osteogenic differentiation. For this, mRNA expression of Alpl, Acp5, Bglap, Phex and Runx2 was analysed using quantitative RT-PCR in surgically created defects to the cranium of adult male rats. Cranial samples were collected after implantation of BONITmatrix(®) or OSSA NOVA scaffolds into these defects for 4 weeks and gene expressions of Alpl, Acp5, Bglap, Phex and Runx2 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Real-time PCR analyses showed significantly higher expressions of Acp5, Alpl and Bglap only in the group treated with BONITmatrix(®) compared to untreated controls. No changes in transcript expression of Phex and Runx2 were detectable between the analysed groups. Furthermore, in rats treated with OSSA NOVA the same transcript level of all tested genes was detected as shown in controls. In conclusion, it can be stated that only the granular dosage form of BONITmatrix(®) is able to stimulate osteoblast differentiation, whereas OSSA NOVA has no influence on the gene expression of osteoblasts.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 04/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural fibers have long been used in several branches of industry. Nowadays, they are considered as composite materials in medicine with special focus on artificial tissue scaffolding, drug-release systems, cardiovascular patches and nerve cuffs. The purpose of this study has been to examine the in vitro biocompatibility of newly designed "green composites". Therefore, composites containing flax fibers from transgenic flax plants producing polyhydroxybutyrate (M50) and control (wt-NIKE) plants in a polylactid (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix were prepared and mice fibroblast viability and cytotoxicity determined after incubation for 12-48h and 3 weeks with those composites. After 24h and 48h, all green composites have a strong influence on cell viability and membrane stability without any differences among each other. The cell viability of treated cells is approximately 82.5-93% of those of untreated control cells, respectively. The increase in cytotoxicity ranged between 1.4 and 2.9 fold compared to untreated cells. After 3 weeks of incubation, no significant changes were detectable in the amount of dead and living cells between composite treated and untreated cells. In conclusion, the tested new "green composites" showed a good biocompatibility. The biocompatibility of composites from transgenic flax plant fibers producing PHB did not differ from composites of non-transgenic flax plant fibers.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 02/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of cytoskeletal proteins like talin, vinculin and nestin increases in muscle that regenerates. Little is known about their role or at least their expression in the process of regeneration in masticatory muscles of mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To determine a potential role of cytoskeletal proteins in the regeneration process of mdx masticatory muscles, we examined the expression of talin 1, talin 2, vinculin and nestin in 100-day-old control and mdx mice using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and histochemistry. The protein expression of talin 1, talin 2, nestin and vinculin in mdx muscles remained unchanged as compared with normal mice. However, in mdx masseter it was found a relative increase of nestin compared to controls. The protein expression of talin 1 and vinculin tended to be increased in mdx tongue and talin 2 to diminish in mdx masseter and temporal muscle. In mdx mice, we found significantly lower percentage of transcripts coding for nestin, talin 1, talin 2 and vinculin in masseter (p < 0.05) and temporal muscle (p < 0.001). In contrast, the mRNA expression of nestin was found to be increased in mdx tongue. Activated satellite cells, myoblasts and immature regenerated muscle fibres in mdx masseter and temporal revealed positive staining for nestin. The findings of the presented work suggest dystrophin-lack-associated changes in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins in mdx masticatory muscles could be compensatory for dystrophin absence. The expression of nestin may serve as an indicator for the regeneration in the orofacial muscles.
    Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 02/2012; 60(2):137-43. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The modification of flax fibers to create biologically active dressings is of undoubted scientific and practical interest. Flax fibers, derived from transgenic flax expressing three bacterial genes for the synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have better mechanical properties than unmodified flax fibers; do not show any inflammation response after subcutaneous insertion; and have a good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of composites containing flax fibers of genetically modified (M50) or non-modified (wt-Nike) flax within a polylactide (PLA) matrix for bone regeneration. For this, the mRNA expression of genes coding for growth factors (insulin-like growth factor IGF1, IGF2, vascular endothelial growth factor), for osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, Runx2, Phex, type 1 and type 2 collagen), and for bone resorption markers [matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8), acid phosphatase type 5] were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant elevated mRNA expression of IGF1 with PLA and PLA-wt-Nike composites. The mRNA amount of MMP8 and osteocalcin was significantly decreased in all biocomposite-treated cranial tissue samples compared to controls, whereas the expression of all other tested transcripts did not show any differences. It is assumed that both flax composites are able to stimulate bone regeneration, but composites from transgenic flax plants producing PHB showed faster bone regeneration than composites of non-transgenic flax plants. The application of these linen membranes for bone tissue engineering should be proved in further studies.
    Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 01/2012; 57(1):53-8. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To determine the lingual surface morphology of central and lateral upper incisors evaluating constant morphological regions for better adhesion of industrial prefabricated lingual brackets. Material and methods: A total of 102 randomly selected patients at the end of the first phase of second dentition with intact central and lateral upper incisors participated in this study. After impression taking and cast model preparation, 3D laser scans of the lingual surface of the upper central and lateral incisors were taken (Laserscan 3D®, Willytec, Munich, Germany), digitalised, and transferred into CAD software to analyse the surface morphology by superimposition. For better comparison of morphological variations and determination of the most constant lingual regions, the surface was divided into five parts: incisal edge, mesial ridge, lateral ridge, cingulum, and medial sector. Statistical analysis was performed by the paired t-test. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in all surfaces, with cingulum as the most inconstant region. The most constant region was the medial sector and the mesial ridge. Conclusion: As expected, the lingual surface underlies a high intra-individual variation complicating industrial prefabricated lingual brackets adhesion. However, the mesial ridge and the medial sector seem to be the most constant regions within intra-individual morphological variations.
    Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 01/2012; 57(1):71-7. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract One of the conditions for ensuring success in implant surgery with an immediate loading (IL) protocol is to achieve maximum primary stability (PS) through the use of dental implants with the appropriate design and surface and a properly prepared osseous bed. The aim of this study was to assess the stability, degree of osseointegration, and success rate after inserting an implant with IL in an osseous bed prepared with burs or an ultrasonic device. Twenty-five patients requiring single tooth replacement (tioLogic; Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) in the aesthetic zone were divided randomly into the test (K0) and control (K1) groups. The following factors were investigated: primary (PS-ISQ) and secondary (SS-ISQ) stability- implant stability quotient (ISQ value) by Ostell Mentor, initial width of the alveolar ridge, marginal bone loss (MBL), and buccal bone thickness. The effectiveness of the implant treatment 1 year after the surgery was 100% for group K0 and 93.3% for group K1. A significant correlation was observed between PS and MBL after 1 month. No statistically significant differences were noted between the groups with regard to MBL after 6 months (K0 0.5±0.4 mm vs. K1 0.8±1.3 mm), PS-ISQ (K0 70±4 vs. K1 71±4), and SS-ISQ (K0 70±2 vs. K1 72±3). The average ISQ value of 70±4 is sufficient to allow for IL. A high level of PS results in lower MBL.
    Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 01/2012; 57(1):3-9. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To improve osseointegration, different possible dental implant surface modifications, e.g., alterations of surface chemistry and roughness, have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro biocompatibility of newly designed zirconium implants with different surface modifications in comparison with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants. Therefore, cell viability and proliferation were measured after 21 days and correlated with surface structures. In the presence of new ceramic implants with an "mds (blasted/etched)" and a "blasted" surface, cell viability was 1.29- and 1.26-fold increased, respectively, compared to untreated cells, whereas cell viability was unchanged in the presence of reference implants and new ceramic implants with an "etched" surface. The cell viability findings correlate with the results of the cell cytotoxicity assay. The etched implants showed a surface with high roughness and heterogeneity, whereas the mds and blasted implants showed a similar, very rough-textured homogenate surface. The in vitro biocompatibility of two new ceramic implants was significantly better in comparison with the tested reference ceramic and titanium implants. The good biocompatibility may be attributed to the homogenous surface of these implants, and these surfaces might hasten osseointegration.
    Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 01/2012; 57(1):11-5. · 1.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

221 Citations
84.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Wroclaw Medical University
      Vrotslav, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2004–2014
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • • Center for dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery
      • • Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2012
    • Silesian University of Technology
      Gleiwitz, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2005–2012
    • University of Greifswald
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology
      • • Department of Orthodontics
      • • Department of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry
      Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2007–2010
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2008
    • Universität Regensburg
      • Lehrstuhl für Kieferorthopädie
      Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany