[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the mortality of patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection worldwide. However, malignant lymphoma is a severe and frequent complication seen in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The diagnostic criteria for some categories of AIDS-related lymphoma were revised in the World Health Organization International Classification of Lymphoma, fourth edition. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinicopathological characteristics of Japanese patients with AIDS-related lymphoma according to the revised classification. In this retrospective study, 207 AIDS-related lymphoma cases diagnosed between 1987 and 2012 in Japan were subjected to histological subtyping and clinicopathological analyses. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the predominant histological subtype throughout the study period (n = 104, 50%). Among the DLBCL cases, 24% were of the germinal center (GC) type and 76% were of the non-GC type. Non-GC-type cases showed a significantly lower 1-year survival rate (43%) than the GC-type cases (82%). Cases of Burkitt lymphoma (n = 57, 28%), plasmablastic lymphoma (n = 16, 8%), primary effusion lymphoma (n = 9, 4%), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 8, 4%), and large B-cell lymphoma arising in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-associated multicentric Castleman disease (n = 2, 1%) were also observed. Hodgkin lymphoma was more common in patients receiving ART (11.1%) than in ART-naïve patients (1.4%). Statistical analyses identified CD10 negativity, BCL-6 negativity, Epstein-Barr virus positivity, and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus positivity as risk factors for poor prognosis. This information will help in the early diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with AIDS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic in central and northeastern China. This paper describes the first identification of a patient with SFTS and a retrospective study on SFTS in Japan.Methods. Virological and pathological examinations were performed on the patient's samples. Laboratory diagnosis of SFTS was made by isolation/genome amplification, and/or the detection of IgG antibody to SFTSV in sera. Medical doctors were alerted to the initial diagnosis and asked whether they had previously treated patients with symptoms similar to those of SFTS.Results. A female patient who died in 2012 was diagnosed with SFTS. Ten additional patients with SFTS were then retrospectively identified. All patients were aged 50 or over, and lived in western Japan. Six cases were fatal. The male to female ratio was 8:3. SFTSV was isolated from 8 patients. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all the Japanese SFTSV isolates formed a genotype independent to in China. Most patients showed symptoms due to hemorrhage, possibly because of disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or hemophagocytosis.Conclusions. SFTS has been endemic to Japan and SFTSV has been circulating naturally within the country.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that occurs predominantly in patients with advanced AIDS. In this study, we examined the effect of HIV protease inhibitors, Lopinavir (LPV), Ritonavir (RTV) and Darunavir (DRV) on PEL cell lines in vitro and in vivo. LPV and RTV, but not DRV induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and suppressed NF-κB activity by inhibiting IKK phosphorylation in PEL cells. In a PEL xenograft mouse model, LPV significantly inhibited the growth and invasion of PEL cells. These results suggest that LPV may have promise for the treatment and prevention of PEL, which occurs in HIV/AIDS patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital virus infection. Infection of guinea pigs with guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) can provide a useful model for the analysis of its pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of vaccines. Although glycoprotein B (gB) vaccines have been reported to reduce the incidence and mortality of congenital infection in human clinical trials and guinea pig animal models, the mechanisms of protection remain unclear. METHODS: To understand the gB vaccine protection mechanisms, we analyzed the spread of challenged viruses in the placentas and fetuses of guinea pig dams immunized with recombinant adenoviruses expressing GPCMV gB and β-galactosidase, rAd-gB and rAd-LacZ, respectively. RESULTS: Mean body weight of the fetuses in the dams immunized with rAd-LacZ followed by GPCMV challenge 3 weeks after immunization was 78% of that observed for dams immunized with rAd-gB. Under conditions in which congenital infection occurred in 75% of fetuses in rAd-LacZ-immunized dams, only 13% of fetuses in rAd-gB-immunized dams were congenitally infected. The placentas were infected less frequently in the gB-immunized animals. In the placentas of the rAd-LacZ- and rAd-gB-immunized animals, CMV early antigens were detected mainly in the spongiotrophoblast layer. Focal localization of viral antigens in the spongiotrophoblast layer suggests cell-to-cell viral spread in the placenta. In spite of a similar level of antibodies against gB and avidity indices among fetuses in each gB-immunized dam, congenital infection was sometimes observed in a littermate fetus. In such infected fetuses, CMV spread to most organs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that antibodies against gB protected against infection mainly at the interface of the placenta rather than from the placenta to the fetus. The development of strategies to block cell-to-cell viral spread in the placenta is, therefore, required for effective protection against congenital CMV infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human polyomavirus-6 (HPyV6), and human polyomavirus-7 (HPyV7) were identified as viruses shed from the skin. Serological analysis revealed that these viruses are common among the general population. However, there is little information about the presence of MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 in the sera and tissues of immunocompromised individuals. The aims of this study are to know if immune status affects the presence of MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 in the serum, and to reveal the presence of these viruses in diseased tissues of unknown etiology. METHODS: Sera from HIV-1-positive and -negative patients were examined by real-time PCR and nested PCR detecting MCPyV, HPyV6 and HPyV7. In addition, diseased tissue samples of unknown etiology were examined. RESULTS: Nine out of 23 serum samples (39.1%) from HIV-1-positive patients who had not received anti-retroviral therapy were positive for MCPyV, which is significantly higher than HIV-1-negative patients (6/110, 5.5%, P < 0.01, Chi-square test). MCPyV DNA was detected in tissue samples of Merkel cell carcinoma (22/30 [73%]), encephalitis (4/19 [21%]), pneumonia (3/17 [18%]), and myocarditis (8/14 [57%]). With the exception of Merkel cell carcinoma samples, MCPyV-positive tissues showed low copy numbers of MCPyV DNA by real-time PCR and no expression of the MCPyV large T antigen by immunohistochemistry. HPyV6 and HPyV7 were rarely detected in serum and tissue samples. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MCPyV viremia is associated with host immunity, and that circulation of HPyV6 and HPyV7 in the serum is rare.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of aggressive and resistant non-Hodgkin lymphoma that occurs predominantly in patients with advanced AIDS. In this study, we examined the antitumor activity of zoledronic acid (Zol) -induced Vγ9Vδ2 T cells against PEL cells in vitro and in vivo. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognized endogenous mevalonate metabolites and MICA/B of PEL cell lines, inducing cytotoxicity via granule exocytosis and TRAIL-mediated pathway. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells suppressed the development of PEL cells and existed in a PEL xenograft mouse model. These results show that immunotherapy with Zol-induced Vγ9Vδ2 T cells could demonstrate an efficient strategy for PEL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus (H5N1) infection in humans causes acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to multiple organ failure. Five fatal cases of H5N1 infection in Vietnam were analyzed pathologically to reveal virus distribution, and local proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues. Our main histopathological findings showed diffuse alveolar damage in the lungs. The infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive and/or CD68 (clone KP-1)-positive neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages was remarkable in the alveolar septa and alveolar spaces. Immunohistochemistry revealed that H5N1 mainly infected alveolar epithelial cells and monocytes/macrophages in lungs. H5N1 replication was confirmed by detecting H5N1 mRNA in epithelial cells using in situ hybridization. Quantitation of H5N1 RNA using quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays revealed that the level of H5N1 RNA was increased in cases during early phases of the disease. We quantified the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (commonly known as RANTES), and interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections. Their expression levels correlated with H5N1 RNA copy numbers detected in the same lung region. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 were expressed in epithelial cells and/or monocytes/macrophages. In particular, IL-6 was also expressed in endothelial cells. The dissemination of H5N1 beyond respiratory organs was not confirmed in two cases examined in this study.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 23 November 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.193.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) continues to be one of the most serious intractable diseases that might start with activation of several triggers representing the genetic susceptibility of a patient. To elucidate what essentially contributes to the onset and progression of IPAH, we investigated factors playing an important role in IPAH by searching discrepant or controversial expression patterns between our murine model and those previously published for human IPAH. We employed the mouse model, which induced muscularization of pulmonary artery leading to hypertension by repeated intratracheal injection of Stachybotrys chartarum, a member of nonpathogenic and ubiquitous fungus in our envelopment. METHODS: Microarray assays with ontology and pathway analyses were performed with the lungs of mice. A comparison was made of the expression patterns of biological pathways between our model and those published for IPAH. RESULTS: Some pathways in our model showed the same expression patterns in IPAH, which included bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling with down-regulation of BMP receptor type 2, activin-like kinase type 1, and endoglin. On the other hand, both Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling and its downstream Rho/ROCK signaling were found alone to be activated in IPAH and not in our model. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of Wnt/PCP signaling, in upstream positions of the pathway, found alone in lungs from end stage IPAH may play essential roles in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Respiratory research 11/2012; 13(1):103. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have indicated that vMIP-I and vMIP-II play important roles in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related diseases due to the effects of these proteins on vascularization. We developed monoclonal antibodies against KSHV-encoded viral macrophage inflammatory protein-I (vMIP-I) and vMIP-II to study these expression profiles and reveal the pathogenesis of KSHV-related diseases. The MAbs against vMIP-I and vMIP-II reacted to KSHV-infected cell lines after lytic induction. Both vMIP-I and the vMIP-II gene products were detected 24 h post-induction with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate until 60 h in the cytoplasm of primary effusion lymphoma cell lines. In clinical specimens, both vMIP-I and vMIP-II gene products were detected in the tissues of patients with multicentric Castleman's disease. On the other hand, only vMIP-II was detected in a subset of Kaposi's sarcoma. We concluded that these antibodies might be powerful tools to elucidate the pathogenesis of KSHV-related diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) has emerged as an important public health problem in several rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important in preventing disfiguring complications associated with late stages of the disease progression. Presently there is no simple and rapid test that is appropriate for early diagnosis and use in the low-resource settings where M. ulcerans is most prevalent.
We compared conventional and pocket warmer loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods (using a heat block and a pocket warmer respectively as heat source for amplification reaction) for the detection of M. ulcerans in clinical specimens. The effect of purified and crude DNA preparations on the detection rate of the LAMP assays were also investigated and compared with that of IS2404 PCR, a reference assay for the detection of M. ulcerans. Thirty clinical specimens from suspected BU cases were examined by LAMP and IS2404 PCR.
The lower detection limit of both LAMP methods at 60°C was 300 copies of IS2404 and 30 copies of IS2404 for the conventional LAMP at 65°C. When purified DNA extracts were used, both the conventional LAMP and IS2404 PCR concordantly detected 21 positive cases, while the pocket warmer LAMP detected 19 cases. Nine of 30 samples were positive by both the LAMP assays as well as IS2404 PCR when crude extracts of clinical specimens were used.
The LAMP method can be used as a simple and rapid test for the detection of M. ulcerans in clinical specimens. However, obtaining purified DNA, as well as generating isothermal conditions, remains a major challenge for the use of the LAMP method under field conditions. With further improvement in DNA extraction and amplification conditions, the pwLAMP could be used as a point of care diagnostic test for BU.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel detection system was established previously for cells infected with the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in vitro that utilizes the unique IE1-dependent nuclear dispersion of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies early in the HCMV replication cycle. This assay system, designated "the PML assay," makes use of the GFP-PML-expressing cell line SE/15, and allows real-time monitoring of infected cells by fluorescence microscopy without any staining procedures. A rapid and quantitative drug susceptibility testing was developed for low-titer clinical isolates propagated in fibroblasts in vitro. The present study sought to exploit the PML assay for evaluating in vivo status of HCMV without virus isolation. Progeny viruses were detected directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected in vivo obtained from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. The overall positivity of the PML assay tended to correlate with the levels of genomic DNA. Direct phenotypic susceptibility testing detected one ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant case among 19 samples, which was confirmed further by genomic and plaque reduction assays. However, in another patient with the sequence-proven mutant confirmed by sequencing, the progeny viruses exhibiting GCV-resistance were not detected. Studies on the isolated virus from the latter patient suggested the possibility that replication efficiency may differ between PBMCs and lesions infected in vivo, which may hamper the detection of GCV-resistant viruses by the PML assay, at least in this case. Taken together, the PML assay is sufficiently sensitive to monitor replication-competent HCMV directly from PBMCs infected in vivo, and provides a novel tool for comparing the characteristics of HCMV strains infected in vivo.
Journal of Medical Virology 03/2012; 84(3):479-86. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an infrequent and distinct entity among the aggressive non-Hodgkin B cell lymphomas that occurs predominantly in patients with advanced AIDS. It shows serous lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy with a poor prognosis. Thus, the optimal treatment for PEL is not well defined and there is a need for novel agents. PEL has been recognized as the tumor caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus/human herpes virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation plays a critical role in the survival and growth of PEL cells. In this study, we assessed the antitumor effect of berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, on this pathway. The methylthiotetrazole assay showed that cell proliferation in the PEL cell lines was inhibited by berberine. Berberine also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and suppressed NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB kinase (IKK) phosphorylation, IκB phosphorylation and IκB degradation, upstream targets of the NF-κB pathway, in PEL cells. In a xenograft mouse model that showed ascites and diffuse organ invasion of PEL cells, treatment with berberine inhibited the growth and invasion of PEL cells significantly compared with untreated mice. These results show that the suppression of NF-κB is a molecular target for treating PEL, and berberine is a potential antitumor agent for PEL.
Cancer Science 02/2012; 103(4):775-81. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of multisystem vasculitis in childhood. Although cervical lymphadenitis is one of the major symptoms in KD, lymph node biopsy is rarely performed, because KD is usually diagnosed by clinical symptoms. A cervical lymph node biopsy was taken from a girl aged 1 year and 8 months who had suspected lymphoma, but she was diagnosed with KD after the biopsy. The cervical lymph node specimen was analyzed with multivirus real-time PCR that can detect >160 viruses, and unbiased direct sequencing with a next-generation DNA sequencer to detect potential pathogens in the lymph node. Histologically, focal necrosis with inflammatory cell infiltration, including neutrophils and macrophages, was observed in the marginal zone of the cervical lymph node, which was compatible with the acute phase of KD. Multivirus real-time PCR detected a low copy number of torque teno virus in the sample. Comprehensive direct sequencing of the cervical lymph node biopsy sample sequenced more than 8 million and 3 million reads from DNA and RNA samples, respectively. Bacterial genomes were detected in 0.03% and 1.79% of all reads in DNA and RNA samples, respectively. Although many reads corresponded to genomes of bacterial environmental microorganisms, Streptococcus spp. genome was detected in both DNA (77 reads) and RNA (2,925 reads) samples. Further studies are required to reveal any association of microbial or viral infection with the pathogenesis of KD.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2012; 5(8):814-23. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer with neuroendocrine features, has been found to be associated with a new type of human polyomavirus called Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). Patients diagnosed with MCC have a signiﬁcantly increased risk of a second primary cancer. We report here the first case of two primary MCCs arising on the face at different times, associated with MCV infection. The tumour on the patient's right cheek was surgically removed, followed by chemoradiation. After a 10-year tumour-free period, a new tumour developed on the patient's left cheek. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with MCC. The tumours had high MCV copy numbers and expressed large T antigen, which may play a major role in MCV-mediated carcinogenesis. This case highlights the close links between MCC and MCV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty autopsy cases with 2009 pandemic influenza A (2009 H1N1) virus infection, performed between August 2009 and February 2010, were histopathologically analyzed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry for type A influenza nucleoprotein antigen, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for viral RNA were performed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens. In addition, the D222G amino acid substitution in influenza virus hemagglutinin, which binds to specific cell receptors, was analyzed in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded trachea and lung sections by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products. There were several histopathological patterns in the lung according to the most remarkable findings in each case: acute diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with a hyaline membrane (four cases), organized DAD (one case), acute massive intra-alveolar edema with variable degrees of hemorrhage (three cases), neutrophilic bronchopneumonia (five cases) and tracheobronchitis with limited histopathological changes in alveoli (four cases). In two cases, the main findings were due to preexisting disease. Influenza virus antigen was only detected in the respiratory tract in 10 cases by immunohistochemistry. The antigen was detected in type II pneumocytes (three cases) in the epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi and glands (six cases), and in the epithelial cells in both of the above (one case). The four cases with acute DAD presented with antigen-positive type II pneumocytes. In one case, the D222G substitution was detected in the lung as a major sequence, although 222D was prominent in the trachea, suggesting that selection of the viral clones occurred in the respiratory tract. In five cases, the pathogenesis of 2009 H1N1 was confirmed to be viral infection in pneumocytes, which caused severe alveolar damage and fatal viral pneumonia. Further studies on both host and viral factors in autopsy or biopsy materials will be essential to elucidate the other pathogenic factors involved in influenza virus infection.
Modern Pathology 08/2011; 25(1):1-13. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus spread quickly worldwide in 2009. Since most of the fatal cases were reported in developing countries, rapid and accurate diagnosis methods that are usable in poorly equipped laboratories are necessary. In this study, a mobile detection system for the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus was developed using a reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) kit with a disposable pocket-warmer as a heating device (designated as pwRT-LAMP). The pwRT-LAMP can detect as few as 100 copies of the virus--which is nearly as sensitive as real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)--and does not cross-react with RNA of seasonal influenza viruses. To evaluate the usefulness of the pwRT-LAMP system, nasal swab samples were collected from 56 patients with flu-like symptoms and were tested. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed that the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus was present in 27 of the 56 samples. Of these 27 positive samples, QuickVue Influenza A+B immunochromatography detected the virus in only 11 samples (11/27; 40.7%), whereas the pwRT-LAMP system detected the virus in 26 of the 56 samples (26/27 of the positive samples; 96.3%). These findings indicate that the mobile pwRT-LAMP system is an accurate diagnostic system for the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, and has great potential utility in diagnosing future influenza pandemics.
Journal of Medical Virology 04/2011; 83(4):568-73. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel simultaneous detection system for human viruses was developed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system to identify causes of infection in clinical samples from patients with uncertain diagnoses. This system, designated as the "multivirus real-time PCR," has the potential to detect 163 human viruses (47 DNA viruses and 116 RNA viruses) in a 96-well plate simultaneously. The specificity and sensitivity of each probe-primer set were confirmed with cells or tissues infected with specific viruses. The multivirus real-time PCR system showed profiles of virus infection in 20 autopsies of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, and detected frequently TT virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and Epstein-Barr virus in various organs; however, RNA viruses were detected rarely except for human immunodeficiency virus-1. Pathology samples from 40 patients with uncertain diagnoses were examined, including cases of encephalitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis. Herpes simplex virus 1, human herpesvirus 6, and parechovirus 3 were identified as causes of diseases in four cases of encephalitis, while no viruses were identified in other cases as causing disease. This multivirus real-time PCR system can be useful for detecting virus in specimens from patients with uncertain diagnoses.
Journal of Medical Virology 02/2011; 83(2):322-30. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8) is a human herpesvirus, classified as a gamma-herpesvirus. KSHV is detected in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and some cases of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Similar to other herpes viruses, there are two phases of infection, latent and lytic. In KSHV-associated malignancies such as KS and PEL, KSHV latently infects almost all tumor cells. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that each tumor cell contains one copy of KSHV in KS lesions. The oncogenesis by KSHV has remained unclear. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)-1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated malignancies through inhibition of apoptosis and maintenance of latency. Because all KSHV-infected cells express LANA-1, LANA-1 immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for diagnosis of KSHV infection. KSHV encodes some homologs of cellular proteins including cell-cycle regulators, cytokines, and chemokines, such as cyclin D, G-protein-coupled protein, interleukin-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 and -2. These viral proteins mimic or disrupt host cytokine signals, resulting in microenvironments amenable to tumor growth. Lytic infection is frequently seen in MCD tissues, suggesting a different pathogenesis from KS and lymphoma.