Theodore Tselios

University of Patras, Rhion, West Greece, Greece

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Publications (58)172.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ΑΤ1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists exert their antihypertensive effects by preventing the vasoconstrictive hormone AngII to bind to the AT1 receptor. It has been proposed that these biological effects are mediated through a two-step mechanism reaction. In the first step, they are incorporated in the core of the lipid bilayers and in the second step they reach the active site of the receptor through lateral diffusion. In this model, drug:membrane interactions are key elements for the drugs achieving inhibition at the AT1 receptor. In this work, the interactions of the prodrug candesartan cilexetil (TCV-116) with lipid bilayers are studied at molecular detail. Solid-state (13)C-CP/MAS, 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY NMR spectroscopy and in silico calculations are used. TCV-116 and olmesartan, another drug which acts as an AT1R antagonist are compared for their dynamic effects in lipid bilayers using solid-state (2)H-NMR. We find a similar localization of TCV-116 compared to other AT1 antagonists in the intermediate polar region. In addition, we can identify specific local interactions. These interactions may be associated in part with the discrete pharmacological profiles observed for different antagonists.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The predominant proteins of the CNS are myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein (PLP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. PLP139-151 is one of the major encephalitogenic epitopes of PLP. The epitope PLP139-151 binds to MHC class II (I-A(s)) of SJL/J mice and induces Th1 responses.
    Immunotherapy 06/2014; 6(6):709-24. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dissolution of the antihypertensive AT1 antagonist olmesartan in methanol generates in situ a new highly bioactive methyl ether analogue via SN1 mechanism involving an intramolecular proton transfer from carboxyl to hydroxyl group. Theoretical calculations confirmed the thermodynamic control preference of methyl ether versus the antagonistic product methyl ester. Α facile synthetic method for olmesartan methyl ether from olmesartan or olmesartan medoxomil is also described. Interestingly, the introduction of the methyl group to olmesartan did not alter its pharmacological properties. This observation opens new avenues in the synthesis of novel drugs, since hydroxyl and carboxylate groups have an orthogonal relationship in many drugs.
    Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ligand binding determinants for the Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), have been characterized by means of computer simulations. As a first step, a pharmacophore model of known AT1R ligands exhibiting a wide range of binding affinities was generated. Secondly, a structural model of AT1R was built making use of the growing set of crystal structures of GPCRs, which was further used for the docking of the AT1R ligands based on the devised pharmacophore model. Next, ligand - receptor - lipid bilayer systems were studied by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Overall, combining the pharmacophore model with binding free energy calculations obtained from the MD simulations, the present study has permitted to propose the molecular mechanisms by which sartans interact with AT1R.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 10/2013; · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) systems are dendrimeric structures bearing multiple copies of identical or different peptide epitopes, and they have been demonstrated to show enhanced immunogenicity. Herein, we report the direct (divergent) and indirect (convergent) synthesis, using contemporary synthetic approaches, of a di-branched antigenic peptide (di-BAP) containing the immunodominant epitope MBP(83-99), which is implicated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The direct synthesis (di-BAP 1) was performed using microwave irradiation. The indirect synthesis (di-BAP 2) was carried out performing an efficient chemoselective coupling reaction through the formation of a thioether bond. Both di-BAPs were conjugated to polysaccharide mannan since mannosylation is a promising technique to achieve modulation in immune response. The conjugation was achieved through free amino groups of both di-BAPs via the formation of Schiff bases. The mannan-conjugated di-BAPs were further evaluated in vivo in a prophylactic vaccination protocol, prior to EAE induction in Lewis rats.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 08/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, a facile and efficient route for the synthesis of a series of N-substituted imidazole derivatives is described. Docking studies have revealed that N-substituted imidazole derivatives based on (E)-urocanic acid may be potential antihypertensive leads. Therefore, new AT1 receptor blockers bearing either the benzyl or the biphenylmethyl moiety at the N-1 or N-3 position, either the (E)-acrylate or the propanoate fragment and their related acids at the C-4 position as well as a halogen atom at the C-5 position of the imidazole ring, were synthesized. The newly synthesized analogues were evaluated for binding to human AT1 receptor. The biological results showed that this class of molecules possesses moderate or no activity, thus not always confirming high docking scores. Nonetheless, important conclusions can be derived for their molecular basis of their mode of action and help medicinal chemists to design and synthesize more potent ones. An aliphatic group as in losartan seems to be important for enhancing binding affinity and activity.
    Molecules 01/2013; 18(7):7510-7532. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes the rational design, synthesis and pharmacological properties of amide-linked cyclic analogues of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) with substitutions at positions 1 (Pro), 6 (d-Leu/d-Trp), 9 (Aze) and 10 (BABA/Acp). These LHRH analogues fulfil the conformational requirements that are known in the literature (bend in the 5-8 segment) to be essential for receptor recognition and activation. Although, they are characterised by an overall low binding affinity to the LHRH-I receptor, the cyclic analogues that were studied and especially the cyclo(1-10)[Pro(1), d-Leu(6), BABA(10)] LHRH, exhibit a profoundly enhanced in vitro and in vivo stability and improved pharmacokinetics in comparison with their linear counterpart and leuprolide. Upon receptor binding, cyclo(1-10)[Pro(1), d-Leu(6), BABA(10)] LHRH causes testosterone release in C57/B16 mice (in vivo efficacy) that is comparable to that of leuprolide. Testosterone release is an acutely dose dependent effect that is blocked by the LHRH-I receptor antagonist, cetrorelix. The pharmacokinetic advantages and efficacy of cyclo(1-10)[Pro(1), d-Leu(6), BABA(10)] LHRH render this analogue a promising platform for future rational drug design studies towards the development of non-peptide LHRH mimetics.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry 10/2012; 58C:237-247. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Theodore V. Tselios, John M. Matsoukas
    ChemInform 09/2012; 43(38).
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists have wide clinical applications (prostate cancer, endocrine disorders) on the basis of their superiority, when compared to the native hormone (GnRH) in terms of potency (high receptor affinity) and improved proteolytic stability. However, GnRH analogues are still susceptible to the action of proteolytic enzymes and have limited absorption and low bioavailability. As a consequence, these peptides are administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously and as depot formulations compromising efficacy (being dependent on patient compliance). Therefore, the development of novel peptide analogues with enhanced in vivo stability could potentially provide therapeutic alternatives. Taking into account the importance of hormonal therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer and endocrine disorders as well as the current needs for improved therapeutic approaches, we focused on efforts to discover pharmacokinetically superior and possibly equipotent novel GnRH peptide analogues. Although superagonists have well-established clinical benefits, it is true that their in vivo stability remains a limiting factor that most likely prevents them from exerting any direct effects on tumors (extrapituitary) or causing rapid desensitization of the GnRH-I receptor. Herein, we report our findings regarding analogue 1, [Des- Gly10,Tyr5(OMe),D-Leu6,Aze-NHEt9]GnRH, a molecule with the conformational features required for agonistic activity and enhanced in vitro and in vivo stability compared with leuprolide. Results and Discussion In vitro (kidney mouse membranes) and in vivo (clinically relevant pharmacokinetic mouse model) bioassays were coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analogue 1, an agonist of the GnRH-I receptor with a binding affinity in the nanomolar range, caused testosterone release in mice that was acutely dose-dependent, an effect blocked by cetrorelix. Repeated dosing studies in mice demonstrated that analogue 1 was well tolerated and had potency similar to that of leuprolide, based on plasma and testis testosterone reduction and histopathological findings. Analogue 1 also shared with leuprolide similar significant antiproliferative activity on androgen-dependent prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells. Although analogue 1 has reduced binding affinity on the GnRH-I receptor compared with leuprolide, repeated dosing studies in mice demonstrated that analogue 1 was well tolerated and had potency similar to that of leuprolide. Analogue 1 was also endowed with significant anti-proliferative activity on prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), similar to that exerted by leuprolide (drug in the clinic). On the basis of its pharmacokinetic advantages, it is likely that the peptide analogue in question or analogues based on this new design will be therapeutically advantageous for the treatment of endocrine disorders or prostate cancer. Such pharmacokinetic advantages can be particularly valuable with respect to local/direct extrapituitary effects that will be essential for more effective treatment of cancer. References [1] Katsila, T.; Balafas, E.; Liapakis, G.; Limonta, P.; Montagnani-Marelli, M.; Gkountelias, K.; Tselios, T.; Kostomitsopoulos, N.; Matsoukas, J.; Tamvakopoulos, C. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011, 336, 613
    32o European Peptide Symposium, Athens, Greece; 09/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Τwo dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies complimented by molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the conformation of the immunodominant epitope of acetylated myelin basic protein residues 1-11 (Ac-MBP(1-11)) and its altered peptide ligands, mutated at position 4 to an alanine (Ac-MBP(1-11)[4A]) or a tyrosine residue (Ac-MBP(1-11)[4Y]). Conformational analysis of the three analogues indicated that they adopt an extended conformation in DMSO solution as no long distance NOE connectivities were observed and seem to have a similar conformation when bound to the active site of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II). The interaction of each peptide with MHC class II I-A(u) was further investigated in order to explore the molecular mechanism of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction/inhibition in mice. The present findings indicate that the Gln(3) residue, which serves as a T-cell receptor (TCR) contact site in the TCR/peptide/I-A(u) complex, has a different orientation in the mutated analogues especially in the Ac-MBP(1-11)[4A] peptide. In particular the side chain of Gln(3) is not solvent exposed as for the native Ac-MBP(1-11) and it is not available for interaction with the TCR.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 11/2011; 25(11):1019-32. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumour necrosis factor mediates chronic inflammatory pathologies including those affecting the central nervous system, but non-selective tumour necrosis factor inhibitors exacerbate multiple sclerosis. In addition, TNF receptor SF1A, which encodes one of the tumour necrosis factor receptors, has recently been identified as a multiple sclerosis susceptibility locus in genome-wide association studies in large patient cohorts. These clinical data have emphasized the need for a better understanding of the beneficial effects of tumour necrosis factor during central nervous system inflammation. In this study, we present evidence that the soluble and transmembrane forms of tumour necrosis factor exert opposing deleterious and beneficial effects, respectively, in a multiple sclerosis model. We compared the effects, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, of selectively inhibiting soluble tumour necrosis factor, and of both soluble and transmembrane tumour necrosis factor. Blocking the action of soluble tumour necrosis factor, but not of soluble tumour necrosis factor and transmembrane tumour necrosis factor, protected mice against the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therapeutic benefit was independent of changes in antigen-specific immune responses and focal inflammatory spinal cord lesions, but was associated with reduced overall central nervous system immunoreactivity, increased expression of neuroprotective molecules, and was dependent upon the activity of neuronal nuclear factor-κB, a downstream mediator of neuroprotective tumour necrosis factor/tumour necrosis factor receptor signalling, because mice lacking IκB kinase β in glutamatergic neurons were not protected by soluble tumour necrosis factor blockade. Furthermore, blocking the action of soluble tumour necrosis factor, but not of soluble tumour necrosis factor and transmembrane tumour necrosis factor, protected neurons in astrocyte-neuron co-cultures against glucose deprivation, an in vitro neurodegeneration model relevant for multiple sclerosis, and this was dependent upon contact between the two cell types. Our results show that soluble tumour necrosis factor promotes central nervous system inflammation, while transmembrane tumour necrosis factor is neuroprotective, and suggest that selective inhibition of soluble tumour necrosis factor may provide a new way forward for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and possibly other inflammatory central nervous system disorders.
    Brain 09/2011; 134(Pt 9):2722-35. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aliskiren is a nonpeptide antihypertensive drug that potently inhibits the human enzyme renin in vitro and in vivo. Many clinical trials have shown the efficacy of aliskiren to lower blood pressure in correlation with other antihypertensive agents. In this report, the conformational behavior of aliskiren is studied in water, trifluoroethanol, and dimethylformamide solutions by means of 2D-NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. The stereochemical characteristics of aliskiren in different solutions, in combination with the previously published crystal structure of the renin-aliskiren complex have been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the conformational behavior of this first successful renin inhibitor in relation to its environment. In aqueous solution, aliskiren adapts a U-shape conformation, whereas in DMF, the molecule is basically endowed with an "extended" conformation, which has more similarities to the one bound to the receptor.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 08/2011; 51(9):2386-97. · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fast and efficient microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis (MW-SPPS) of a 51mer peptide, the main heparin-binding site (60-110) of human pleiotrophin (hPTN), using 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) following the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl/tert-butyl (Fmoc/tBu) methodology and with the standard N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide/1-hydroxybenzotriazole (DIC/HOBt) coupling reagents, is described. An MW-SPPS protocol was for the first time successfully applied to the acid labile CLTR-Cl for the faster synthesis of long peptides (51mer peptide) and with an enhanced purity in comparison to conventional SPPS protocols. The synthesis of such long peptides is not trivial and it is generally achieved by recombinant techniques. The desired linear peptide was obtained in only 30 h of total processing time and in 51% crude yield, in which 60% was the purified product obtained with 99.4% purity. The synthesized peptide was purified by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Then, the regioselective formation of the two disulfide bridges of hPTN 60-110 was successfully achieved by a two-step procedure, involving an oxidative folding step in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to form the Cys(77)-Cys(109) bond, followed by iodine oxidation to form the Cys(67)-Cys(99) bond.
    Amino Acids 05/2011; 40(5):1431-40. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists have wide clinical applications including the treatment of prostate cancer and endocrine disorders. However, such agonists are characterized by poor pharmacokinetic properties, often requiring repeated administration or special formulations. Therefore, the development of novel peptide analogs with enhanced in vivo stability could potentially provide therapeutic alternatives. The pharmacological evaluation of a bioactive peptide [Des-Gly¹⁰,Tyr⁵(OMe),D-Leu⁶,Aze-NHEt⁹]GnRH, analog 1, is presented herein and compared with leuprolide. Peptide stability was evaluated using mouse kidney membrane preparations, followed by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approach that afforded identification and quantification of its major metabolites. The analog was significantly more stable in vitro in comparison with leuprolide. In vitro and in vivo stability results correlated well, encouraging us to develop a clinically relevant pharmacokinetic mouse model, which facilitated efficacy measurements using testosterone as a biomarker. Analog 1, an agonist of the GnRH receptor with a binding affinity in the nanomolar range, caused testosterone release in mice that was acutely dose-dependent, an effect blocked by the GnRH receptor antagonist cetrorelix. Repeated dosing studies in mice demonstrated that analog 1 was well tolerated and had potency similar to that of leuprolide, based on plasma and testis testosterone reduction and histopathological findings. Analog 1 also shared with leuprolide similar significant antiproliferative activity on androgen-dependent prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells. On the basis of pharmacokinetic advantages, we expect that analog 1 or analogs based on this new design will be therapeutically advantageous for the treatment of cancer and endocrine disorders.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2011; 336(3):613-23. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of o-, m- and p-benzyl tetrazole derivatives 11a-c has been designed, synthesized and evaluated as potential Angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists, based on urocanic acid. Compound 11b with tetrazole moiety at the m-position showed moderate, however, higher activity compared to the o- and p-counterpart analogues. Molecular modelling techniques were performed in order to extract their putative bioactive conformations and explore their binding modes.
    Amino Acids 02/2011; 40(2):411-20. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two new synthetic analogues of the MBP(83-99) epitope substituted at Lys(91) (primary TCR contact) with Phe [MBP(83-99) (Phe(91))] or Tyr [MBP(83-99) (Tyr(91))], have been structurally elucidated using 1D and 2D high resolution NMR studies. The conformational analysis of the two altered peptide ligands (APLs) has been performed and showed that they adopt a linear and extended conformation which is in agreement with the structural requirements of the peptides that interact with the HLA-DR2 and TCR receptors. In addition, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the two analogues in complex with HLA-DR2 (DRA, DRB1*1501) and TCR were performed. Similarities and differences of the binding motif of the two analogues were observed which provide a possible explanation of their biological activity. Their differences in the binding mode in comparison with the MBP(83-99) epitope may also explain their antagonistic versus agonistic activity. The obtained results clearly indicate that substitutions in crucial amino acids (TCR contacts) in combination with the specific conformational characteristics of the MBP(83-99) immunodominant epitope lead to an alteration of their biological activity. These results make the rational drug design intriguing since the biological activity is very sensitive to the substitution and conformation of the mutated MBP epitopes.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 01/2011; 25:837-853. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leuprolide [DLeu6, NHEt10]GnRH, a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, is used in a wide variety of hormone-related diseases like cancer and endometriosis. In this report, the conformational behaviour of Leuprolide and its linear synthetic analogues, namely [Tyr5(OMe), DLeu6, Aze9, NHEt10]GnRH (1) and [Tyr5(OMe), DLeu6, NHEt10]GnRH (2) have been studied in DMSO and H2O solutions by means of 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The aim was to identify the conformational requirements of GnRH analogues for agonistic activity. This approach is of value as no crystallographic data are available for the GnRH receptor (G protein-coupled receptor, GPCR). The NOE data indicate the existence of a β-turn type I in the 2-5 segments of Leuprolide and its linear analogues in the case of using DMSO-d6 as solvent, whereas a β-turn type II in the 3-6 segments is indicated using D2O as solvent. The final structures fulfil the conformational requirements that are known, in the literature, to play a significant role in receptor recognition and activation. Finally, the linear analogues (1) and (2) are biologically active when tested against the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.
    Amino Acids 03/2010; 39(5):1147-60. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of peptides to generate altered peptide ligands, capable of switching immune responses from T helper 1 (Th1) to T helper 2 (Th2), are promising candidates for the immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We synthesized two mutant peptides from myelin basic protein 87-99 (MBP(87-99)), an immunodominant peptide epitope identified in MS. Mutations of residues K(91) and P(96), known to be critical T-cell receptor (TCR) contact sites, resulted in the mutant peptides [R(91), A(96)]MBP(87-99) and [A(91), A(96)]MBP(87-99). Immunization of mice with these altered peptide ligands emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant induced both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) responses compared with only IFN-gamma responses induced to the native MBP(87-99) peptide. It was of interest that [R(91), A(96)]MBP(87-99) conjugated to reduced mannan induced 70% less IFN-gamma compared with the native MBP(87-99) peptide. However, [A(91), A(96)]MBP(87-99) conjugated to reduced mannan did not induce IFN-gamma-secreting T cells, but elicited very high levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, antibodies generated to [A(91), A(96)]MBP(87-99) peptide conjugated to reduced mannan did not cross-react with the native MBP(87-99) peptide. By molecular modelling of the mutant peptides in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, I-A(s), novel interactions were noted. It is clear that the double-mutant peptide analogue [A(91), A(96)]MBP(87-99) conjugated to reduced mannan is able to divert immune responses from Th1 to Th2 and is a promising mutant peptide analogue for use in studies investigating potential treatments for MS.
    Immunology 12/2009; 128(4):521-33. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some aspects of CNS-directed autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis are modeled in mice by immunization with myelin Ags where tissue damage is driven by myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 effector lymphocytes. Whether the CNS plays an active role in controlling such autoimmune diseases is unknown. We used mice in which IkappaB kinase beta was deleted from Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIalpha-expressing neurons (nIKKbetaKO) to investigate the contribution of neuronal NF-kappaB to the development of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We show that nIKKbetaKO mice developed a severe, nonresolving disease with increased axon loss compared with controls and this was associated with significantly reduced CNS production of neuroprotective factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, CSF1-R, and FLIP) and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF, IL-12, IL-17, and CD30L) and chemokines. The isolation of CNS-infiltrating monocytes revealed greater numbers of CD4(+) T cells, reduced numbers of NK1.1(+) cells, and a selective accumulation of Th1 cells in nIKKbetaKO CNS from early in the disease. Our results show that neurons play an important role in determining the quality and outcome of CNS immune responses, specifically that neuronal IkappaB kinase beta is required for neuroprotection, suppression of inflammation, limitation of Th1 lymphocyte accumulation, and enhancement of NK cell recruitment in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-affected CNS and stress the importance of neuroprotective strategies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2009; 183(12):7877-89. · 5.52 Impact Factor