[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite major progress in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment during the recent decades, hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality throughout the world. The prevalence of hypertension in developing countries continues to rise reaching alarming rates. Several risk factors of hypertension appear to be more common in developing countries than in developed countries. In Turkey, hypertension is a prevalent condition affecting approximately 22.5 million individuals. Hypertension control (defined as blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg) rate increased from 8.1% in 2003 (first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study) to 28.7% in 2012 (PatenT 2 study). Meanwhile, rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remained high in Turkey. Controlling risk factors such as hypertension, tobacco use, unhealthy diet, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and physical inactivity can prevent most of the deaths from cardiovascular disease. It is also crucial for the public health system to have a hypertension education program aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease and prevention and control of hypertension promoting a healthy lifestyle in Turkey. Such a program could positively affect other lifestyle-related diseases as well. Importantly, cooperation among the components of the health system could contribute to improved outcomes in hypertensive populations.
Kidney International Supplements. 12/2013; 3(4):326-331.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to detect the prevalence of ownership of a home sphygmomanometer among hypertensive subjects through a nation-wide survey, to investigate parameters affecting ownership of a sphygmomanometer, to compare how home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) was actually used in daily practice with some aspects of the current guidelines, and to discuss what we implemented to increase the reliability of HBPM in a developing country. A total of 2747 hypertensive patients from 34 cities, representative of the Turkish population, were enrolled in the study. A multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to each participant using the computer-assisted telephone interviewing method. Among 2747 hypertensive patients, 1281 of them (46.6%) had a home sphygmomanometer. Most of the patients were using wrist devices. The factors associated with ownership of a sphygmomanometer were female gender, older age, obesity, higher educational status, higher income level, living in urban areas, awareness of hypertension and anti-hypertensive drug usage. Only 16% of the devices were used on the advice of a physician. The patients learned usage of their device mainly from the sellers and their relatives. The ownership of a home sphygmomanometer is common among hypertensive patients in Turkey, but regular monitoring of blood pressure before physician visits is rare despite common ownership of these devices. Daily practice of HBPM in Turkey was far from the recommendations of the current guidelines. More effort is needed to improve the reliability of HBPM.
Hypertension Research 11/2011; 35(3):356-61. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This population-based epidemiological study was aimed to evaluate the daily salt intake and its relation to blood pressure in a representative group of Turkish population. The enrolled normotensive and hypertensive individuals (n = 1970) completed a questionnaire including demographics, dietary habits, hypertension awareness and drug usage. Blood pressure was measured and to estimate salt consumption, 24-h urine samples were collected. The daily urinary sodium excretion was 308.3 ± 143.1 mmol/day, equal to a salt intake of 18.01 g/day. Salt intake was higher in obese participants, rural residents, participants with lower education levels and elderly. A positive linear correlation between salt intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was demonstrated (r = 0.450, p = 0.020; r = 0.406, p = 0.041; respectively), and each 100 mmol/day of salt intake resulted in 5.8 and 3.8 mmHg increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, respectively. Salt intake and systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated in normal weight individuals (r = 0.257, p < 0.01). The Turkish population consumes a great amount of salt; salt intake and blood pressure was positively correlated. Efforts in sodium restriction are therefore crucial in the management of hypertension as part of national and global health policies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 50 disease-associated mutations of the Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) have been identified in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), some of which were shown to have different clinical, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of mutation type, genotype-phenotype correlation, and response to colchicine treatment in patients with FMF.
This study included 222 pediatric FMF patients. All patients were investigated for 6 MEFV mutations. Then patients were divided into 3 groups according to the presence of M694V mutation on both of the alleles (homozygotes), on only 1 allele (heterozygotes), and on none of the alleles, and compared according to their phenotypic characteristics and response to treatment. M694V/M694V was denoted Group A, M694V/Other Group B, and Other/Other, Group C.
Complete colchicine response was significantly lower while the rate of unresponsiveness was significantly higher in Group A compared to Groups B and C (p = 0.031, p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, p = 0.029, respectively). No differences except proteinuria were found between the phenotypic features of 3 groups. Group C had the lowest rate of proteinuria development (p = 0.024). All the amyloidosis patients were in Group A.
Our results indicate that the M694V/M694V mutation is associated with lower response to colchicine treatment. Therefore, patients homozygous for M694V/M694V may be carrying an increased risk for development of amyloidosis.
The Journal of Rheumatology 12/2009; 37(1):182-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension incidence is an important determinant of hypertension prevalence and progression. Few studies have been published on hypertension incidence in developing countries despite the high prevalence observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of hypertension in Turkey.
The study was designed as an epidemiological cohort study which included the population of the Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) Study which had 4910 volunteers. Blood pressure measurements were performed three times and a questionnaire was used to obtain data on the present status of hypertension with regards to distributions and alterations of risk factors.
In the present study, 4008 (81.6%) participants of the PatenT Study population were contacted after 4 years. After excluding 173 dead and 67 pregnant individuals, the study cohort comprised of 3768 individuals. The overall 4-year incidence rate of hypertension was 21.4%; it reached a maximum of 43.3% in individuals over 65 years of age. Age, initial blood pressure category, and body mass index were the best predictors of the hypertension incidence rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, obesity, alcohol consumption, and living in rural areas were significant predictors of hypertension.
Follow-up periods scheduled considering age, initial blood pressure category, and body mass index are important for the early determination of hypertension. As there are limited data regarding hypertension incidence in developing countries, the results of data collected in this study might serve as a model.
Journal of Hypertension 10/2009; 28(2):240-4. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most devastating complication of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is amyloidosis which is capable of resulting in chronic renal failure. Although amyloid deposits are frequent in adrenal glands based on the autopsies of FMF patients however; to our knowledge, symptomatic adrenal insufficiency has not been reported yet. We describe a 21-year-old-FMF amyloidosis case with a well-functioning allograft who presented to the emergency clinic with the complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea mimicking FMF attack. adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation test was performed due to resistant hyponatremia and disclosed Addison disease. In countries with a high prevalence of FMF, adrenal crisis should be borne in mind in long standing FMF patients.
Rheumatology International 09/2009; 30(12):1647-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective : To assess the value of nitric oxide (NO) production on the disease activity in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) by measuring serum nitrate levels and urinary nitrate excretion as an indicator for NO production. Methods : The study group consisted of 25 patients and 20 healthy children. We measured serum nitrate, urinary excretion of nitrate, and CRP levels in the acute phase and after remission. Results : Serum nitrate levels in the acute phase of the disease were found to be increased compared to the remission phase (28.67 - 10.3 mmol/l, 14.16 - 2.02 mmol/l) (p<0.001) and the control group (13.15 - 2.28 mmol/l) (p<0.001). Urinary nitrate excretion in the acute phase of the patients (15.32 - 9 mmol/mg) was increased compared to that in the remission phase (8.26 - 4.3 mmol/mg) (p=0.016) and in the control group (7.24 - 4.9 mmol/mg) (p<0.01). Conclusion : Serum NO and urinary nitrate excretion were found to be elevated in patients with HSP and this increase was associated with activation of the disease rather than its severity. These findings suggest a role for NO in the pathogenesis of HSP, but nitric oxide in HSP should be further studied in order to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disease
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 07/2009; 31(5):271-274. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) in spot urine samples has been used extensively for screening and diagnosis of hypercalciuria (HC). The aim of this study was to determine the normal values for UCa/Cr, urinary sodium/creatinine (UNa/Cr), urinary potassium/creatinine (UK/Cr) and urinary sodium/potassium (UNa/K) ratios in healthy Turkish children aged 0-5 years. A total of 425 children were enrolled in the study. The urine samples were obtained from the second morning urine in children after breakfast and the first urine after feeding in infants. Urine Ca, Cr, Na and K levels were studied. A positive correlation was found between the UCa/Cr, UNa/Cr, UK/Cr and UNa/K ratios. Our results suggest that UCa/Cr is age-related and declines in the first five years of life except for in the newborn period. It might be concluded that determination of the upper limit of UCa/Cr in children less than five years old for every population can prevent unnecessary laboratory investigations and misdiagnosis of hypercalciuria.
The Turkish journal of pediatrics 01/2009; 51(1):6-13. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by self-limited attacks of fever and polyserositis. Articular involvement in early-onset FMF is a common finding characterized by non-erosive, generally asymmetric monoarthritis in large joints. Protracted FMF arthritis was reported in 2.6% of Turkish patients. An 8-year-old female who has a history of FMF for 5 years applied to our hospital with complaints of persistent swelling and pain of her left knee for 8 months. The patient had been tried to be managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as intra-articulary steroids and colchicine. However, arthritis and acute phase response persisted. With sulphasalazine, complete recovery was achieved. It is our belief that sulphasalazine can be a choice of medical treatment in protracted FMF arthritis.
European Journal of Pediatrics 12/2008; 168(8):1017-9. · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) remains unknown; however, it is generally considered to be an immune complex-mediated disease. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is expressed on activated T cells, and, thus, it is critically involved in the immune response. We aimed to investigate the possible influence of CTLA-4 polymorphisms for susceptibility to HSP and determine if there were associations with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 genotypes. Using polymerase chain reaction-based DNA genotyping, we investigated the polymorphisms located in the genes encoding CTLA-4 in 100 patients with HSP and 156 ethnically matched healthy controls. When CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism of HSP patients and control group was compared, no associations with joint, gastrointestinal or renal manifestations, or susceptibility to HSP, were observed. However, patients with nephrotic proteinuria had higher HLA-DRB1*13 positivity [odds ratio (OR) = 3.76, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.25-11.23, P = 0.025]. When the patients were stratified according to CTLA-4 polymorphism, a significant association between nephrotic proteinuria patients and carriage of the AG genotype was also found (OR = 15.42, 95%CI = 1.59-148.82, P = 0.008). These results suggested that CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism does not contribute to susceptibility to HSP; however, the presence of CTLA-4 AG genotype and HLA-DRB1*13 could be a risk factor for developing nephrotic-range proteinuria in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early determination of renal scar development risk in children following first urinary tract infection (UTI) and early detection and treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are important to prevent renal functional impairment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of VUR and associated renal scar formation, in children who had acute pyelonephritis (APN), first afebrile UTI, and recurrent afebrile UTIs. Patient records of 642 children having UTI were scrutinized and 278 out of 642 were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into three groups: Group 1, patients with APN (n = 73); Group 2, patients with the first afebrile UTI (n = 88); and group 3, patients with recurrent afebrile UTIs (n = 117). Among these groups, VUR prevalence did not differ significantly (group 1: 24.6%, group 2: 22.7%, and group 3: 26.4%. Renal scarring was detected in 19.3% of the patients and was remarkably lower in group 2 when compared with the other two groups (P < 0.05). Renal scarring was found in 37.1% of the patients with VUR, whereas it was found in 14.3% of patients without VUR. Renal scarring incidence was remarkably higher in patients with grades 4-5 VUR (61.5%) compared with those with grades 1-3 VUR (30.6%) (P = 0.055). In conclusion, since VUR was demonstrated in as many as one-quarter of patients with the first afebrile UTI and VUR incidence did not differ significantly among the groups, all UTIs, lower and upper ones, should be carefully evaluated.
International Urology and Nephrology 08/2008; 41(4):947-51. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the patients who were diagnosed as Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) for disease characteristics and prognosis of those with joint, gastrointestinal (GI), and renal involvement. Two hundred and fifty-four children who were followed up with the diagnosis of HSP in the Pediatric Nephrology Clinics of Meram Medical Faculty of Selcuk University and Medical Faculty of Gazi University between January 2003 and June 2006 were retrospectively evaluated. The clinical follow-up and treatment regimens of patients in whom renal biopsy was performed were evaluated in detail. The study group consisted of 254 children, 147 boys (57.8%) and 107 girls (42.2%), and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.37. The percentages of skin, joint, GI, and renal manifestations were 100%, 66%, 56%, and 30%, respectively. Eight patients had intussusception. Five of them recovered with steroid treatment only while three patients were operated on. Sixty-four patients (44%) with GI involvement had severe disease and were successfully treated with steroids. Renal biopsy was performed in 26 patients. Among those 26 patients, two of them recovered spontaneously within 3 and 4 weeks. Ten patients improved with only steroid treatment while 12 patients recovered with steroid and cyclophosphamide treatment. Two patients were resistant to steroid and cyclophosphamide treatment and were treated with cyclosporine A. We believe that steroid therapy given to the HSP patients with GI manifestations might be helpful to prevent probable complications such as GI bleeding and intussusception. In addition, combined therapy with steroid and cyclophosphamide can usually be an appropriate treatment for patients with nephrotic proteinuria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis of childhood. Susceptibility to HSP and associated clinical heterogeneity in HSP may be conferred by a number of genetic loci, including the major histocompatibility complex. We aimed to investigate the implications of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles in susceptibility to HSP and determine the possible associations with renal, gastrointestinal (GI), and joint manifestations of the disease. 110 children with HSP (66 boys, 44 girls) and 250 unrelated healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 8.65 +/- 3.59 years. HSP was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and laboratory data according to the American College of Rheumatology classification. The diagnosis was supported with skin and/or kidney in most of the patients. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed: skin involvement in 110 (100%), joint manifestations in 82 (74.5%), GI symptoms in 58 (52.7%), and hematuria and/or proteinuria in 36 (32.7%) patients. HLA class 1 alleles were identified by DNA amplification, hybridized with specific primer sequences. Comparison of frequencies between patients and controls were made by using the Fisher's exact test. Odds ratio (OR) was used as the measure of association. HLA A2, A11, and B35 antigens showed an increased risk for predisposition to HSP (OR = 1.714, 95%CI = 1.088-2.700, p = 0.020; OR = 2.185, 95%CI = 1.289-3.703, p = 0.003; and OR = 2.292, 95%CI = 1.451-3.619, p = 0.000, respectively), while HLA A1, B49, and B50 antigens revealed decreased risk for predisposition to HSP (OR = 4.739, 95%CI = 1.828-12.345, p = 0.001; OR = 3.268, 95%CI = 0.955-11.236, p = 0.047; and OR = 7.462, 95%CI = 0.975-55.555, p = 0.024, respectively). Considering the renal involvement and severity of proteinuria, there was no association with HLA class 1 alleles. Our results suggest that the increased frequency of HLA A2, A11, and B35 alleles in unselected pediatric HSP patient population and miscarrying of HLA A1, B49, and B50 could be considered as a risk factor for susceptibility to HSP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calciphylaxis is a rare, life-threatening condition of progressive cutaneous necrosis resulting from medial calcification of the small arterioles. It is usually seen in uraemic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. An 11-year-old girl with end-stage renal failure and calciphylaxis of the toes is described. She was unresponsive to medical treatment and amputation was required.
Annals of Tropical Paediatrics International Child Health 07/2007; 27(2):149-52. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical course of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) in children is variable, with some patients having a much more rapidly progressing course than others. We investigated whether polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes are involved in HSP. Three RAS genotypes were examined in 114 children with HSP and in 164 healthy children: the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphism, the M235T mutation in the angiotensinogen gene (Agt), and the A1166C in the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) gene. Significant differences were observed between HSP patients and control group in the frequency of ACE and Agt genotypes (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively). The TT genotype of Agt gene was associated with a 3.5-fold increased risk for Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (HSN) compared with the MM/MT genotype (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-10.4). There was a trend to a higher prevalence of the TT genotype of the Agt gene among patients with nephrotic range proteinuria when compared to the patients with mild proteinuria, although the difference did not reach a statistical significance. The results of this study suggest that polymorphisms of ACE gene and Agt gene likely influence the risk of developing HSP. However, among the three genes of the RAS studies, only Agt gene was associated with the susceptibility to HSN. RAS gene polymorphisms studied are not associated with the presence of nephrotic range proteinuria. Additional studies are warranted to verify the correlation between RAS gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to HSP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ADPN, a recently discovered adipocytokine, has attracted great attention because of its anti-atherogenic properties. It was suggested as a protective factor for the cardiovascular system because of its close correlation with several risk factors. Our aim was to investigate serum ADPN levels in pediatric RTR and to document possible relationships between ADPN and arteriosclerotic risk factors. Twenty-one RTR, aged 16.3 +/- 4.0 yr, and 23 healthy age and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum lipid/lipoprotein fractions, homocysteine and ADPN levels as well as intima-media thickness of the cIMT were determined in both groups. Significantly higher serum ADPN (p < 0.001) and homocysteine (p < 0.05) levels as well as higher cIMT (p < 0.001) were found in RTR compared with the control subjects, whereas apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) levels were not significantly different. HDL cholesterol was positively correlated with log ADPN (r = 0.585, p < 0.01). There were inverse correlations between log time post-transplantation and log ADPN as well as HDL cholesterol (r = -0.438, p < 0.05 and r = -0.578, p < 0.05, respectively). There were no correlation between log ADPN, log homocysteine, log apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), creatinine clearance and cumulative steroid dose. Despite reasonable lipid profiles and remarkably elevated ADPN levels, our pediatric RTR with stable graft function displayed a risk for arteriosclerosis because of increased cIMT and mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Regarding the close positive correlation between ADPN and HDL cholesterol, it could be speculated that ADPN is a novel negative surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the only report investigating levels and diverse correlates of ADPN in a pediatric RTR group. Further studies in larger groups of recipients are needed to clarify the interaction between arteriosclerotic risk factors and ADPN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important messenger molecule with a wide range of actions in virtually all cell systems and organs. In kidneys it participates in glomerular and medullary hemodynamics, tubuloglomerular feed-back, renin secretion, and extracellular fluid balance. Although the role of NO in regulating renal function in adults is well-established, it has recently been suggested that NO has a more critical role in maintaining basal renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the developing kidney. NO is rapidly metabolized to the stable end products nitrite and nitrate, which are more slowly excreted into the urine. Thus these metabolites can be recommended as useful markers of endogenous NO synthase activity, despite limited data about age-related changes in in-vivo NO production. The aims of this study were to determine age-related normal reference values of serum and urinary NO metabolites and to assess the probable relationship between these metabolites and the GFR. Normal levels of NO end products in blood and urine of 296 healthy children (117 female, 179 male) between the ages of 0 and 16 were investigated, as was whether these values change with age. Serum and urinary nitrate levels did not differ according to sex. Serum nitrate levels are higher in younger children, especially in the newborn period, and decrease with age. Nitrate levels in urine are higher in younger children with a peak in infancy (1 month to 1 year) and decrease with age. It was demonstrated that this decrease in serum and urinary nitrate levels with age parallels the increase in GFR. In conclusion, urinary NO products may be an indirect marker of serum NO levels and NO might have an important regulatory function both in the maintenance of renal function and in the maturation of the developing kidneys.