[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Public Health England has reported a decrease of up to 20.8% in new diagnoses of external genital warts (GWs) among women aged <19 years since the national vaccination program with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine began in 2008. A post hoc analysis of the phase III PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults) trial (NCT00122681) was performed to ascertain whether protection against low-risk HPV types was apparent. Methods. Vaccine efficacy (VE) at 48 months was assessed against 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) with low-risk HPV types in the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and in the TVC naive (for 25 HPV types tested) populations. Results. In the TVC naive cohort, VE against 6MPI (95% confidence interval) was 34.5% (11.3 to 51.8) for HPV-6/11, 34.9% (9.1 to 53.7) for HPV-6, 30.3% (-45.0 to 67.5) for HPV-11, and 49.5% (21.0 to 68.3) for HPV-74. Conclusions. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears to have moderate efficacy against persistent infections with a number of low-risk HPV types (HPV-6/11/74), which are responsible for the majority of external GWs, and recently, antibody and cell-mediated immune response to HPV-6/11 have been observed. These findings may help to explain the decrease in external GW diagnoses seen in England.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 208(9):1391-1396. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In January 2010, porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) DNA was unexpectedly detected in the oral live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline [GSK] Vaccines) by an academic research team investigating a novel, highly sensitive analysis not routinely used for adventitious agent screening. GSK rapidly initiated an investigation to confirm the source, nature and amount of PCV1 in the vaccine manufacturing process and to assess potential clinical implications of this finding. The investigation also considered the manufacturer's inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-containing vaccines, since poliovirus vaccine strains are propagated using the same cell line as the rotavirus vaccine strain. Results confirmed the presence of PCV1 DNA and low levels of PCV1 viral particles at all stages of the Rotarix™ manufacturing process. PCV type 2 DNA was not detected at any stage. When tested in human cell lines, productive PCV1 infection was not observed. There was no immunological or clinical evidence of PCV1 infection in infants who had received Rotarix™ in clinical trials. PCV1 DNA was not detected in the IPV-containing vaccine manufacturing process beyond the purification stage. Retrospective testing confirmed the presence of PCV1 DNA in Rotarix™ since the initial stages of its development and in vaccine lots used in clinical studies conducted pre- and post-licensure. The acceptable safety profile observed in clinical trials of Rotarix™ therefore reflects exposure to PCV1 DNA. The investigation into the presence of PCV1 in Rotarix™ could serve as a model for risk assessment in the event of new technologies identifying adventitious agents in the manufacturing of other vaccines and biological products.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 08/2013; 9(11).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this large prospective study of primary HSV infections in young HSV seronegative women we found the rate of HSV-1 infections was over twice that for HSV-2 but there were important age and race differences.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We evaluated baseline data from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA; NCT00122681) on the association between behavioral risk factors and HPV infection and cervical abnormalities. METHODS: Women completed behavioral questionnaires at baseline. Prevalence of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities (detected by cytological or histological procedures) and association with behavioral risk factors were analyzed by univariate and stepwise multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: 16782 women completed questionnaires. Among 16748 women with data for HPV infection, 4059 (24.2%) were infected with any HPV type. Among 16757 women with data for cytological abnormalities, 1626 (9.7%) had a cytological abnormality, of whom 1170 (72.0%) were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type including HPV-16 (22.7%) and HPV-18 (9.3%). Multivariable analysis (adjusted for age and region, N=14404) showed a significant association between infection with any HPV type and not living with a partner, smoking, age <15years at first sexual intercourse, higher number of sexual partners during the past 12months, longer duration of hormonal contraception and history of sexually transmitted infection (STI). For cervical abnormalities, only history of STI (excluding Chlamydia trachomatis) remained significant in the multivariable analysis after adjusting for HPV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Women reporting 3+ sexual partners in the past 12months had the highest risk of HPV infection at baseline. HPV infection was the main risk factor for cervical abnormalities, and history of STIs excluding Chlamydia trachomatis increased risk to a lesser extent. Although behavioral factors can influence risk, all sexually active women are susceptible to HPV infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Control of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers by inclusion of HPV vaccination into national vaccination programmes is likely. One open question is replacement of the vaccine types with other high-risk (hr) HPV types in the vaccination era. We studied occurrence of HPV types in adolescent females participating in a population-based vaccination trial. A total of 4,808 16- to 17-year-old females from Finland were enrolled in the 1:1 randomized phase III (PATRICIA) trial of the efficacy of vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine as compared to hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine. HPV infection was assessed from cervical samples taken every 6 months for 4 years post-vaccination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genital oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 73 as well as low-risk types HPV-6 and HPV-11. The HPV-16/18 vaccine coverage ranged between 1 and 22% by age-cohort and study community. Odds ratios (ORs) for infections with different HPV types in baseline PCR negative HPV-16/18 vs. HAV vaccinated women, and Poisson regression derived HPV incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in baseline positive vs. negative women were calculated. The OR and IRR estimates for acquisition of any genital HPV types showed no excess risk neither in baseline HPV DNA-negative HPV-16/18-vaccinated women compared to baseline HPV DNA-negative HAV vaccinated women nor in HPV-16/18-vaccinated baseline HPV-16/18-positive women compared to baseline HPV-16/18-negative women. In the HAV-vaccinated, baseline HPV-18-positive women showed an increased risk of acquiring other clade A7 HPV types (39, 45, 59, 68) (IRR 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.01.-3.1). We found no increased occurrence of non-vaccine HPV types suggestive of type-replacement 1-4 years post-vaccination among HPV-16/18-vaccinated Finnish adolescents.
International Journal of Cancer 04/2012; 131(12):2832-8. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20.
The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], -29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (-8%; 95% CI, -59 to 26).
In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1- and HSV-2-seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.).
New England Journal of Medicine 01/2012; 366(1):34-43. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This randomized, open, controlled, multicenter study (110886/NCT00578227) evaluated human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18 vaccine) coadministered with inactivated hepatitis A and B (HAB) vaccine. Coprimary objectives were to demonstrate noninferiority of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and HPV-16/18 immune responses at month 7 when vaccines were coadministered, compared with the same vaccines administered alone.
Healthy girls (9-15 years) were age-stratified (9, 10-12, and 13-15 years) and randomized to receive HPV (n = 270), HAB (n = 271), or HPV + HAB (n = 272). Vaccines were administered at months 0, 1, and 6. Immunogenicity was evaluated at months 0 and 7.
The hepatitis A immune response was noninferior for HPV + HAB, versus HAB, for seroconversion rates (100% in each group) and geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) (95% CI) (4,504.2 [3,993.0-5,080.8] and 5,288.4 [4,713.3-5,933.7] mIU/mL, respectively). The hepatitis B immune response was noninferior for HPV + HAB, versus HAB, for anti-HBs seroprotection rates (98.3% and 100%); GMTs were 3,136.5 [2,436.0-4,038.4] and 5,646.5 [4,481.3-7,114.6] mIU/mL, respectively. The HPV-16/18 immune response was noninferior for HPV + HAB, versus HPV, for seroconversion rates (99.6% and 100% for both antigens) and GMTs (22,993.5 [20,093.4-26,312.0] and 26,981.9 [23,909.5-30,449.1] EL.U/mL for HPV-16; 8,671.2 [7,651.7-9,826.6] and 11,182.7 [9,924.8-12,600.1] EL.U/mL for HPV-18, respectively). No subject withdrew because of adverse events. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Immune responses and reactogenicity were similar in girls aged 9 years compared with the entire study population.
Results support coadministration of HPV-16/18 vaccine with HAB vaccine in girls aged 9-15 years. The HPV-16/18 vaccine was immunogenic and generally well tolerated in 9-year-old girls.
Journal of Adolescent Health 01/2012; 50(1):38-46. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N=1,106), stratified by age (18-26, 27-35, 36-45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck & Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5-100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0-100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3-84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4-5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7-9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p< 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4⁺ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection.
Human vaccines 12/2011; 7(12):1343-58. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of the human papillomavirus HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types in the end-of-study analysis after 4 years of follow-up in PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults).
Healthy women aged 15-25 years with no more than six lifetime sexual partners were included in PATRICIA irrespective of their baseline HPV DNA status, HPV-16 or HPV-18 serostatus, or cytology. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to HPV-16/18 vaccine or a control hepatitis A vaccine, via an internet-based central randomisation system using a minimisation algorithm to account for age ranges and study sites. The study was double-blind. The primary endpoint of PATRICIA has been reported previously; the present analysis evaluates cross-protective vaccine efficacy against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types in the end-of-study analysis. Analyses were done for three cohorts: the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (ATP-E; vaccine n=8067, control n=8047), total vaccinated HPV-naive cohort (TVC-naive; no evidence of infection with 14 oncogenic HPV types at baseline, approximating young adolescents before sexual debut; vaccine n=5824, control n=5820), and the total vaccinated cohort (TVC; all women who received at least one vaccine dose, approximating catch-up populations that include sexually active women; vaccine n=9319, control=9325). Vaccine efficacy was evaluated against 6-month persistent infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) associated with 12 non-vaccine HPV types (individually or as composite endpoints), and CIN3+ associated with the composite of 12 non-vaccine HPV types. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00122681.
Consistent vaccine efficacy against persistent infection and CIN2+ (with or without HPV-16/18 co-infection) was seen across cohorts for HPV-33, HPV-31, HPV-45, and HPV-51. In the most conservative analysis of vaccine efficacy against CIN2+, where all cases co-infected with HPV-16/18 were removed, vaccine efficacy was noted for HPV-33 in all cohorts, and for HPV-31 in the ATP-E and TVC-naive. Vaccine efficacy against CIN2+ associated with the composite of 12 non-vaccine HPV types (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68), with or without HPV-16/18 co-infection, was 46·8% (95% CI 30·7-59·4) in the ATP-E, 56·2% (37·2-69·9) in the TVC-naive, and 34·2% (20·4-45·8) in the TVC. Corresponding values for CIN3+ were 73·8% (48·3-87·9), 91·4% (65·0-99·0), and 47·5% (22·8-64·8).
Data from the end-of-study analysis of PATRICIA show cross-protective efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against four oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types-HPV-33, HPV-31, HPV-45, and HPV-51-in different trial cohorts representing diverse groups of women.
The lancet oncology 11/2011; 13(1):100-10. · 14.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) is the surrogate endpoint used in licensure trials of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Vaccine efficacy against CIN3+, the immediate precursor to invasive cervical cancer, is more difficult to measure because of its lower incidence, but provides the most stringent evidence of potential cancer prevention. We report vaccine efficacy against CIN3+ and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in the end-of-study analysis of PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults).
Healthy women aged 15-25 years with no more than six lifetime sexual partners were included in PATRICIA, irrespective of their baseline HPV DNA status, HPV-16 or HPV-18 serostatus, or cytology. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or a control hepatitis A vaccine via an internet-based central randomisation system using a minimisation algorithm to account for age ranges and study sites. The patients and study investigators were masked to allocated vaccine. The primary endpoint of PATRICIA has been reported previously. In the present end-of-study analysis, we focus on CIN3+ and AIS in the populations of most clinical interest, the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and the TVC-naive. The TVC comprised all women who received at least one vaccine dose, approximating catch-up populations and including sexually active women (vaccine n=9319; control=9325). The TVC-naive comprised women with no evidence of oncogenic HPV infection at baseline, approximating early adolescent HPV exposure (vaccine n=5824; control=5820). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00122681.
Vaccine efficacy against CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 100% (95% CI 85·5-100) in the TVC-naive and 45·7% (22·9-62·2) in the TVC. Vaccine efficacy against all CIN3+ (irrespective of HPV type in the lesion and including lesions with no HPV DNA detected) was 93·2% (78·9-98·7) in the TVC-naive and 45·6% (28·8-58·7) in the TVC. In the TVC-naive, vaccine efficacy against all CIN3+ was higher than 90% in all age groups. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy against all CIN3+ and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was highest in the 15-17 year age group and progressively decreased in the 18-20 year and 21-25 year age groups. Vaccine efficacy against all AIS was 100% (31·0-100) and 76·9% (16·0-95·8) in the TVC-naive and TVC, respectively. Serious adverse events occurred in 835 (9·0%) and 829 (8·9%) women in the vaccine and control groups, respectively; only ten events (0·1%) and five events (0·1%), respectively, were considered to be related to vaccination.
PATRICIA end-of-study results show excellent vaccine efficacy against CIN3+ and AIS irrespective of HPV DNA in the lesion. Population-based vaccination that incorporates the HPV-16/18 vaccine and high coverage of early adolescents might have the potential to substantially reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.
The lancet oncology 11/2011; 13(1):89-99. · 14.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combined immunization strategy for administration of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine with other routine vaccines may lead to better compliance. Reactions and immunologic interference with concomitantly administered vaccines are unpredictable, necessitating clinical evaluation.
This was a randomized, open study conducted at 48 centers in the United States (NCT00369824). Healthy girls 11 to 18 years of age were randomized equally to 1 of 6 groups to receive 3 doses of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered at 0, 1, and 6 or 1, 2, and 7 months, with or without 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) and/or 1 dose of meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MCV4) in different coadministration regimens (1283 girls vaccinated). Coadministered vaccines were injected at separate sites. Antibodies were measured for all vaccine components. Reactogenicity and safety were monitored.
The prespecified criteria for noninferiority were met for all primary and secondary immunogenicity end points, demonstrating similar immunogenicity of Tdap and MCV4 when given alone or coadministered with the HPV vaccine. Immunogenicity of the HPV vaccine (in terms of seroconversion rates and geometric mean antibody titers to HPV antigens) was similar, regardless of whether it was given alone or coadministered with Tdap and/or MCV4. No differences were observed in the reactogenicity profile of the HPV vaccine administered alone or coadministered with either Tdap and/or MCV4 in different regimens.
Concomitant administration of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with Tdap and/or MCV4 in different regimens did not interfere with the immune response to any of the vaccines and had an acceptable safety profile.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk factors in young women from Brazil, Canada, and the USA. Cross-sectional study in 3204 healthy women, aged 15 to 25 years. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and for HPV DNA detection (SPF 10-LiPA 25 system). Serum samples were collected for the measurement of HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Risk factors were obtained through a questionnaire. Overall, 26.6% of women had DNA detected for at least 1 HPV type. The prevalence for oncogenic HPV types was 21.7% (25% in Brazil, 16.9% in Canada, and 19.1% in the USA). HPV-16 was the most prevalent oncogenic type (5.2%). The next most common oncogenic HPV types were 51 (3.3%), 52 (3.3%), 31 (2.9%), 66 (2.3%), and 39 (2.0%). Multiple oncogenic types were detected in one-third of the infections. The prevalence of HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 infections detected by DNA and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 24.8%. The majority of women (85%) had a normal cervical cytology. Sexual behavior was the main determinant for HPV-16/18 infections and squamous intraepithelial lesions. The prevalence of HPV oncogenic infections was high and linked to sexual behavior. Strategies to reduce the burden of oncogenic HPV infection, such as prophylactic vaccination programs, are likely to impact the burden of disease due to cervical precancer and cancer.
International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 03/2011; 30(2):173-84. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS antibody levels, standardized for total immunoglobulin G, were calculated at each time-point in women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS. All subjects had seroconverted at Month 7 and remained seropositive through Month 36 for both antigens. Geometric mean titers of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies in serum were substantially higher at all time-points than those in a control group of women who had cleared a natural HPV infection in another trial. In women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS, good correlation was seen between HPV-16/18 antibody levels at all time-points (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.84-0.92 for HPV-16 and 0.90-0.91 for HPV-18). The strong correlation between levels of HPV-16/18 antibodies in serum and CVS up to 36 months post-vaccination in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine supports transudation of serum antibodies as the mechanism by which antibodies are introduced into CVS. These CVS antibodies may play a role in the protective efficacy of this vaccine.
Human vaccines 12/2010; 6(12):1054-61. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunization of girls against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types before sexual debut is important for cervical cancer prevention. This phase III blinded, randomized, controlled trial in adolescent girls assessed safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine.
Girls (mean age 12 years) in 12 countries received the HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (N = 1,035) or hepatitis A virus vaccine as control (N = 1,032) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The primary objective was to compare the occurrence of serious adverse events (SAEs) between groups. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay post-vaccination.
Up to study month 7, 11 girls in the HPV-16/18 vaccine group reported 14 SAEs and 13 girls in the control group reported 15 SAEs. The difference in SAE incidence between groups was .20% (95% CI, -.78, 1.20). No SAE in the HPV-16/18 vaccine group was considered related to vaccination or led to withdrawal. The incidence of solicited local and general symptoms up to 7 days post-vaccination was moderately higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than with control. The incidence of unsolicited symptoms, new onset of chronic diseases, and medically significant conditions was similar between groups. All girls seroconverted for both antigens after three doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine; geometric mean titers were 19,882.0 and 8,262.0 EU/mL for anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies, respectively, in initially seronegative girls.
The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was generally well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to young adolescent females, the primary target of organized vaccination programs.
Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2010; 46(5):414-21. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many countries recommend human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in female adolescents at an age when other vaccines are routinely administered. This open, randomized, multicenter study (108464/NCT00426361) evaluated coadministration of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV).
Healthy females aged 10-18 years were randomized to receive HPV vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6 (n = 248), HPV vaccine coadministered with dTpa-IPV at month 0 and HPV vaccine at months 1 and 6 (n = 255), or dTpa-IPV at month 0 followed by HPV vaccine at months 1, 2, and 7 (n = 248). Immunogenicity was evaluated at months 0, 1, and 7 or 8 (depending on group). Vaccine reactogenicity and safety were also assessed.
Coadministered dTpa-IPV and HPV vaccine was noninferior to dTpa-IPV alone in terms of seroprotection against diphtheria (99.2% and 100%), tetanus (100% and 100%) and poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 (> or = 99.6%), and geometric mean antibody concentrations (ELISA Units/mL) for pertussis toxoid (84 vs. 75), filamentous hemagglutinin (612 and 615) and pertactin (426 and 360) at month 1. Coadministered dTpa-IPV and HPV vaccine was noninferior to HPV vaccine alone in terms of seroconversion rates for HPV-16 (99.5% and 100%) and HPV-18 (99.5% and 100%) and geometric mean antibody titers (ELISA Units/mL) for HPV-16 (15,608 and 18,965) and HPV-18 (6,597 and 6,902) at month 7. Coadministration was generally well tolerated. The reactogenicity of dTpa-IPV and the first dose of HPV vaccine was similar.
Results from this study support coadministration of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with dTpa-IPV vaccine in females aged 10-18 years.
Journal of Adolescent Health 02/2010; 46(2):142-51. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeImmunization of girls against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types before sexual debut is important for cervical cancer prevention. This phase III blinded, randomized, controlled trial in adolescent girls assessed safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine.
Journal of Adolescent Health - J ADOLESCENT HEALTH. 01/2010; 46(5):414-421.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This observer-blind study compared the prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline) and Gardasil (Merck), by assessing immunogenicity and safety through one month after completion of the three-dose vaccination course. Women (n = 1106) were stratified by age (18-26, 27-35, 36-45 years) and randomized (1:1) to receive Cervarix (Months 0, 1, 6) or Gardasil (Months 0, 2, 6). At Month 7 after first vaccination, all women in the according-to-protocol cohort who were seronegative/DNA negative before vaccination for the HPV type analyzed had seroconverted for HPV-16 and HPV-18 serum neutralizing antibodies, as measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA), except for two women aged 27-35 years in the Gardasil group who did not seroconvert for HPV-18 (98%). Geometric mean titers of serum neutralizing antibodies ranged from 2.3-4.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 6.8-9.1-fold higher for HPV-18 after vaccination with Cervarix compared with Gardasil, across all age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (all women who received at least one vaccine dose, regardless of their serological and DNA status prior to vaccination), Cervarix induced significantly higher serum neutralizing antibody titers in all age strata (p < 0.0001). Positivity rates for anti-HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions and circulating HPV-16 and -18 specific memory B-cell frequencies were also higher after vaccination with Cervarix compared with Gardasil. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. The incidence of unsolicited adverse events was comparable between vaccinated groups. The incidence of solicited symptoms was generally higher after Cervarix, injection site reactions being most common. However, compliance rates with the three-dose schedules were similarly high (>or= 84%) for both vaccines. Although the importance of differences in magnitude of immune response between these vaccines is unknown, they may represent determinants of duration of protection against HPV-16/18. Long-term studies evaluating duration of efficacy after vaccination are needed for both vaccines.
Human vaccines 11/2009; 5(10):705-19. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pooled analysis of the safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline) was performed in a cohort of almost 30,000 girls and women aged > or =10 years, 16,142 who received at least one dose of the HPV-16/18 vaccine and 13,811 who received one of three controls [Al(OH)(3) or hepatitis A vaccine (720 or 360 EU)]. Data are available for a total of 45,988 vaccine doses. Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded for seven days after each dose. Serious adverse events (SAEs), pregnancies, medically significant conditions (MSCs) and new onset of chronic diseases (NOCDs), including new onset of autoimmune diseases (NOADs), were proactively monitored. Data were analyzed by vaccine group according to age (10-14, 15-25 and >25 years) and reporting period (months 0-7, months 7-12 and >month 12). Rates of solicited local and general symptoms were higher in the HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in the control groups. However, compliance with the three-dose schedule was high and did not differ between groups (93.4% for HPV-16/18 vaccine group versus 92.5% for pooled controls). No clinically relevant differences were seen between the HPV-16/18 vaccine and pooled control groups in rates of SAEs (2.8% versus 3.1%), MSCs (19.4% versus 21.4%), NOCDs (1.7% in both groups) or NOADs (0.4% versus 0.3%). Similarly, no differences in pregnancy outcomes or rates of withdrawals due to AEs or SAEs were observed between groups. In conclusion, analysis of this large database shows the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine to have a favorable safety profile in women of all ages.
Human vaccines 05/2009; 5(5):332-40. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strong and sustained HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses have been observed in previously unexposed women aged 15-25 years vaccinated with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine. While awaiting the extended results of ongoing trials, our objective was to predict the long-term persistence of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies in vaccinees by applying three statistical models using immunogenicity data from vaccinated women with serum samples collected up to 6.4 years after first vaccination. Two different data lock-points (up to 5.5 years and up to 6.4 years) were used to assess the robustness of the models.
Three statistical models were applied to estimate the long-term persistence of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies in 393 women vaccinated with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine. Individual antibody levels for each study participant at each timepoint up to 6.4 years were input to previously published power-law and modified power-law models. The power-law model estimates antibody decay over time. The modified power-law model takes into account both antibody persistence over time and immune memory. A third model, the piece-wise model, fits the data based on three different non-overlapping intervals (between Months 7 and 12, Months 12 and 21, and over 21 months), corresponding to the observed decay of vaccine-induced antibodies.
HPV-16 and -18 antibodies peaked at Month 7 and gradually plateaued at Months 18-24 and remained stable through 6.4 years. Mean antibody levels at the last timepoint were several fold higher than those associated with natural infection. All three models predict that HPV-16 and -18 mean antibody levels will remain well above those associated with natural infection for at least 20 years, when using data from 5.5 as well as 6.4 years' follow-up. Predictions are similar for the modified power-law model and improve with longer follow-up for both the power-law and the piece-wise models.
Vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine is predicted to provide long-term persistence for both HPV-16 and -18 antibodies, independent of the statistical model applied. Model predictions are based on conservative mathematical assumptions. Since the input of longer term data of up to 6.4 years showed an improved profile compared with that for data up to 5.5 years, the predictions of antibody persistence based on population means are conservative when predicting that antibody levels will remain well above levels induced by natural infection for 20 years.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix) has been shown to be well-tolerated and immunogenic in females aged 10 to 55 years, and up to 100% effective for the prevention of HPV-16/18 infection and associated precancerous cervical lesions in females aged 15 to 25 years. This study is the first to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine in males.
Healthy males aged 10 to 18 years were randomized (2:1 ratio) to receive HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (n = 181) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) control vaccine (n = 89) at 0, 1, and 6 months, and were followed for 7 months.
All initially seronegative subjects in the HPV-16/18 group seroconverted for HPV-16 and 18 (ELISA) at month 2. At month 7, all subjects were seropositive, and the HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels were, respectively, four- and twofold higher than at month 2. The anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses for males aged 10 to 18 years and 10 to 14 years, respectively, were higher than those reported for females aged 15 to 25 years and 10 to 14 years, respectively, in a previous study. The reactogenicity profiles of the HPV-16/18 AS04 and HBV vaccines were similar, except that pain and swelling at the injection site were more common in the HPV-16/18 group. However, vaccine-related symptoms did not affect compliance with the three-dose course, which was equally high (97%) in both groups.
The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine is immunogenic and well tolerated in boys aged 10 to 18 years. However, further data on the potential public health benefits of vaccination of boys are required before any recommendations can be made.
Journal of Adolescent Health 02/2009; 44(1):33-40. · 2.97 Impact Factor