Gary Dubin

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (55)632.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report final event-driven analysis data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women aged 15-25 years from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA; NCT001226810). The total vaccinated cohort (TVC) included all randomised participants who received at least one vaccine dose (vaccine, n=9319; control, n=9325) at months 0, 1 and/or 6. The TVC-naïve (vaccine, n=5822; control, n=5819) had no evidence of high-risk HPV infection at baseline approximating adolescent girls targeted by most HPV vaccination programmes. Mean follow-up was approximately 39 months after the first vaccine dose in each cohort. At baseline, 26% of women in the TVC had evidence of past and/or current HPV-16/18 infection. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titres post-vaccination tended to be higher among 15-17 year-olds than 18-25 year-olds. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 55.5% (96.1% CI: 43.2, 65.3), 52.8% (37.5, 64.7) and 33.6% (-1.1, 56.9). VE against CIN1+, CIN2+ and CIN3+ irrespective of HPV DNA was 21.7% (10.7, 31.4), 30.4% (16.4, 42.1) and 33.4% (9.1, 51.5) and consistently significant only in 15-17 year-old women (27.4% [10.8, 40.9], 41.8% [22.3, 56.7] and 55.8% [19.2, 76.9]). In the TVC-naïve, VE against CIN1+, CIN2+ and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 96.5% (89.0, 99.4), 98.4% (90.4, 100) and 100% (64.7, 100); and irrespective of HPV DNA was 50.1% (35.9, 61.4), 70.2% (54.7, 80.9) and 87.0% (54.9, 97.7). VE against 12-month persistent infection with HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (84.0, 94.0) and against HPV-31/33/45/51 was 49.0% (34.7, 60.3). In conclusion, vaccinating adolescents before sexual debut has a substantial impact on the overall incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities, and catch-up vaccination up to 18 years of age is most likely effective.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 02/2015; 22(4). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00591-14 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine formulated with an AS04 adjuvant is very efficacious against hrHPV associated precancers but the herd effects of different vaccination scenarios are not known. Our cluster randomized trial (NCT00534638) assesses the overall and herd effects of vaccinating girls vs. girls and boys. In two school-years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) we invited 80,272 1992-1995 born early adolescents to a CRT in 33 communities a priori stratified by low, intermediate and high HPV-16/18 seroprevalence. In 11 Arm A communities 90% of participating girls and boys were assigned to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine, in 11 Arm B communities 90% of girls were assigned to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine - boys were assigned to receive hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccine, and in 11 Arm C communities all were assigned to receive HBV-vaccine. Prevalence of HPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated girls is studied at age 18.5 years. Recruitment resulted in equal enrolment of four birth cohorts (born 1992-1995) comprising altogether 32,176 (40% response) early adolescents: 20,515 girls (50.5-53.0% response by arm) and 11,661 boys (21.9-31.6%% response by arm). At the age of 15 years, 79.3% of the vaccinees completed a questionnaire. Among them >98% were living at, and during the week-ends 1.3-1.6% stayed outside, the study site communities. Smoking habit and alcohol consumption were similar in the different trial arms, also mean-age of menarche (12.4 years) and 1st ejaculation (12.6 years), and sexual behaviour (among those <25%, who had had sexual debut) did not differ by arm: mean-age at the sexual debut 14.3 and 14.4 in girls and boys, and proportions of those with multiple (≥5) life-time sexual partners (6.5-7.5%) at the age of 15 years. Uniform residential, life-style and sexual behaviour characteristics indicate successful randomization/enrolment of the CRT. Our CRT will verify modelled predictions on up to 31% herd effect of vaccinating both girls and boys with moderate vaccine coverage - quantifying overall effectiveness of different strategies it will soon guide how to implement HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Vaccine 01/2015; 33(10). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.019 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA; NCT00122681) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and 18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively re-analyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58 and 59). For vaccine HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident, 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when including MPTS12 RHA in the testing algorithm, versus the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the non-vaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58 and 59). This post-hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and that choice of HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 12/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00457-14 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although adolescent girls are the main population for prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, adult women who remain at risk of cervical cancer can also be vaccinated. We report data from the interim analysis of the ongoing VIVIANE study, the aim of which is to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women. Methods In this phase 3, multinational, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned healthy women older than 25 years to the HPV 16/18 vaccine or control (1:1), via an internet-based system with an algorithm process that accounted for region, age stratum, baseline HPV DNA status, HPV 16/18 serostatus, and cytology. Enrolment was age-stratified, with about 45% of participants in each of the 26–35 and 36–45 years age strata and 10% in the 46 years and older stratum. Up to 15% of women in each age stratum could have a history of HPV infection or disease. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. The primary analysis was done in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, which consists of women who received all three vaccine or control doses, had negative or low-grade cytology at baseline, and had no history of HPV disease. Secondary analyses included vaccine efficacy against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types. Mean follow-up time was 40·3 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047. Findings The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit for the present analysis took place on Dec 10, 2010; 5752 women were included in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2881 vaccine, n=2871 control), and 4505 in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2264 vaccine, n=2241 control). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ was significant in all age groups combined (81·1%, 97·7% CI 52·1–94·0), in the 26–35 years age group (83·5%, 45·0–96·8), and in the 36–45 years age group (77·2%, 2·8–96·9); no cases were seen in women aged 46 years and older. Vaccine efficacy against atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater associated with HPV 16/18 was also significant. We also noted significant cross-protective vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 31 (79·1%, 97·7% CI 27·6–95·9) and HPV 45 (76·9%, 18·5–95·6]) Serious adverse events occurred in 285 (10%) of 2881 women in the vaccine group and 267 (9%) of 2871 in the control group; five (<1%) and eight (<1%) of these events, respectively, were believed to be related to vaccination. Interpretation In women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine is efficacious against infections and cervical abnormalities associated with the vaccine types, as well as infections with the non-vaccine HPV types 31 and 45. Funding GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.
    The Lancet 12/2014; 384(9961). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60920-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported higher anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine compared with HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine at Month 7 (one month after completion of full vaccination series) in women aged 18-45 years in an observer-blind study NCT00423046; the differences of immune response magnitudes were maintained up to Month 24. Here we report follow-up data through Month 48. At Month 48, in according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), geometric mean titers of serum neutralizing antibodies were 2.0- to 5.2-fold higher (HPV-16) and 8.6- to 12.8-fold higher (HPV-18) in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. The majority of women in both vaccine groups remained seropositive for HPV-16. The same trend was observed for HPV-18 in HPV-16/18 vaccine group; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably, particularly in the older age groups. In the total vaccinated cohort (regardless of baseline serological and HPV-DNA status), anti-HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibody levels induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine were higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. CD4+ T-cell response for HPV-16 and HPV-18 was higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Memory B-cell responses appeared similar between vaccine groups. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Overall, the higher immune response observed with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was maintained up to Month 48. A head-to-head study incorporating clinical endpoints would be required to confirm whether the observed differences in immune response between the vaccines influence the duration of protection they provided.
    Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 11/2014; 10(12):e36117. DOI:10.4161/hv.36117 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The observer-blind, randomized, age-stratified, head-to-head study (NCT00423046) comparing immunogenicity and safety of HPV-16/18 and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccines in healthy women aged 18-45 years was completed. Five years after vaccination, in subjects from the Month 60 according-to-protocol cohort (seronegative and DNA negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), serum neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine remained 7.8-fold (18-26-year stratum), 5.6-fold (27-35-year stratum) and 2.3-fold (36-45-year stratum) higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the fold differences were 12.1, 13.0 and 7.8, respectively. At Month 60, all (100%) subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group and the majority (95.7%-97.5%) in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group were seropositive for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the majority (98.1%-100%) of subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group were seropositive; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably (61.1%-76.9%) across the three age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (received ³1 dose regardless of baseline HPV serostatus and DNA status), geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 nAb were higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Based on the five-year data, piece-wise and modified power-law models predicted a longer durability of nAb response for HPV-16/18 vaccine compared to HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. Beyond the differences apparent between the vaccines in terms of immunogenicity and modeled persistence of antibody responses, comparative studies including clinical endpoints would be needed to determine whether differences exist in duration of vaccine-induced protection.
    Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 11/2014; 10(12):e36121. DOI:10.4161/hv.36121 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More information is needed about time between sexual initiation and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of cervical precancer. The objectives were to investigate the time between first sexual activity and detection of first cervical HPV infection or development of first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and associated factors in women from the double-blind, multinational, 4-year PATRICIA trial. PATRICIA enroled women aged 15-25 years with no more than 6 lifetime sexual partners. Women were randomized 1:1 to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or to control, but only women from the control arm who began sexual intercourse during the study or within 6 months before enrolment, and had no HPV infection detected before the recorded date of their first sexual intercourse, were included in the present analysis. The time between onset of sexual activity and detection of the first cervical HPV infection or development of the first CIN lesion was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models. A total of 9337 women were enroled in the control arm of PATRICIA of whom 982 fulfilled the required inclusion criteria for analysis. A cumulative total of 28%, 44%, and 62% of the subjects had HPV infection within 12, 24, and 48 months, respectively. The overall incidence rate was 27.08 per 100 person-years. The most common oncogenic types associated with 6-month persistent infection were HPV-16 (incidence rate: 2.74 per 100 person-years), HPV-51 (2.70), HPV-52 (1.66), HPV-66 (1.14), and HPV-18 (1.09). Increased infection risk was associated with more lifetime sexual partners, being single, Chlamydia trachomatis history, and duration of hormone use. CIN1+ and CIN2+ lesions were most commonly associated with HPV-16, with an overall incidence rate of 1.87 and 1.07 per 100 person-years, respectively. Previous cervical HPV infection was most strongly associated with CIN development. More than 25% of women were infected with HPV within 1 year of beginning sexual activity. Without underestimating the value of vaccination at older ages, our findings emphasize its importance before sexual initiation. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00122681 .
    BMC Infectious Diseases 10/2014; 14(1):551. DOI:10.1186/s12879-014-0551-y · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HPV types 16/18-AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine, Cervarix(®) (HPV-16/18-vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) was first approved in 2007 and is licensed in 134 countries for the prevention of persistent infection, premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer caused by oncogenic HPV. Benefit-risk status requires continual re-evaluation as vaccine uptake increases, as the epidemiology of the disease evolves and as new information becomes available. This paper provides an example of benefit-risk considerations and risk-management planning. Evaluation of the benefit-risk of HPV-16/18-vaccine post-licensure includes studies with a range of designs in many countries and in collaboration with national public agencies and regulatory authorities. The strategy to assess benefit versus risk will continue to evolve and adapt to the changing HPV-16/18-vaccine market.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2014; 13(11):1-10. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2014.959931 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A community-based randomized trial was conducted in Costa Rica to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (NCT00128661). The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe disease (CIN2+) associated with incident HPV-16/18 cervical infections. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy against CIN2+ associated with incident cervical infection by any oncogenic HPVs and to evaluate duration of protection against incident cervical infection with HPV-16/18. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity over the 4-year follow-up were also evaluated.
    Vaccine 09/2014; 32(39). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.038 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to further evaluate the safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18-AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18-vaccine Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) through a pooled analysis of data from 42 completed/ongoing clinical studies. Methods: Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were reported for 30days after each dose. Medically significant conditions, serious AEs (SAEs), potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) and pregnancy outcomes were captured until study completion. Events leading to subject withdrawal were reviewed. Relative risks compared incidences of spontaneous abortion and pIMDs in controlled studies. Results: Thirty one thousand one hundred seventy-three adolescent girls/women received HPV-16/18-vaccine alone (HPV group), 2166 received HPV-16/18-vaccine coadministered with another vaccine and 24241 were controls. Mean follow-up was 39months (range 0-113.3). Incidences of unsolicited AEs reported within 30days after any dose were similar between HPV and Control groups (30.8%/29.7%). During the entire study period, reports of medically significant conditions (25.0%/28.3%) and SAEs (7.9%/9.3%) were also similarly distributed between groups. Deaths were rare: HPV (alone/coadministered) n=25, controls n=20 (n=18 in blinded groups). pIMDs within 1year were reported by 0.2% of HPV-16/18 vaccinees and controls. For each pIMD event category, no increased relative risks were reported for HPV-16/18 vaccinees versus controls. Coadministration did not change the overall safety profile. Pregnancy outcomes and withdrawal rates were similar between groups. Conclusions: Analysis of safety data arising from 57580 subjects and 96704 HPV-16/18-vaccine doses shows that the incidences and distribution of AEs were similar among HPV-16/18-vaccine recipients and controls. No new safety signals were identified. The data confirm previous findings that HPV-16/18-vaccine has an acceptable benefit-risk profile in adolescent girls and adult women.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 05/2014; 23(5). DOI:10.1002/pds.3554 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized, controlled studies were conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, containing VLPs from two additional oncogenic genotypes, with the licensed HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (control) in healthy 18-25 year-old women. In one trial (NCT00231413), subjects received control or one of 6 tetravalent HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine formulations at months (M) 0,1,6. In a second trial (NCT00478621), subjects received control or one of 5 tetravalent HPV-16/18/33/58 vaccines formulated with different adjuvant systems (AS04, AS01 or AS02), administered on different schedules (M0,1,6 or M0,3 or M0,6). One month after the third injection (Month 7), there was a consistent trend for lower anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) for tetravalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccines compared with control. GMTs were statistically significantly lower for an HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/10/10μg VLPs for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and for an HPV-16/18/33/58 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/20/20μg VLPs for anti-HPV-16 antibodies. There was also a trend for lower HPV-16 and -18-specific memory B-cell responses for tetravalent AS04 vaccines versus control. No such trends were observed for CD4(+) T-cell responses. Immune interference could not always be overcome by increasing the dose of HPV-16/18 L1 VLPs or by using a different adjuvant system. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. Reactogenicity in the 7-day post-vaccination period tended to increase with the introduction of additional VLPs, especially for formulations containing AS01. HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses were lower when additional HPV L1 VLPs were added to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Immune interference is a complex phenomenon that cannot always be overcome by changing the antigen dose or adjuvant system.
    Vaccine 03/2014; 32(29). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.040 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Relative vaccine efficacy (rVE) after one or two doses of AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine was compared with two doses of non-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine in children 6 months to <10 years of age in a multinational study conducted in 2010-2011 (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01051661).Methods. 6145 children were randomized (1:1:1) to receive two injections 21 days apart of either A/California/7/2009-H1N1-AS03 vaccine at dose 1 and saline placebo at dose 2 (Ad1 group), two doses of A/California/7/2009-H1N1-AS03 vaccine (Ad2), or two doses of non-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009-H1N1 vaccine (NAd2). Active surveillance for influenza-like illnesses continued from day 14-385. Nose/throat samples during influenza-like illnesses were tested for A/California/7/2009-H1N1 using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety were assessed.Results. There were 23 cases of confirmed H1N1 influenza for the primary rVE analysis. Superior vaccine efficacy was demonstrated for the Ad2 over the NAd2 group: rVE 76.8% (95% CI, 18.5%-93.4%). Adjuvant benefit was demonstrated in terms of immunogenicity in the Ad2 vs NAd2 groups.Conclusion. The 4-8-fold antigen-sparing adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine demonstrated superior and clinically important prevention of H1N1 influenza disease compared with non-adjuvanted vaccine, with no observed increase in medically-attended or serious adverse events. These data support the use of adjuvanted influenza vaccines during influenza pandemics.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2014; 210(4). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu173 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. We examined risk of newly detected HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV-16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults; NCT00122681).Methods. Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative versus seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA-negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n=8193; HPV-18: n=8463]).Results. High titers of naturally-acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASC-US+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, 2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, while seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASC-US+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally-acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally-acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval: 42-794), 204 (129-480) and 480 (250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASC-US+, respectively.Conclusions. Naturally-acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2014; 210(4). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu139 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the consistency of three commercial scale lots of candidate herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2) vaccine in adolescent girls.
    Trials in Vaccinology 12/2013; 2:10-18. DOI:10.1016/j.trivac.2013.03.001
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Public Health England has reported a decrease of up to 20.8% in new diagnoses of external genital warts (GWs) among women aged <19 years since the national vaccination program with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine began in 2008. A post hoc analysis of the phase III PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults) trial (NCT00122681) was performed to ascertain whether protection against low-risk HPV types was apparent. Methods. Vaccine efficacy (VE) at 48 months was assessed against 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) with low-risk HPV types in the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and in the TVC naive (for 25 HPV types tested) populations. Results. In the TVC naive cohort, VE against 6MPI (95% confidence interval) was 34.5% (11.3 to 51.8) for HPV-6/11, 34.9% (9.1 to 53.7) for HPV-6, 30.3% (-45.0 to 67.5) for HPV-11, and 49.5% (21.0 to 68.3) for HPV-74. Conclusions. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears to have moderate efficacy against persistent infections with a number of low-risk HPV types (HPV-6/11/74), which are responsible for the majority of external GWs, and recently, antibody and cell-mediated immune response to HPV-6/11 have been observed. These findings may help to explain the decrease in external GW diagnoses seen in England.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 208(9):1391-1396. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jit360 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In January 2010, porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) DNA was unexpectedly detected in the oral live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline [GSK] Vaccines) by an academic research team investigating a novel, highly sensitive analysis not routinely used for adventitious agent screening. GSK rapidly initiated an investigation to confirm the source, nature and amount of PCV1 in the vaccine manufacturing process and to assess potential clinical implications of this finding. The investigation also considered the manufacturer's inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-containing vaccines, since poliovirus vaccine strains are propagated using the same cell line as the rotavirus vaccine strain. Results confirmed the presence of PCV1 DNA and low levels of PCV1 viral particles at all stages of the Rotarix™ manufacturing process. PCV type 2 DNA was not detected at any stage. When tested in human cell lines, productive PCV1 infection was not observed. There was no immunological or clinical evidence of PCV1 infection in infants who had received Rotarix™ in clinical trials. PCV1 DNA was not detected in the IPV-containing vaccine manufacturing process beyond the purification stage. Retrospective testing confirmed the presence of PCV1 DNA in Rotarix™ since the initial stages of its development and in vaccine lots used in clinical studies conducted pre- and post-licensure. The acceptable safety profile observed in clinical trials of Rotarix™ therefore reflects exposure to PCV1 DNA. The investigation into the presence of PCV1 in Rotarix™ could serve as a model for risk assessment in the event of new technologies identifying adventitious agents in the manufacturing of other vaccines and biological products.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 08/2013; 9(11). DOI:10.4161/hv.25973 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2) is the main cause of genital and neonatal herpes and is highly prevalent worldwide. Previous phase I and II studies showed the immunogenicity and safety of the candidate prophylactic HSV-2 glycoprotein D-based subunit vaccine (gD2-AS04), containing aluminum hydroxide and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as adjuvant (AS04), in healthy adults. The primary objective of the study presented here was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of five different vaccine formulations: 3 different antigen doses [20, 40 or 80 μg of truncated glycoprotein D from HSV-2 strain (gD-2t)], different aluminum salts [AlPO 4 or Al(OH) 3], different preservatives or different volumes of vaccine (0.5 or 1 ml). 150 healthy men and women aged 18-45 y, with negative serological markers for HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection, were vaccinated with one of 5 formulations of the gD2-AS04 candidate vaccine according to a 0-, 1-, 6-mo schedule. No statistically significant difference was observed in humoral or cellular immune responses between different antigen doses or the different aluminum salts, preservatives or volumes of vaccine. The gD2-AS04 vaccine was well tolerated by study participants for the duration of the study period. Local symptoms were more frequently reported than general symptoms, with muscle stiffness and/or injection site redness being the most frequently reported. Overall, the incidence of adverse events was comparable in all groups. Based on these results the gD2-AS04 formulation, containing 20 μg of gD-2t, was selected for evaluation of prophylactic efficacy in further clinical trials.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 02/2013; 9(6). DOI:10.4161/hv.24043 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this investigation was to assess whether the AS04-adjuvanted herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D candidate prophylactic vaccine against genital herpes disease increases the risk of spontaneous abortion associated with pregnancy conceived within the vaccination exposure window (vaccine dose received within the period starting 60 days before and ending 20 weeks post-conception day). We performed a meta-analysis of studies designed as part of the clinical development program for this vaccine, to examine the relative risk of abortion (spontaneous or elective) associated with unintended vaccination exposure during pregnancy. Nineteen studies, completed before September 2010, were eligible; 5 matched the inclusion criteria for this analysis (presence of a control arm and at least one adverse pregnancy outcome reported). All vaccinated women (N=19,727) were included, of whom 660 reported a pregnancy during the study period. Overall, 13.3% of pregnancies in the HSV vaccine group and 11.0% in the control group resulted in spontaneous abortion; 24.2% and 20.0% resulted in elective abortion. Among 180 women with a first pregnancy conceived in the vaccination exposure window, 16.7% (HSV vaccine) and 9.5% (control) had a spontaneous abortion and 38.5% and 33.3%, elective abortion. The relative risk for spontaneous abortion associated with vaccine exposure during the risk period for abortion in the course of pregnancy was 1.7 (95% CI: 0.7-4.6). For all women receiving HSV vaccine, this relative risk was 1.3 (95% CI: 0.8-2.1). The corresponding relative risks for elective abortion were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.7-2.0) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.9-1.8). There was no apparent relationship to dosing and no difference between groups in gestational age at the time of spontaneous or elective abortion. In conclusion there is no statistical evidence that the investigational HSV vaccine increased the risk of spontaneous or elective abortion.
    Vaccine 01/2013; 31(13). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.01.002 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Control of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers by inclusion of HPV vaccination into national vaccination programmes is likely. One open question is replacement of the vaccine types with other high-risk (hr) HPV types in the vaccination era. We studied occurrence of HPV types in adolescent females participating in a population-based vaccination trial. A total of 4,808 16- to 17-year-old females from Finland were enrolled in the 1:1 randomized phase III (PATRICIA) trial of the efficacy of vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine as compared to hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine. HPV infection was assessed from cervical samples taken every 6 months for 4 years post-vaccination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genital oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 73 as well as low-risk types HPV-6 and HPV-11. The HPV-16/18 vaccine coverage ranged between 1 and 22% by age-cohort and study community. Odds ratios (ORs) for infections with different HPV types in baseline PCR negative HPV-16/18 vs. HAV vaccinated women, and Poisson regression derived HPV incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in baseline positive vs. negative women were calculated. The OR and IRR estimates for acquisition of any genital HPV types showed no excess risk neither in baseline HPV DNA-negative HPV-16/18-vaccinated women compared to baseline HPV DNA-negative HAV vaccinated women nor in HPV-16/18-vaccinated baseline HPV-16/18-positive women compared to baseline HPV-16/18-negative women. In the HAV-vaccinated, baseline HPV-18-positive women showed an increased risk of acquiring other clade A7 HPV types (39, 45, 59, 68) (IRR 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.01.-3.1). We found no increased occurrence of non-vaccine HPV types suggestive of type-replacement 1-4 years post-vaccination among HPV-16/18-vaccinated Finnish adolescents.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2012; 131(12):2832-8. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27586 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Herpes simplex virus infections type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are common, but the epidemiology of HSV disease is changing. Methods. HSV-seronegative women, aged 18-30 years, who were in the control arm of the HERPEVAC Trial for Women were followed for 20 months for primary HSV infections. Results. Of the 3438 evaluable participants, 183 became infected with HSV: 127 (3.7%) with HSV-1 and 56 (1.6%) with HSV-2. The rate of infection for HSV-1 (2.5 per 100 person-years) was more than twice that for HSV-2 (1.1 per 100 person-years). Most infections (74% of HSV-1 and 63% of HSV-2) occurred without recognized signs or symptoms of herpes disease. The HSV-2 infection rate was 2.6 times higher in non-Hispanic black participants than in Hispanics and 5.5 times higher than in non-Hispanic whites (P<.001), while the HSV-1 infection rate was 1.7 times higher in non-Hispanic whites than non-Hispanic blacks. Younger participants (18-22 years) were more likely to acquire HSV-1 infections and less likely to develop recognized disease than older participants. Overall, 84% of recognized disease cases were genital. No differences were noted in the clinical manifestations of genital HSV-1 vs genital HSV-2 disease. The clinicians' assessment that cases were caused by HSV was good when they assessed cases as clinically confirmed or unlikely (validated in 83% and 100% of cases, respectively). Conclusions. HSV-1 is now more common than HSV-2 as a cause of oral and genital mucosal infections in young women, but there are important age and race differences.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2012; 56(3). DOI:10.1093/cid/cis891 · 9.42 Impact Factor