[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Auto-induction can be used to generate higher yields of recombinant allergens.•The B-strain of E. coli leads to higher yield than the K-strain of E. coli.•Recombinant tropomyosin (rTM) of King prawn (KP) was expressed with a high yield.•rTM of KP has similar molecular and immunological characteristics as an isoallergen.•Patient IgE reactivity is species-specific to recombinant tropomyosin isoallergens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural rubber latex (NRL; Hevea brasiliensis) allergy is an IgE-mediated reaction to latex proteins. When latex glove exposure is the main sensitizing agent, Hev b 5 is one of the major allergens. Dendritic cells (DC), the main antigen presenting cells, modulated with pharmacological agents can restore tolerance in several experimental models, including allergy. In the current study, we aimed to generate DC with tolerogenic properties from NRL-allergic patients and evaluate their ability to modulate allergen-specific T and B cell responses. Here we show that dexamethasone-treated DC (dxDC) differentiated into a subset of DC, characterized by low expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and CD83 molecules. Compared with LPS-matured DC, dxDC secreted lower IL-12 and higher IL-10 after CD40L activation, and induced lower alloantigenic T cell proliferation. We also show that dxDC pulsed with the dominant Hev b 5 T-cell epitope peptide, Hev b 546-65 (,) inhibited both proliferation of Hev b 5-specific T-cell lines and the production of Hev b 5-specific IgE. Additionally, dxDC induced a subpopulation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells that suppressed proliferation of Hev b 5-primed T cells. In conclusion, dxDC generated from NRL-allergic patients can modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production, supporting their potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85930. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prawn allergy is one of the leading causes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food. Alterations of IgE-antibody reactivity to prawn allergens due to thermal processing are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of heating on prawn allergens using a comprehensive allergenomic approach.
Proteins from raw and heat-processed black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) extracts as well as recombinant tropomyosin (rPen m1) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using sera from 16 shellfish allergic patients. IgE antibody binding proteins were identified by advanced mass spectroscopy, characterized by molecular structure analysis and their IgE reactivity compared among the prepared black tiger prawn extracts. Heat processing enhanced the overall patient IgE binding to prawn extracts and increased recognition of a number of allergen variants and fragments of prawn allergens. Allergens identified were tropomyosin, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium binding protein, and putative novel allergens including triose phosphate isomerase, aldolase, and titin.
Seven allergenic proteins are present in prawns, which are mostly heat-stable and form dimers or oligomers. Thermal treatment enhanced antibody reactivity to prawn allergens as well as fragments and should be considered in the diagnosis of prawn allergy and detection of crustacean allergens in processed food.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 01/2014; · 4.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Engineered nanoparticles (ENP), which could be composed of inorganic metals, metal oxides, metalloids, organic biodegradable and inorganic biocompatible polymers, are being used as carriers for vaccine and drug delivery. There is also increasing interest in their application as delivery agents for the treatment of a variety of lung diseases. Although many studies have shown ENP can be effectively and safely used to enhance the delivery of drugs and vaccines in the periphery, there is concern that some ENP could promote inflammation, with unknown consequences for lung immune homeostasis. In this study, we review research on the effects of ENP on lung immunity, focusing on recent studies using diverse animal models of human lung disease. We summarize how the inflammatory and immune response to ENP is influenced by the diverse biophysical and chemical characteristics of the particles including composition, size and mode of delivery. We further discuss newly described unexpected beneficial properties of ENP administered into the lung, where biocompatible polystyrene or silver nanoparticles can by themselves decrease susceptibility to allergic airways inflammation. Increasing our understanding of the differential effects of diverse types of nanoparticles on pulmonary immune homeostasis, particularly previously underappreciated beneficial outcomes, supports rational ENP translation into novel therapeutics for prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory lung disorders.
Drug Metabolism Reviews 11/2013; · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in the use of engineered particles for biomedical applications, although questions exist about their proinflammatory properties and potential adverse health effects. Lung macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of pulmonary immunity, but little is known about their uptake of different sized particles or the nature of the induced immunological imprint. We investigated comparatively the immunological imprints of inert nontoxic polystyrene nanoparticles 50 nm in diameter (PS50G) and 500 nm in diameter (PS500G). Following intratracheal instillation into naive mice, PS50G were preferentially taken up by alveolar and nonalveolar macrophages, B cells, and CD11b(+) and CD103(+) DC in the lung, but exclusively by DC in the draining lymph node (LN). Negligible particle uptake occurred in the draining LN 2 h postinstillation, indicating that particle translocation does not occur via lymphatic drainage. PS50G but not PS500G significantly increased airway levels of mediators that drive DC migration/maturation and DC costimulatory molecule expression. Both particles decreased frequencies of stimulatory CD11b(+)MHC class II(hi) allergen-laden DC in the draining LN, with PS50G having the more pronounced effect. These distinctive particle imprints differentially modulated induction of acute allergic airway inflammation, with PS50G but not PS500G significantly inhibiting adaptive allergen-specific immunity. Our data show that nanoparticles are taken up preferentially by lung APC stimulate cytokine/chemokine production and pulmonary DC maturation and translocate to the lung-draining LN via cell-associated transport. Collectively, these distinctive particle imprints differentially modulate development of subsequent lung immune responses. These findings support the development of lung-specific particulate vaccines, drug delivery systems, and immunomodulators.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is a life-threatening condition; there is currently no cure. While whole allergen extracts are used for specific immunotherapy for many allergies, they can cause severe reactions and even fatalities in peanut allergy. OBJECTIVE: To identify short, HLA-degenerate CD4(+) T cell epitope-based peptides of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 that target allergen-specific T cells without causing IgE-mediated inflammatory cell activation, as candidates for safe peanut-specific immunotherapy. METHODS: Ara h 1-specific CD4(+) T cell lines (TCL) were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of peanut-allergic subjects using CFSE-based methodology. T cell epitopes were identified using CFSE and thymidine-based proliferation assays. Epitope HLA-restriction was investigated using blocking antibodies, HLA-genotyping and epitope prediction algorithms. Functional peanut-specific IgE reactivity to peptides was assessed by basophil activation assay. RESULTS: A total of 145 Ara h 1-specific TCL were generated from 18 HLA-diverse peanut-allergic subjects. The TCL recognized 20-mer peptides throughout Ara h 1. Nine 20-mers containing the most frequently recognized epitopes were selected and their recognition confirmed in 18 additional peanut-allergic subjects. Ten core epitopes were mapped within these 20-mers. These were HLA-DQ and/or HLA-DR restricted, with each presented on at least two different HLA-molecules. Seven short (≤ 20 aa) non-basophil-reactive peptides encompassing all core epitopes were designed and validated in peanut-allergic donor PBMC T cell assays. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Short CD4(+) T cell epitope-based Ara h 1 peptides were identified as novel candidates for a safe, T cell targeted peanut-specific immunotherapy for HLA-diverse populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases including asthma, rhinitis and eczema are a major health and economic burden worldwide. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is potentially curative but restricted in use, e.g. for asthmatics, due to risk of serious adverse events. Safer, effective SIT preparations require elucidation of mechanisms and immunoregulatory factors. Allergen-specific T cells play a pivotal role. For allergic individuals, allergen-stimulated T cells largely secrete IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 (Th2-type cytokines), whereas non-allergics show predominant IFN-γ secretion (Th1-type). Clinically successful SIT is accompanied by altered allergen-specific T cell response, with decreased Th2/Th1 ratio, enhanced IL-10 secretion and regulatory T cell induction. Contributing factors include allergen concentration and form, adjuvant and antigen presenting cell type. In conventional SIT, high dose unfractionated allergen extracts are injected incrementally via the subcutaneous route. To avoid adverse IgE-mediated events but retain efficacy, hypoallergenic T cell-reactive allergen derivatives can be used. These include peptides containing dominant T cell epitopes of allergens, chemically-modified allergens, and recombinant whole or mutant allergens. Such approaches have been evaluated successfully in animal models and early phase clinical trials. Adjuvants and carriers including bacterial and viral components, liposomes and DNA vaccines also promote repolarisation of T cell response and regulatory T cell induction. However caution is needed as excessive IFN-γ secretion may invoke pathogenic inflammation. Sublingual administration has fewer adverse events and is gaining popularity for respiratory allergens, and other routes including intranasal and oral are under evaluation. T cell targeted strategies will facilitate wider clinical application of SIT and reliable laboratory assays for monitoring treatment.
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents) 04/2013;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antigen-presenting abilities of basophils and their role in initiating a Th2 phenotype is a topic of current controversy. We aimed to determine whether human basophils can be induced to express MHC Class II and act as antigen presenting cells for T cell stimulation. Isolated human basophils were exposed to a panel of cytokines and TLR-ligands and assessed for MHC Class II expression. MHC Class II was expressed in up to 17% of isolated basophils following incubation with a combination of IL-3, IFN-γ and GM-CSF for 72 hours. Costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) were expressed at very low levels after stimulation. Gene expression analysis of MHC Class II-positive basophils confirmed up-regulation of HLA-DR, HLA-DM, CD74 and Cathepsin S. However, MHC Class II expressing basophils were incapable of inducing antigen-specific T cell activation or proliferation. This is the first report of significant cytokine-induced MHC Class II up-regulation, at both RNA and protein level, in isolated human basophils. By testing stimulation with relevant T cell epitope peptide as well as whole antigen, the failure of MHC Class II expressing basophils to induce T cell response was shown not to be solely due to inefficient antigen uptake and/or processing.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81777. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Current pharmacotherapy is highly effective in the clinical management of the majority of patients with stable asthma, however, severe asthma remains inadequately treated. Prevention of airway remodelling is a major unmet clinical need in the management of patients with chronic severe asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases. Accumulating evidence convincingly demonstrates that activin A, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is a key driver of airway inflammation, but its role in chronic asthmatic airway remodelling is ill-defined. Follistatin, an endogenously-produced protein, binds activin A with high affinity and inhibits its bioactivity. The aim of this study was to test the potential of follistatin as a therapeutic agent to inhibit airway remodelling in an experimental model of chronic allergic airway inflammation.
Methods BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA), and challenged with OVA intranasally 3 times/wk for 10 wk. Follistatin was instilled intranasally during allergen challenge.
Results Chronic allergen challenge induced mucus hypersecretion and subepithelial collagen deposition which persisted after cessation of challenge. Intranasal follistatin (0.05, 0.5, 5 µg) inhibited the airway remodelling and dose-dependently decreased airway activin A and TGF-β1, and allergen-specific Th2 cytokine production in the lung-draining lymph nodes. Follistatin also impaired the loss of TGF- and activin RIB immunostaining in airway epithelium which occurred following chronic allergen challenge.
Conclusion These data demonstrate that follistatin attenuates asthmatic airway remodelling. Our findings point to the potential of follistatin as a therapeutic for prevention of airway remodelling in asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e67487. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial contamination of grass pollens could affect sensitization, subsequent allergic response and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy. We investigated whether bacterial immunomodulatory substances can direct PBMC responses of allergic and non-atopic subjects against ryegrass pollen (RGP) towards Th1, Th2 or regulatory T (Treg) cells. Aqueous extracts of RGP with high or low LPS were fractionated into large and small molecular weight (MW) components by diafiltration. CFSE-labelled PBMCs from allergic and non-atopic subjects were stimulated with RGP extracts (RGPEs) and analyzed for cytokine secretion and T-cell responses. High LPS RGPE increased IFN-γ(+) Th1 and IL-4(+) Th2 effector cell induction and consistently decreased CD4(+) Foxp3(hi) Treg-cell induction. IL-10-producing T-cell frequency was unaltered, but IL-10 secretion was increased by high LPS RGPE. RGPE-stimulation of TLR-transfected cell lines revealed that high LPS pollen also contained a TLR2-ligand, and both batches a TLR9-ligand. Beta-1,3-glucans were detected in large and small MW fractions and were also T-cell stimulatory. In conclusion, co-exposure to allergen and pro-inflammatory microbial stimuli does not convert an established Th2- into a Th1-response. Instead, pro-inflammatory responses are exacerbated and Foxp3(hi) Treg-cell induction is decreased. These findings show that adjuvants for specific immunotherapy should enhance Treg cells rather than target immune deviation from Th2 to Th1.
European Journal of Immunology 12/2012; · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current pharmacotherapy is highly effective in the clinical management of the majority of patients with stable asthma, however severe asthma remains inadequately treated. Prevention of airway remodelling is a major unmet clinical need in the management of patients with chronic severe asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases. Accumulating evidence convincingly demonstrates that activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, is a key driver of airway inflammation, but its role in chronic asthmatic airway remodelling is ill-defined. Follistatin, an endogenously produced protein, binds activin A with high affinity and inhibits its bioactivity. The aim of this study was to test the potential of follistatin as a therapeutic agent to inhibit airway remodelling in an experimental model of chronic allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA), and challenged with OVA intranasally three times a week for 10 weeks. Follistatin was instilled intranasally during allergen challenge. RESULTS: Chronic allergen challenge induced mucus hypersecretion and subepithelial collagen deposition which persisted after cessation of challenge. Intranasal follistatin (0.05, 0.5, 5 µg) inhibited the airway remodelling and dose-dependently decreased airway activin A and TGF-β1, and allergen-specific T helper 2 cytokine production in the lung-draining lymph nodes. Follistatin also impaired the loss of TGF-β1 and activin RIB immunostaining in airway epithelium which occurred following chronic allergen challenge. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that follistatin attenuates asthmatic airway remodelling. Our findings point to the potential of follistatin as a therapeutic for prevention of airway remodelling in asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) is a major cause of allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for grass pollen allergy, but is unsuitable for patients with moderate to severe asthma due to the risk of anaphylaxis. T cell-reactive but IgE nonreactive peptides provide a safer treatment option. This study aimed to identify and characterize dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides of the major BaGP allergen, Pas n 1. Methods: Pas n 1-specific T cell lines generated from the peripheral blood of BaGP-allergic subjects were tested for proliferative and cytokine response to overlapping 20-mer Pas n 1 peptides. Cross-reactivity to homologous peptides from Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1 of Ryegrass and Bermuda grass pollen, respectively, was assessed using Pas n 1 peptide-specific T cell clones. MHC class II restriction of Pas n 1 peptide T cell recognition was determined by HLA blocking assays and peptide IgE reactivity tested by dot blotting. Results: Three Pas n 1 peptides showed dominant T cell reactivity; 15 of 18 (83%) patients responded to one or more of these peptides. T cell clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evidence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-reactivity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dominant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. Conclusions: The immunodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candidates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 07/2012; 159(4):355-366. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evi-dence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-re-activity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dom-inant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. Conclusions: The im-munodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candi-dates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 07/2012; 159(4):355. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles are being developed for diverse biomedical applications, but there is concern about their potential to promote inflammation, particularly in the lung. Although a variety of ambient, anthropogenic and man-made nanoparticles can promote lung inflammation, little is known about the long-term immunomodulatory effects of inert noninflammatory nanoparticles. We previously showed polystyrene 50-nm nanoparticles coated with the neutral amino acid glycine (PS50G nanoparticles) are not inflammatory and are taken up preferentially by dendritic cells (DCs) in the periphery. We tested the effects of such nanoparticles on pulmonary DC function and the development of acute allergic airway inflammation. Surprisingly, exposure to PS50G nanoparticles did not exacerbate but instead inhibited key features of allergic airway inflammation including lung airway and parenchymal inflammation, airway epithelial mucus production, and serum allergen-specific IgE and allergen-specific Th2 cytokines in the lung-draining lymph node (LN) after allergen challenge 1 mo later. PS50G nanoparticles themselves did not induce lung oxidative stress or cardiac or lung inflammation. Mechanistically, PS50G nanoparticles did not impair peripheral allergen sensitization but exerted their effect at the lung allergen challenge phase by inhibiting expansion of CD11c(+)MHCII(hi) DCs in the lung and draining LN and allergen-laden CD11b(hi)MHCII(hi) DCs in the lung after allergen challenge. PS50G nanoparticles further suppressed the ability of CD11b(hi) DCs in the draining LN of allergen-challenged mice to induce proliferation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells. The discovery that a defined type of nanoparticle can inhibit, rather than promote, lung inflammation via modulation of DC function opens the door to the discovery of other nanoparticle types with exciting beneficial properties.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2011; 188(3):1431-41. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scabies infestations are difficult to diagnose clinically and current serologic tests have less than 50% accuracy. To develop more reliable diagnosis of scabies, specific IgE antibodies to a major scabies antigen recombinant Sar s 14.3 (rSar s 14.3) were measured in 140 plasma samples from scabies-infested and control subject groups using dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays (DELFIA). Levels of rSar s 14.3-specific IgE were quantified, and cross-reactivity with its house dust mite homologue, Der p 14, was assessed. The rSar s 14.3 DELFIA showed excellent diagnostic capability, with 100% sensitivity and 93.75% specificity for distinguishing subjects with current scabies infestation from control, uninfested subjects. Recombinant Der p 14 preparation was ineffective at inhibiting IgE binding to rSar s 14.3. This study shows that quantification of levels of IgE antibody to rSar s 14.3 is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of scabies infestation in clinical practice.