Patricia W Mueller

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Атланта, Michigan, United States

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Publications (42)169.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) are sensitive markers of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. They form the basis of robust prediction models and are widely used for recruitment of subjects at high risk of type 1 diabetes to prevention trials. However GADA are also found in many individuals at low risk of diabetes progression. To identify the sources of diabetes irrelevant GADA reactivity therefore, we analyzed data from the 2009 and 2010 Diabetes Autoantibody Standardization Program GADA workshop and found that binding of healthy control sera varied according to assay type. Characterization of control sera found positive by radiobinding assay, but negative by ELISA showed that many of these sera reacted to epitopes in the N-terminal region of the molecule. This finding prompted development of an N-terminally truncated GAD65 radiolabel, (35)S-GAD65(96-585), which improved the performance of most GADA radiobinding assays (RBAs) participating in an Islet Autoantibody Standardization Program GADA substudy. These detailed workshop comparisons have identified a source of disease-irrelevant signals in GADA RBAs and suggest that N-terminally truncated GAD labels will enable more specific measurement of GADA in type 1 diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 05/2015; 64(9). DOI:10.2337/db14-1693 · 8.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder and affects approximately 1 in 15,000 births in the United States. CAH is one of the disorders included on the Newborn Screening (NBS) Recommended Uniform Screening Panel. The commonly used immunological NBS test is associated with a high false positive rate and there is interest in developing second-tier assays to increase screening specificity. Approximately 90% of the classic forms of CAH, salt-wasting and simple virilizing, are due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. These include single nucleotide changes, insertions, deletions, as well as chimeric genes involving CYP21A2 and its highly homologous pseudogene CYP21A1P. A novel loci-specific PCR approach was developed to individually amplify the CYP21A2 gene, the nearby CYP21A1P pseudogene, as well as any 30 kb deletion and gene conversion mutations, if present, as single separate amplicons. Using commercially available CAH positive specimens and 14 families with an affected CAH proband, the single long-range amplicon approach demonstrated higher specificity as compared to previously published methods.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports 12/2014; 1(1):312–323. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgmr.2014.07.002
  • Patricia W Mueller · Justine Lyons · Gregory Kerr · Chad P Haase · R Benjamin Isett ·

    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 11/2013; 15(11):910-1. DOI:10.1038/gim.2013.119 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using global liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics analyses, we identified 24 serum proteins that were significantly variant between those with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and healthy controls. Functionally, these proteins represent innate immune responses, the activation cascade of complement, inflammatory responses, and blood coagulation. Targeted verification analyses were performed on 52 surrogate peptides representing these proteins, with serum samples from an antibody standardization program cohort of 100 healthy control and 50 type 1 diabetic subjects. 16 peptides were verified as having very good discriminating power, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve ≥0.8. Further validation with blinded serum samples from an independent cohort (10 healthy control and 10 type 1 diabetics) demonstrated that peptides from platelet basic protein and C1 inhibitor achieved both 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for classification of samples. The disease specificity of these proteins was assessed using sera from 50 age-matched type 2 diabetic individuals, and a subset of proteins, C1 inhibitor in particular, were exceptionally good discriminators between these two forms of diabetes. The panel of biomarkers distinguishing those with T1D from healthy controls and those with type 2 diabetes suggests that dysregulated innate immune responses may be associated with the development of this disorder.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2012; 210(1). DOI:10.1084/jem.20111843 · 12.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) is a recently identified major autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, and autoantibodies to ZnT8 (ZnT8A) are new markers for disease prediction and diagnosis. Here we report the results of the first international proficiency evaluation of ZnT8A assays by the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (DASP). After a pilot workshop in 2007, an expanded ZnT8A workshop was held in 2009, with 26 participating laboratories from 13 countries submitting results of 63 different assays. ZnT8A levels were measured in coded sera from 50 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and 100 blood donor controls. Results were analyzed comparing area under the ROC curve (ROC-AUC), sensitivity adjusted to 95% specificity (AS95), concordance of sample ZnT8A positive or negative designation, and autoantibody levels. ZnT8A radio binding assays (RBAs) based on combined immunoprecipitation of the 2 most frequent ZnT8 COOH-terminal domain polymorphic variants showed a median ROC-AUC of 0.848 [interquartile range (IQR) 0.796-0.878] and a median AS95 of 70% (IQR 60%-72%). These RBAs were more sensitive than assays using as antigen either 1 ZnT8 variant only or chimeric constructs joining NH(2)- and COOH-terminal domains, assays based on immunoprecipitation and bioluminescent detection, or assays based on immunofluorescent staining of cells transfected with full-length antigen. The DASP workshop identified immunoprecipitation-based ZnT8A assays and antigen constructs that achieved both a high degree of sensitivity and specificity and were suitable for more widespread clinical application.
    Clinical Chemistry 12/2011; 57(12):1693-702. DOI:10.1373/clinchem.2011.170662 · 7.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies to IA-2β (IA-2βA) are important risk markers of type 1 diabetes. We report the first Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (DASP) evaluation of IA-2βA assays. Thirteen laboratories from nine countries received coded sera from 50 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and 100 healthy blood donors. IA-2βA results were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Concordance of antibody levels was compared using counts per minute (cpm), local and standard curve-derived common units. Median laboratory-assigned sensitivity was 47% (interquartile range [IQR] 45-51), specificity 98% (IQR 95-99), adjusted sensitivity at 95% specificity 50% (IQR 49-53), and area under the ROC curve 0.70 (IQR 0.69-0.73). Use of common IA-2βA units improved concordance between assays compared with local units and cpm (P < 0.0001). IA-2βA assays in multiple laboratories worldwide achieved good concordance and high specificity for type 1 diabetes. IA-2βA are suitable for inclusion in autoantibody testing for risk assessment in prediabetes.
    Diabetes care 09/2011; 34(11):2410-2. DOI:10.2337/dc11-1161 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the lipid profile of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus using LC-MS-based lipidomics and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Lipids were extracted from plasma and sera of 10 subjects from the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (years 2000-2005) and 10 non-diabetic subjects and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid ion-trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Lipids were identified and quantified using the AMT tag approach. Five hundred fifty-nine lipid features differentiated (q<0.05) diabetic from healthy individuals in a partial least-squares analysis, characterizing individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. A lipid profile associated with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may aid in further characterization of biochemical pathways involved in lipid regulation or mobilization.
    Clinical biochemistry 08/2010; 43(12):948-56. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.04.075 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies to islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) are markers for diagnosis, screening, and measuring outcomes in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) consortia studies. A harmonization program was established to increase comparability of results within and among these studies. Large volumes of six working calibrators were prepared from pooled sera with GADA 4.8-493 World Health Organization (WHO) units/ml and IA-2A 2-235 WHO units/ml. Harmonized assay protocols for IA-2A and GADA using (35)S-methionine-labelled in vitro transcribed and translated antigens were developed based on methods in use in three NIDDK laboratories. Antibody thresholds were defined using sera from patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. To evaluate the impact of the harmonized assay protocol on concordance of IA-2A and GADA results, two laboratories retested stored TEDDY study sera using the harmonized assays. The harmonized assays gave comparable but not identical results in the three laboratories. For IA-2A, using a common threshold of 5 DK units/ml, 549 of 550 control and patient samples were concordantly scored as positive or negative, specificity was greater than 99% with sensitivity 64% in all laboratories. For GADA, using thresholds equivalent to the 97th percentile of 974 control samples in each laboratory, 1051 (97.9%) of 1074 samples were concordant. On the retested TEDDY samples, discordance decreased from 4 to 1.8% for IA-2A (n = 604 samples; P = 0.02) and from 15.4 to 2.7% for GADA (n = 515 samples; P < 0.0001). Harmonization of GADA and IA-2A is feasible using large volume working calibrators and common protocols and is an effective approach to ensure consistency in autoantibody measurements.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2010; 95(7):3360-7. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-0293 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    Man-huei Chang · Ajay Yesupriya · Renée M Ned · Patricia W Mueller · Nicole F Dowling ·
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of genetic variants related to blood lipid levels within a large, population-based and nationally representative study might lead to a better understanding of the genetic contribution to serum lipid levels in the major race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population. Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined associations between 22 polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes and four serum lipids: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). Univariate and multivariable linear regression and within-gene haplotype trend regression were used to test for genetic associations assuming an additive mode of inheritance for each of the three major race/ethnic groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American). Variants within APOE (rs7412, rs429358), PON1 (rs854560), ITGB3 (rs5918), and NOS3 (rs2070744) were found to be associated with one or more blood lipids in at least one race/ethnic group in crude and adjusted analyses. In non-Hispanic whites, no individual polymorphisms were associated with any lipid trait. However, the PON1 A-G haplotype was significantly associated with LDL-C and TC. In non-Hispanic blacks, APOE variant rs7412 and haplotype T-T were strongly associated with LDL-C and TC; whereas, rs5918 of ITGB3 was significantly associated with TG. Several variants and haplotypes of three genes were significantly related to lipids in Mexican Americans: PON1 in relation to HDL-C; APOE and NOS3 in relation to LDL-C; and APOE in relation to TC. We report the significant associations of blood lipids with variants and haplotypes in APOE, ITGB3, NOS3, and PON1 in the three main race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population using a large, nationally representative and population-based sample survey. Results from our study contribute to a growing body of literature identifying key determinants of plasma lipoprotein concentrations and could provide insight into the biological mechanisms underlying serum lipid and cholesterol concentrations.
    BMC Medical Genetics 04/2010; 11(1, article 62):62. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-11-62 · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Patricia W. Mueller ·
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    ABSTRACT: The results of many of human studies indicate that the genetics of the more common forms of renal disease are quite complex. There are indications that human renal disease may be both polygenic and heterogenic. There are several approaches. Some researchers studying small populations are collecting larger numbers of families with multiple affected individuals. Others are employing discordant sib-pair analysis. Also, trios (individual with renal disease and that individual's parents) have been suggested as a means of collecting larger numbers of people with renal disease. Another population of interest is the group susceptible to nephrotoxicity. At common doses of nephrotoxic drugs and common levels of exposure to environmental and occupational nephrotoxic substances, only a portion of those similarly exposed develop significant renal damage. This subset of individuals may have a genetic susceptibility to renal damage caused by toxic agents.
    Renal Failure 07/2009; 21(3-4):395-402. DOI:10.3109/08860229909085103 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nine novel HLA class I and class II alleles were identified by sequence-based typing (SBT) in Caucasian participants from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study. All novel alleles were single nucleotide substitutions. Seven alleles resulted in an amino acid change and two alleles were silent substitutions. The new alleles are as follows: five HLA-A alleles (*0132, *020121, *0344, *030107, *2507), one HLA-C allele (*0619), two HLA-DQB1 alleles (*0204, *0318), and one HLA-DPB1 allele (*1802). Eight of these new alleles were identified in participants with type 1 diabetes, three of whom also had diabetic nephropathy, and one new allele was identified in an unaffected parent of a participant with type 1 diabetes. All new alleles were isolated and characterized by use of single allele amplification (SAA) SBT; the new alleles were confirmed by sequence-specific primer (SSP) amplification.
    Human immunology 07/2009; 70(9):747-9. DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2009.06.011 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Patricia W Mueller ·
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic risk for diabetes largely depends on the type of diabetes and the penetrance and severity of the effect of the contributing genes. This ranges from the high-risk mutations of neonatal diabetes and maturityonset diabetes of the young to the lower, but still significant, risk conferred by common human leukocyte antigen alleles in type 1 diabetes to the still-lower risk conferred by the common variants associated with type 2 diabetes. There are many new molecular technologies, each with their own set of methodological issues, that have been used for genome-wide association studies and that can be used for determining the genetic risk for these various types of diabetes. These technologies include whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, high-throughput polymorphism analyzers, next-generation sequencers, and copy-number variant technologies.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 07/2009; 3(4):735-8. DOI:10.1177/193229680900300419
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    ABSTRACT: Residual dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn screening programs are often stored for years and are sometimes used for epidemiological studies. Because there is potential for DNA cross-contamination from specimen-to-specimen contact, we determined contamination levels following intentional contact and assessed archival DBS DNA degradation after storage in an uncontrolled environment. DBS from healthy adult females were rubbed with DBS from healthy or cystic fibrosis (CF)-affected adult males. Total human and male DNA was measured from the female DBS. Contamination levels were assessed using short tandem repeats (STRs). Female DBS contaminated with CF male DNA containing the F508del were analyzed for presence of this mutation. Archival DBS DNA amplification efficiency was determined using STR analysis. Most female DBS were contaminated, however only one specimen showed an incomplete STR profile consistent with contaminating CF-affected male DNA. Further testing by CF mutation screening was negative. DNA extracted from archival DBS showed robust amplification (range 100 bp-320 bp). Lightly abrasive contact between DBS resulted in DNA cross-contamination. The contaminating DNA did not interfere in CF-mutation tests; however this should be determined for individual assays. Since DNA from archival DBS robustly amplifies, newborn DBS could provide an invaluable resource for public health studies.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 04/2009; 402(1-2):107-13. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2008.12.028 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Christopher N Greene · Lisa M Keong · Suzanne K Cordovado · Patricia W Mueller ·
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    ABSTRACT: Nephropathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes with a genetic component for disease development. Genetic analyses have implicated multiple chromosomal regions for disease susceptibility but no single locus can account for the majority of the genetic component. Here, we report a genetic analysis of the PLEKHH2 gene that was identified through a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association study (GWAS) for association with the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study population. We initially examined the GWAS results from a subset of the GoKinD singleton population based on the two most common HLA diplotypes consisting of 112 cases and 148 controls. We observed two-adjacent markers mapping to the PLEKHH2 locus, rs1368086 and rs725238, each associated at P < 0.001. Additional SNPs were selected for linkage disequilibrium mapping and transmission disequilibrium testing (TdT) in 246 case trio families. A single marker, rs11886047, located upstream of the PLEKHH2 promoter was associated with DN by TdT in the case trios (P = 0.0307), and there was a increase of heterozygous genotypes in cases, relative to controls, from the 601 case and 577 control GoKinD singleton case/control population (P = 0.00256). These findings suggest that PLEKHH2, which has mRNA and protein expression exclusively in the glomerulus, may be a genetic risk factor for susceptibility to DN in the GoKinD population.
    Human Genetics 09/2008; 124(3):255-62. DOI:10.1007/s00439-008-0548-y · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel biomarkers of type 1 diabetes must be identified and validated in initial, exploratory studies before they can be assessed in proficiency evaluations. Currently, untargeted "-omics" approaches are underutilized in profiling studies of clinical samples. This report describes the evaluation of capillary liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) in a pilot proteomic analysis of human plasma and serum from a subset of control and type 1 diabetic individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Autoantibody Standardization Program, with the goal of identifying candidate biomarkers of type 1 diabetes. Initial high-resolution capillary LC-MS/MS experiments were performed to augment an existing plasma peptide database, while subsequent LC-FTICR studies identified quantitative differences in the abundance of plasma proteins. Analysis of LC-FTICR proteomic data identified five candidate protein biomarkers of type 1 diabetes. alpha-2-Glycoprotein 1 (zinc), corticosteroid-binding globulin, and lumican were 2-fold up-regulated in type 1 diabetic samples relative to control samples, whereas clusterin and serotransferrin were 2-fold up-regulated in control samples relative to type 1 diabetic samples. Observed perturbations in the levels of all five proteins are consistent with the metabolic aberrations found in type 1 diabetes. While the discovery of these candidate protein biomarkers of type 1 diabetes is encouraging, follow up studies are required for validation in a larger population of individuals and for determination of laboratory-defined sensitivity and specificity values using blinded samples.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2008; 7(2):698-707. DOI:10.1021/pr700606w · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether known genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes (HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 and insulin locus) play a role in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS; Genetic analysis of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 and the insulin gene (INS) was performed in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) collection of DNA (European ancestry subset), which includes case patients with type 1 diabetes and nephropathy (n = 829) and control patients with type 1 diabetes but not nephropathy (n = 904). The availability of phenotypic and genotypic data on GoKinD participants allowed a detailed analysis of the association of these genes with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic probands who were homozygous for HLA-DRB1*04 were 50% less likely to have nephropathy than probands without any DRB1*04 alleles. In heterozygous carriers, a protective effect of this allele was not as clearly evident; the mode of inheritance therefore remains unclear. This association was seen in probands with both short (<28 years, P = 0.02) and long (>/=28 years, P = 0.0001) duration of diabetes. A1C, a marker of sustained hyperglycemia, was increased in control probands with normoalbuminuira, despite long-duration diabetes, from 7.2 to 7.3 to 7.7% with 0, 1, and 2 copies of the DRB1*04 allele, respectively. This result is consistent with a protective effect of DRB1*04 that may allow individuals to tolerate higher levels of hyperglycemia, as measured by A1C, without developing nephropathy. These data suggest that carriers of DRB1*04 are protected from some of the injurious hyperglycemic effects related to nephropathy. Interestingly, DRB1*04 appears to be both a risk allele for type 1 diabetes and a protective allele for nephropathy.
    Diabetes 02/2008; 57(2):518-22. DOI:10.2337/db07-0826 · 8.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the workshop was to assess whether four laboratories could reproducibly measure insulin autoantibody (IAA) affinity in coded sera from non-diabetic relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes, newly diagnosed patients, and healthy blood donors, and whether combining affinity with autoantibody titer could improve concordance and performance of IAA assays. IAA affinity was measured by competitive binding using constant amounts of Tyr14A [125I] human insulin and increasing quantities of unlabeled human insulin. There was high concordance between laboratories in distinguishing high, moderate, and low affinity IAA, although IAA binding to insulin varied with assay format. Multiple islet autoantibody-positive and patient sera were identified by high affinity IAA regardless of laboratory-designated IAA status. Combining affinity and titer significantly improved sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of IAA measurement. This workshop has demonstrated that different laboratories are able to reproduce IAA affinity results and that considering IAA affinity is likely to improve the diagnostic performance of IAA assays.
    Clinical Immunology 02/2007; 122(1):85-90. DOI:10.1016/j.clim.2006.09.004 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study is an initiative that aims to identify genes that are involved in diabetic nephropathy. A large number of individuals with type 1 diabetes were screened to identify two subsets, one with clear-cut kidney disease and another with normal renal status despite long-term diabetes. Those who met additional entry criteria and consented to participate were enrolled. When possible, both parents also were enrolled to form family trios. As of November 2005, GoKinD included 3075 participants who comprise 671 case singletons, 623 control singletons, 272 case trios, and 323 control trios. Interested investigators may request the DNA collection and corresponding clinical data for GoKinD participants using the instructions and application form that are available at Participating scientists will have access to three data sets, each with distinct advantages. The set of 1294 singletons has adequate power to detect a wide range of genetic effects, even those of modest size. The set of case trios, which has adequate power to detect effects of moderate size, is not susceptible to false-positive results because of population substructure. The set of control trios is critical for excluding certain false-positive results that can occur in case trios and may be particularly useful for testing gene-environment interactions. Integration of the evidence from these three components into a single, unified analysis presents a challenge. This overview of the GoKinD study examines in detail the power of each study component and discusses analytic challenges that investigators will face in using this resource.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2006; 17(7):1782-90. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2005080822 · 9.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two novel DQA1 alleles, DQA1*0107 and DQA1*0602, were discovered using DQA1 sequence-based typing (SBT) in participants in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) Study. The DQA1*0107 allele, found in three unrelated Caucasian participants, contains a novel polymorphism at codon 79 of exon 2 (CGC-->TGC), which results in an amino acid change from an arginine to a cysteine. The participants containing this novel polymorphism also had a 1-bp insertion in intron 2 that is common to the *01 alleles. The DQA1*0602 allele, found in one Caucasian participant, contains a novel polymorphism at codon 139 of exon 3 (AGC-->CGC), which results in an amino acid change from a serine to an arginine. Additionally, the *0602 allele has a base change in intron 1 that is common to the *06 alleles. Both new alleles were isolated using single-allele amplification SBT and confirmed using sequence-specific primer amplification.
    Human Immunology 01/2006; 66(12):1248-53. DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2005.08.239 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Christopher N Greene · Suzanne K Cordovado · Patricia W Mueller ·
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    ABSTRACT: DRB1*030101 is a major genetic risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and is the only DRB1*03 allele usually seen in T1DM probands. Approximately 16% of parental DRB1*030101 alleles were not transmitted to T1DM probands in our Genetics of Kidneys and Diabetes study trio families. We performed a polymorphism screen to determine whether variations exist in DRB1*030101 alleles outside of exon 2 that may modify risk for developing T1DM. A combination of long-range and sequence-specific priming polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a hemizygous template from both transmitted and nontransmitted parental DRB1*030101 chromosomes. Exon 2 DRB1*030101-specific and flanking DRB1-specific primers amplified the entire genomic locus as a 10.6-kb 5' fragment and a 5.3-kb 3' fragment, respectively. All exons and intron/exon borders of introns 1 and 2, all of introns 3-5, and flanking regulatory regions of 32 transmitted and 31 nontransmitted alleles (99% power to detect a 5% minimal allele frequency) were analyzed through fluorescent DNA sequencing. The only polymorphic sites detected, a previously described intron 2 complex dinucleotide repeat and an additional complex repeat approximately 1.8 kb downstream of exon 6, do not significantly differ between T1DM patients and controls in this small data set.
    Human Immunology 08/2004; 65(7):737-44. DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2004.05.003 · 2.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
169.61 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2015
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Laboratory Sciences
      • • National Center for Environmental Health
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2006
    • Joslin Diabetes Center
      • Section on Genetics and Epidemiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Bristol
      • Medical School
      Bristol, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1989
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States