Luis F Gutiérrez

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Maryland, United States

Are you Luis F Gutiérrez?

Claim your profile

Publications (14)23.06 Total impact

  • Sheena Xin Liu, Luis F Gutiérrez, Doug Stanton
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electromagnetic (EM)-guided endoscopy has demonstrated its value in minimally invasive interventions. Accuracy evaluation of the system is of paramount importance to clinical applications. Previously, a number of researchers have reported the results of calibrating the EM-guided endoscope; however, the accumulated errors of an integrated system, which ultimately reflect intra-operative performance, have not been characterized. To fill this vacancy, we propose a novel system to perform this evaluation and use a 3D metric to reflect the intra-operative procedural accuracy. This paper first presents a portable design and a method for calibration of an electromagnetic (EM)-tracked endoscopy system. An evaluation scheme is then described that uses the calibration results and EM-CT registration to enable real-time data fusion between CT and endoscopic video images. We present quantitative evaluation results for estimating the accuracy of this system using eight internal fiducials as the targets on an anatomical phantom: the error is obtained by comparing the positions of these targets in the CT space, EM space and endoscopy image space. To obtain 3D error estimation, the 3D locations of the targets in the endoscopy image space are reconstructed from stereo views of the EM-tracked monocular endoscope. Thus, the accumulated errors are evaluated in a controlled environment, where the ground truth information is present and systematic performance (including the calibration error) can be assessed. We obtain the mean in-plane error to be on the order of 2 pixels. To evaluate the data integration performance for virtual navigation, target video-CT registration error (TRE) is measured as the 3D Euclidean distance between the 3D-reconstructed targets of endoscopy video images and the targets identified in CT. The 3D error (TRE) encapsulates EM-CT registration error, EM-tracking error, fiducial localization error, and optical-EM calibration error. We present in this paper our calibration method and a virtual navigation evaluation system for quantifying the overall errors of the intra-operative data integration. We believe this phantom not only offers us good insights to understand the systematic errors encountered in all phases of an EM-tracked endoscopy procedure but also can provide quality control of laboratory experiments for endoscopic procedures before the experiments are transferred from the laboratory to human subjects.
    International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 05/2011; 6(3):407-19. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Sheena Xin Liu, Luis F. Gutiérrez, Douglas Stanton
    Int. J. Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. 01/2011; 6:407-419.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In X-ray guided bronchoscopy of peripheral pulmonary lesions, airways and nodules are hardly visible in X-ray images. Transbronchial biopsy of peripheral lesions is often carried out blindly, resulting in degraded diagnostic yield. One solution of this problem is to superimpose the lesions and airways segmented from preoperative 3D CT images onto 2D X-ray images. A feature-based 2D/3D registration method is proposed for the image fusion between the datasets of the two imaging modalities. Two stereo X-ray images are used in the algorithm to improve the accuracy and robustness of the registration. The algorithm extracts the edge features of the bony structures from both CT and X-ray images. The edge points from the X-ray images are categorized into eight groups based on the orientation information of their image gradients. An orientation dependent Euclidean distance map is generated for each group of X-ray feature points. The distance map is then applied to the edge points of the projected CT images whose gradient orientations are compatible with the distance map. The CT and X-ray images are registered by matching the boundaries of the projected CT segmentations to the closest edges of the X-ray images after the orientation constraint is satisfied. Phantom and clinical studies were carried out to validate the algorithm's performance, showing a registration accuracy of 4.19(± 0.5) mm with 48.39(± 9.6) seconds registration time. The algorithm was also evaluated on clinical data, showing promising registration accuracy and robustness.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 01/2010; 2010:3715-8.
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-ray guided bronchoscopy is commonly used for targeting peripheral lesions in the lungs which cannot be visualized directly by the bronchoscope. The airways and lesions are normally not visible in X-ray images, and as a result, transbronchial biopsy of peripheral lesions is often carried out blindly, lowering the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy. In response to this problem, we propose to superimpose the lesions and airways segmented from preoperative 3D CT images onto 2D fluoroscopic images. A feature-based 2D/3D registration method is used for image fusion between the two datasets. The algorithm extracts features of the bony structures from both CT and X-ray images to compute the registration. Phantom and clinical studies were carried out to validate the algorithm's performance, showing an accuracy of 3.48±1.38mm. The convergence range and speed of the algorithm were also evaluated to investigate the feasibility of using the algorithm clinically. The results are presented.
    Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 14-17 April, 2010; 01/2010
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that X-ray fused with magnetic resonance imaging (XFM) roadmaps might permit direct antegrade crossing and delivery of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure device and thereby reduce procedure time and radiation exposure. Percutaneous device closure of membranous VSD is cumbersome and time-consuming. The procedure requires crossing the defect retrograde, snaring and exteriorizing a guidewire to form an arteriovenous loop, then delivering antegrade a sheath and closure device. Magnetic resonance imaging roadmaps of cardiac structures were obtained from miniature swine with spontaneous VSD and registered with live X-ray using external fiducial markers. We compared antegrade XFM-guided VSD crossing with conventional retrograde X-ray-guided crossing for repair. Antegrade XFM crossing was successful in all animals. Compared with retrograde X-ray, antegrade XFM was associated with shorter time to crossing (167 +/- 103 s vs. 284 +/- 61 s; p = 0.025), shorter time to sheath delivery (71 +/- 32 s vs. 366 +/- 145 s; p = 0.001), shorter fluoroscopy time (158 +/- 95 s vs. 390 +/- 137 s; p = 0.003), and reduced radiation dose-area product (2,394 +/- 1,522 mG.m(2) vs. 4,865 +/- 1,759 mG.m(2); p = 0.016). XFM facilitates antegrade access to membranous VSD from the right ventricle in swine. The simplified procedure is faster and reduces radiation exposure compared with the conventional retrograde approach.
    04/2009; 2(3):224-30. · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • Ameet K. Jain, Luis F. Gutiérrez, Douglas Stanton
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Live 3D trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and X-ray fluoroscopy provide complementary imaging information for guiding minimally invasive cardiac interventions. X-ray fluoroscopy is most commonly used for these procedures due to its excellent device visualization. However, its challenges include the 2D projection nature of the images and poor soft tissue contrast, both of which are addressed by the use of live 3D TEE imaging. We propose to integrate 3D TEE imaging with X-ray fluoroscopy, providing the capability to co-visualize both the interventional devices and cardiac anatomy, by accurately registering the images using an electro-magnetic tracking system. Phantom trials validating the proposed registration scheme indicate an average accuracy of 2.04 mm with a standard deviation of 0.59 mm. In the future, this system may benefit the guidance and navigation of interventional cardiac procedures such as mitral valve repair or patent foramen ovale closure.
    Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart, 5th International Conference, FIMH 2009, Nice, France, June 3-5, 2009. Proceedings; 01/2009
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-ray images acquired on systems with image intensifiers (II) exhibit characteristic distortion which is due to both external and internal factors. The distortion is dependent on the orientation of the II, a fact particularly relevant to II's mounted on C arms which have several degrees of freedom of motion. Previous descriptions of distortion correction strategies have relied on a dense sampling of the C-arm orientation space, and as such have been limited mostly to a single arc of the primary angle, alpha. We present a new method which smooths the trajectories of the segmented vertices of the grid phantom as a function of a prior to solving the two-dimensional warping problem. It also shows that the same residual errors of distortion correction could be achieved without fitting the trajectories of the grid vertices, but instead applying the previously described global method of distortion correction, followed by directly smoothing the values of the polynomial coefficients as functions of the C-arm orientation parameters. When this technique was applied to a series of test images at arbitrary alpha, the root-mean-square (RMS) residual error was 0.22 pixels. The new method was extended to three degrees of freedom of the C-arm motion: the primary angle, alpha; the secondary angle, beta; and the source-to-intensifier distance, lambda. Only 75 images were used to characterize the distortion for the following ranges: alpha, +/- 45 degrees (Deltaalpha = 22.5 degrees); beta, +/- 36 degrees (Deltabeta = 18 degrees); lambda, 98-118 cm (Deltalambda = 10 cm). When evaluated on a series of test images acquired at arbitrary (alpha, beta, lambda), the RMS residual error was 0.33 pixels. This method is targeted at applications such as guidance of catheter-based interventions and treatment planning for brachytherapy, which require distortion-corrected images over a large range of C-arm orientations.
    Medical Physics 04/2008; 35(3):997-1007. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have developed and validated a system for real-time X-ray fused with magnetic resonance imaging, MRI (XFM), to guide catheter procedures with high spatial precision. Our implementation overlays roadmaps-MRI-derived soft-tissue features of interest-onto conventional X-ray fluoroscopy. We report our initial clinical experience applying XFM, using external fiducial markers, electrocardiogram (ECG)- gating, and automated real-time correction for gantry and table movement. This prospective case series for technical development was approved by the NHLBI Institutional Review Board and included 19 subjects. Multimodality external fiducial markers were affixed to patients' skin before MRI, which included contrast-enhanced, 3D T1-weighted, or breath-held and ECG-gated 2D steady state free precession imaging at 1.5T. MRI-derived roadmaps were manually segmented while patients were transferred to a calibrated X-ray fluoroscopy system. Image spaces were registered using the fiducial markers and thereafter permitted unrestricted gantry rotation, table panning, and magnification changes. Static and ECG-gated MRI data were transformed from 3D to 2D to correspond with gantry and table position and combined with live X-ray images. Clinical procedures included graft coronary arteriography, right ventricular free-wall biopsy, and iliac and femoral artery recanalization and stenting. MRI roadmaps improved operator confidence, and in the biopsy cases, outperformed the best available alternative imaging modality. Registration errors were increased when external fiducial markers were affixed to more mobile skin positions, such as over the abdomen. XFM using external fiducial markers is feasible during X-ray guided catheter treatments. Multimodality image fusion may prove a useful adjunct to invasive cardiovascular procedures.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 12/2007; 70(6):773-82. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work presents an integrated system for multimodality image guidance of minimally invasive medical procedures. This software and hardware system offers real-time integration and registration of multiple image streams with localization data from navigation systems. All system components communicate over a local area Ethernet network, enabling rapid and flexible deployment configurations. As a representative configuration, we use X-ray fluoroscopy (XF) and ultrasound (US) imaging. The XF imaging system serves as the world coordinate system, with gantry geometry derived from the imaging system, and patient table position tracked with a custom-built measurement device using linear encoders. An electromagnetic (EM) tracking system is registered to the XF space using a custom imaging phantom that is also tracked by the EM system. The RMS fiducial registration error for the EM to X-ray registration was 2.19 mm, and the RMS target registration error measured with an EM-tracked catheter was 8.81 mm. The US image stream is subsequently registered to the XF coordinate system using EM tracking of the probe, following a calibration of the US image within the EM coordinate system. We present qualitative results of the system in operation, demonstrating the integration of live ultrasound imaging spatially registered to X-ray fluoroscopy with catheter localization using electromagnetic tracking.
    Proc SPIE 03/2007;
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Static X-ray computed tomography (CT) volumes are often used as anatomic roadmaps during catheter-based cardiac interventions performed under X-ray fluoroscopy guidance. These CT volumes provide a high-resolution depiction of soft-tissue structures, but at only a single point within the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Augmenting these static CT roadmaps with segmented myocardial borders extracted from live ultrasound (US) provides intra-operative access to real-time dynamic information about the cardiac anatomy. In this work, using a customized segmentation method based on a 3D active mesh, endocardial borders of the left ventricle were extracted from US image streams (4D data sets) at a frame rate of approximately 5 frames per second. The coordinate systems for CT and US modalities were registered using rigid body registration based on manually selected landmarks, and the segmented endocardial surfaces were overlaid onto the CT volume. The root-mean squared fiducial registration error was 3.80 mm. The accuracy of the segmentation was quantitatively evaluated in phantom and human volunteer studies via comparison with manual tracings on 9 randomly selected frames using a finite-element model (the US image resolutions of the phantom and volunteer data were 1.3 x 1.1 x 1.3 mm and 0.70 x 0.82 x 0.77 mm, respectively). This comparison yielded 3.70±2.5 mm (approximately 3 pixels) root-mean squared error (RMSE) in a phantom study and 2.58±1.58 mm (approximately 3 pixels) RMSE in a clinical study. The combination of static anatomical roadmap volumes and dynamic intra-operative anatomic information will enable better guidance and feedback for image-guided minimally invasive cardiac interventions.
    Proc SPIE 01/2007; 6509.
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac imaging with high soft tissue contrast. X-ray fluoroscopy provides high-resolution, 2-dimensional (2D) projection imaging. We have developed real-time x-ray fused with MRI (XFM) to guide invasive procedures that combines the best features of both imaging modalities. We tested the accuracy of XFM using external fiducial markers to guide endomyocardial cell injections in infarcted swine hearts. Endomyocardial injections of iron-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells admixed with tissue dye were performed in previously infarcted hearts of 12 Yucatan miniswine (weight, 33 to 67 kg). Features from cardiac MRI were displayed combined with x-ray in real time to guide injections. During 130 injections, operators were provided with 3D surfaces of endocardium, epicardium, myocardial wall thickness (range, 2.6 to 17.7 mm), and infarct registered with live x-ray images to facilitate device navigation and choice of injection location. XFM-guided injections were compared with postinjection MRI and with necropsy specimens obtained 24 hours later. Visual inspection of the pattern of dye staining on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained heart slices agreed (kappa=0.69) with XFM-derived injection locations mapped onto delayed hyperenhancement MRI and the susceptibility artifacts seen on the postinjection T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI. The distance between the predicted and actual injection locations in vivo was 3.2+/-2.6 mm (n=64), and 75% of injections were within 4.1 mm of the predicted location. Three-dimensional to two-dimensional registration of x-ray and MR images with the use of external fiducial markers accurately targets endomyocardial injection in a swine model of myocardial infarction.
    Circulation 12/2006; 114(22):2342-50. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The utility of X-ray fused with MRI (XFM) using external fiducial markers to perform targeted endomyocardial injections in infarcted hearts of swine was tested. Endomyocardial injections of feridex-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells (Fe-MSC) were performed in the previously infarcted hearts of 12 Yucatan miniswine (33-67 kg). Animals had pre-injection cardiac MRI, XFM-guided endomyocardial injection of Fe-MSC suspension spiked with tissue dye, and post-injection MRI. 24 hours later, after euthanasia, the hearts were excised, sliced and stained with TTC. During the injection procedure, operators were provided with 3D surfaces of endocardium, epicardium, myocardial wall thickness and infarct registered with live XF images to facilitate device navigation and choice of injection location. 130 injections were performed in hearts where diastolic wall thickness ranged from 2.6 to 17.7 mm. Visual inspection of the pattern of dye staining on TTC stained heart slices correlated (r=0.98) with XFM-derived injection locations mapped onto delayed hyperenhancement MRI and the susceptibility artifacts seen on the post-injection T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI. The in vivo target registration error was 3.17+/-2.61 mm (n=64) and 75% of injections were within 4 mm of the predicted location. 3D to 2D registration of XF and MR images using external fiducial markers enables accurate targeted endomyocardial injection in a swine model of myocardial infarction. The present data suggest that the safety and efficacy of this approach for performing targeted endomyocardial delivery should be evaluated further clinically.
    Proc SPIE 03/2006;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present our co-registration results of two complementary imaging modalities, MRI and X-ray angiography (XA), using dual modality fiducial markers. Validation experiments were conducted using a vascular phantom with eight fiducial markers around its periphery. Gradient-distortion-corrected 3D MRI was used to image the phantom and determine the 3D locations of the markers. XA imaging was performed at various C-arm orientations. These images were corrected for geometric distortion, and projection parameters were optimized using a calibration phantom. Closed-form 3D-to-3D rigid-body registration was performed between the MR markers and a D reconstruction of the markers from multiple XA images. 3D-to-2D registration was performed using a single XA image by projecting the MR markers onto the XA image and iteratively minimizing the 2D errors between the projected markers and their observed locations in the image. The RMS registration error was 0.77 mm for the 3D-to-3D registration, and 1.53 pixels for the 3D-to-2D registration. We also showed that registration can be performed at a large IS where many markers are visible, then the image can be zoomed in maintaining the registration. This requires calibration of imperfections in the zoom operation of the image intensifier. When we applied the registration used for an IS of 330 mm to an image acquired with an IS of 130 mm, the error was 42.16 pixels before zoom correction and 3.37 pixels after. This method offers the possibility of new therapies where the soft-tissue contrast of MRI and the high-resolution imaging of XA are both needed.
    Proc SPIE 04/2005;

Publication Stats

79 Citations
23.06 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2009
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Translational Medicine Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Baltimore, MD, United States