Shiro Takei

Koshien University, Takarazuka, Hyōgo, Japan

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Publications (22)79.8 Total impact

  • Brain Behavior and Immunity 09/2014; 40:e17. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2014.06.077 · 5.89 Impact Factor

  • Brain Behavior and Immunity 09/2013; 32:e21. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2013.07.084 · 5.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lipid storage disorder. Two disease-causing genes (NPC1 and NPC2) have been identified. NPC is characterized by neuronal and glial lipid storage and NFTs. Here, we report a man with juvenile-onset progressive neurological deficits, including pyramidal signs, ataxia, bulbar palsy, vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and psychiatric symptoms; death occurred at age 37 before definitive clinical diagnosis. Post mortem gross examination revealed a unique distribution of brain atrophy, predominantly in the frontal and temporal lobes. Microscopically, lipid storage in neurons and widely distributed NFTs were observed. Lipid storage cells appeared in systemic organs and filipin staining indicated intracellular cholesterol accumulation in hepatic macrophages. Electron microscopy revealed accumulation of lipids and characteristic oligolamellar inclusions. These findings suggested an NPC diagnosis. Neuronal loss and gliosis were frequently accompanied by NFTs and occurred in the frontal and temporal cortices, hippocampus, amygdala, basal forebrain, basal ganglia, thalamus, substantia nigra and brain stem nuclei. Lewy bodies (LBs) were observed in most, but not all, regions where NFTs were evident. In contrast, neuronal lipid storage occurred in more widespread areas, including the parietal and occipital cortices where neurodegeneration with either NFTs or LBs was minimal. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated that the patient had compound heterozygous mutations in the cysteine-rich loop (A1017T and Y1088C) of the NPC1 gene. To our knowledge there has been no previous report of the A1017T mutation. The pathological features of this patient support the notion that NPC has an aspect of α-synucleinopathy, and long-term survivors of NPC may develop a frontotemporal-predominant distribution of brain atrophy.
    Neuropathology 05/2013; 34(1). DOI:10.1111/neup.12047 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene mutations have not yet been fully elucidated. Results To identify mutations specific to SAMP strains, we performed whole exome sequencing of 6 SAMP and 3 SAMR strains. This analysis revealed 32,019 to 38,925 single-nucleotide variants in the coding region of each SAM strain. We detected Ogg1 p.R304W and Mbd4 p.D129N deleterious mutations in all 6 of the SAMP strains but not in the SAMR or AKR/J strains. Moreover, we extracted 31 SAMP-specific novel deleterious mutations. In all SAMP strains except SAMP8, we detected a p.R473W missense mutation in the Ldb3 gene, which has been associated with myofibrillar myopathy. In 3 SAMP strains (SAMP3, SAMP10, and SAMP11), we identified a p.R167C missense mutation in the Prx gene, in which mutations causing hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) have been identified. In SAMP6 we detected a p.S540fs frame-shift mutation in the Il4ra gene, a mutation potentially causative of ulcerative colitis and osteoporosis. Conclusions Our data indicate that different combinations of mutations in disease-causing genes may be responsible for the various phenotypes of SAMP strains.
    BMC Genomics 04/2013; 14(1):248. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-14-248 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excitotoxicity is involved in neurodegenerative conditions. We investigated the pathological significance of a surge in prostaglandin production immediately after kainic acid (KA) administration [initial phase], followed by a sustained moderate elevation in prostaglandin level [late phase] in the hippocampus of juvenile rats. Numerous pyknotic hippocampal neurons were observed 72h after KA treatment; this number remained elevated on days 10 and 30. Gross hippocampal atrophy was observed on days 10 and 30. Pre-treatment with indomethacin ameliorated neuronal death on days 10 and 30, and prevented hippocampal atrophy on day 30. Microglial response was moderated by the indomethacin pre-treatment. Blockade of only late-phase prostaglandin production by post-treatment with indomethacin ameliorated neuronal death on day 30. These findings suggest a role for initial-phase prostaglandin production in chronic progressive neuronal death, which is exacerbated by late-phase prostaglandin production. Blockade of prostaglandin production has therapeutic implications in preventing long-term neurological sequelae following excitotoxic brain damage.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 03/2013; 88(5). DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2013.02.007 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the immune system modulates higher functions of the brain under non-inflammatory conditions, how immune cells interact with brain parenchymal cells remains to be determined. Using bone marrow chimeric mice in which the recipients' immune system was reconstituted by marrow cells derived from GFP-transgenic mice by syngeneic intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) and by intravenous (IV)-BMT, we examined the distribution, density and differentiation of donor-derived marrow cells in the brain parenchyma 2 weeks and 1, 4 and 8 months after BMT. Marrow-derived cells populated discrete brain regions from 1 to 4 months after BMT, exhibited ramified morphology and expressed Iba-1. The ramified marrow-derived cells were distributed in more brain regions and for a longer time after IBM-BMT than IV-BMT. Most of these discrete regions were adjacent to the attachments of choroid plexus that comprised thinned brain parenchyma consisting of astroglial processes in the narrow channel between the ependyma and pia. These specific portions of astroglial processes expressed fractalkine. In the choroid plexus stroma, not only myeloid cells but also CXCL12-expressing cells were of bone marrow-origin. Transcripts of fractalkine, CXCL12 and their related molecules such as CX3CR1, ADAM10 and CXCR4 were detected in the tissue consisting of the choroid plexus, the attachments and adjacent brain parenchyma. Thus, bone marrow cells selectively enter the discrete brain regions adjacent to the attachments of choroid plexus and differentiate into ramified myeloid cells. Fractalkine in the attachments of choroid plexus and CXCL12 in the choroid plexus stroma may be involved in these brain-immune interactions.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 12/2012; 29. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2012.12.010 · 5.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perturbation in the brain–immune interaction may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) mice undergo early onset of age-related neurodegenerative changes and impaired cognition. Given the elevated levels of brain pro-inflammatory cytokines, dystrophic microglia and defects in cytokine-mediated neuroprotective glial responses, as well as an early involution of the thymus and impaired T cell functions, the brain–immune interaction could be perturbed in SAMP10 mice. We created radiation chimeras in which bone marrow cells of young and old SAMP10 and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were reconstituted by bone marrow cells derived from GFP transgenic B6 mice by intra-bone marrow–bone marrow transplantation (IBM–BMT) and analyzed these chimeras 4 months after BMT. In chimeras in which B6 mice were recipients, donor-derived cells entered several discrete regions of the brain parenchyma mostly adjacent to the tenia of the choroid plexus but not the remaining major parts of the brain parenchyma. On the other hand, in chimeras in which old SAMP10 mice were recipients, a larger number of donor-derived cells entered more regions, such as hypothalamus, white matter and brain stem, than in chimeras with B6 mice being recipients. The enhanced recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells into the brain parenchyma in old SAMP10 mice may be a manifestation of disturbances in the brain–immune interaction that might be related to early onset neurodegenerative changes.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 09/2012; 26:S2. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2012.07.030 · 5.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the immune system modulates the brain function under steady-state conditions, it has not been clear where and how the peripheral immune cells interact with brain parenchymal cells. We created radiation chimera mice in which recipients’ immune system was reconstituted by bone marrow cells derived from donor GFP transgenic mice by a novel intra-bone marrow–bone marrow transplantation (IBM–BMT) method and by conventional intravenous (IV)–BMT. We examined the distribution, differentiation and density of donor-derived bone marrow (BM) cells in the brain parenchyma 2 weeks and 1, 4 and 8 months after the BMT. We found BM-derived cells in several discrete brain regions mostly adjacent to the tenia of the choroid plexus from 1 to 4 months after BMT, but not in the remaining major parts until 8 months after BMT. BM-derived cells exhibited ramified morphology and expressed Iba-1 but not GFAP, CNPase or NeuN, indicative of the myeloid lineage. The densities of BM-derived cells in the brain parenchyma increased in a time dependent manner after IBM–BMT but not after IV–BMT, therefore the BM-derived cell densities 8 months after IBM–BMT were significantly higher than those after IV–BMT. The choroid plexus stroma contained more BM-derived cells after IBM–BMT than after IV–BMT. These results suggested that the tenia of the choroid plexus represents a novel route of entry for peripheral immune cells into the brain parenchyma under steady-state conditions.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 09/2012; 26:S2. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2012.07.029 · 5.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin (PG) F(2α) is one of the major prostanoids biosynthesized by cyclooxygenases (COXs) from arachidonic acid. Although it has been reported that there is a selective surge in PGF(2α) production in the hippocampus during kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure activity, the precise intra-hippocampal distribution of PGF(2α) has not been elucidated due to the paucity of effective histological techniques for detecting PGs in tissues. We investigated the tissue distribution of PGF(2α) in the rat hippocampus 30 min after KA injection by developing fixation and immunohistological-staining methods. To detect PGF(2α) directly on histological sections, we used systemic perfusion fixation with water-soluble carbodiimide fixative, followed by immersion of the brains in Zamboni's fixative. We then performed immunofluorescence staining with anti-PGF(2α) antibody, with negative control experiments used to confirm the staining specificity. Definitive immunolabeling for PGF(2α) was evident most markedly in pyramidal cells of the hippocampal cornu Ammonis (CA) 3 sector and neurons of the hilus in KA-treated rats. Immunolabeling for PGF(2α) was also evident in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Double immunfluorescence staining revealed that PGF(2α)-immunopositive neurons expressed cytosolic phospholipases A(2), COX-2, and FP receptor. These results suggest that the major source of PGF(2α) production immediately after KA injection was neurons of the hippocampal CA3 sector, hilus and dentate gyrus. These neurons exert PGF(2α)-mediated functions via FP receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner and may play pathophysiological roles in the acute phase (30 min) of excitotoxicity.
    Neuroscience 05/2012; 218:295-304. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.05.013 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is pathologically characterized by the formation of α-synuclein-containing glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in oligodendrocytes. However, the mechanisms of GCI formation are not fully understood. Cellular machinery for the formation of aggresomes has been linked to the biogenesis of the Lewy body, a characteristic α-synuclein-containing inclusion of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Here, we examined whether GCIs contain the components of aggresomes by immunohistochemistry. Methods: Sections from five patients with MSA were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against aggresome-related proteins and analysed in comparison with sections from five patients with no neurological disease. We evaluated the presence or absence of aggresome-related proteins in GCIs by double immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Results: GCIs were clearly immunolabelled with antibodies against aggresome-related proteins, such as γ-tubulin, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and 20S proteasome subunits. Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) were also immunopositive for these aggresome-related proteins. Double immunofluorescence staining and quantitative analysis demonstrated that the majority of GCIs contained these proteins, as well as other aggresome-related proteins, such as Hsp70, Hsp90 and 62-kDa protein/sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated immunoreactivities for γ-tubulin and HDAC6 along the fibrils comprising GCIs. Conclusions: Our results indicate that GCIs, and probably NCIs, share at least some characteristics with aggresomes in terms of their protein components. Therefore, GCIs and NCIs may be another manifestation of aggresome-related inclusion bodies observed in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 10/2011; 38(6):559-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2011.01229.x · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excitotoxicity is involved in seizure-induced acute neuronal death, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and chronic neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Although oxidative stress has been implicated in excitotoxicity, the target proteins of oxidative damage during the course of excitotoxic cell death are still unclear. In the present study, we performed 2D-oxyblot analysis and mass spectrometric amino acid sequencing to identify proteins that were vulnerable to oxidative damage in the rat hippocampus during kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus. We first investigated the time course in which oxidative protein damage occurred using immunohistochemistry. Carbonylated proteins, a manifestation of protein oxidation, were detected in hippocampal neurons as early as 3h after KA administration. Immunoreactivity for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was also elevated at the same time point. The increase in oxidative damage to proteins and DNA occurred concomitantly with the early morphological changes in KA-treated rat hippocampus, i.e., changes in chromatin distribution and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which preceded the appearance of morphological features of neuronal death such as pyknotic nuclei and hypereosinophilic cytoplasm. Proteomic analysis revealed that several hippocampal proteins were consistently carbonylated at this time point, including heat shock 70kDa protein 4, valosin-containing protein, mitochondrial inner membrane protein (mitofilin), α-internexin, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein (14-3-3 protein). We propose that oxidative damage to these proteins may be one of the upstream events in the molecular pathway leading to excitotoxic cell death in KA-treated rat hippocampus, and these proteins may be targets of therapeutic intervention for seizure-induced neuronal death.
    Neurobiology of Disease 06/2011; 43(3):706-14. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.05.024 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is a result of damage accumulation, and understanding of the mechanisms of aging requires exploration of the cellular and molecular systems functioning to control damage. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) has been established as an inbred strain exhibiting accelerated aging with an earlier onset of cognitive impairment due to neurodegeneration than the senescence-resistant control (SAMR1) strain. We hypothesized that tissue-protective responses of glial cells are impaired in SAMP10 mice. We injected kainic acid (KA) to induce hippocampal injury and studied how cytokines were upregulated on Day 3 using 3-month-old SAMP10 and SAMR1 mice. Following microarray-based screening for upregulated genes, we performed real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results indicated well-orchestrated cytokine-mediated glial interactions in the injured hippocampus of SAMR1 mice, in which microglia-derived interferon (IFN)-γ stimulated astrocytes via IFN-γ receptor and thereby induced expression of CXCL10 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and activated microglia produced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and osteopontin (OPN). OPN was the most strongly upregulated cytokine. CD44, an OPN receptor, was also strongly upregulated in the neuropil, especially on neurons and astrocytes. KA-induced hippocampal upregulation of these cytokines was strikingly reduced in SAMP10 mice compared to SAMR1 mice. On Day 30 after KA injection, SAMP10 but not SAMR1 mice exhibited hippocampal layer atrophy. Since the OPN-CD44 system is essential for neuroprotection and remodeling, these findings highlight the defects of SAMP10 mice in cytokine-mediated neuroprotective glia-neuron interactions, which may be associated with the mechanism underlying the vulnerability of SAMP10 mice to age-related neurodegeneration.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2011; 25(1):83-100. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2010.08.006 · 5.89 Impact Factor

  • Neuroscience Research 12/2010; 68:e234. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2010.07.1036 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a novel method for enhancing light-microscopic visualization of pancreatic zymogen granules in a selective manner on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. By using an absorption filter that transmits light with wavelength from 510 to 550 nm, corresponding to the narrow absorption spectrum of eosin, only eosinophilic tissue and cellular components were remarkably highlighted as distinct shadows against lighter background consisting of basophilic components. Using a pair of mirror sections of the pancreas, immunocytochemistry with anti-amylase antibody confirmed that the shadows observed through the filter represented zymogen granules. Immersion in formalin for 36 h at room temperature was the optimal fixation condition. Here we designate the procedure as the "eosin-shadow method" and propose that this technique is convenient and useful to help investigators identify zymogen granules more easily in routine pathological examination and histological studies.
    12/2010; 85(4):245-50. DOI:10.1007/s12565-009-0067-5
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin (PG) F(₂α) is a product of cyclooxygenase (COX)-catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid and exerts biological functions in various tissues. Prostaglandin ethanolamide (prostamide) F(₂α) is a COX-2-catalyzed metabolite of arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) that induces pharmacological actions in ocular tissues. Although PGF(₂α) is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the brain, function of PGF(₂α) in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been extensively investigated. Recently identified prostamide/PGF synthase catalyzes the reductions of prostamide H₂ to prostamide F(₂α) and PGH₂ to PGF(₂α), chiefly in the CNS. We examined tissue distribution of the enzyme in the CNS by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence, and immuno-electron microscopy. We confirmed histological findings by immunofluorescence analyses of brain cell cultures. Prostamide/PGF synthase was expressed preferentially in the white matter bundles of the entire CNS of adult mice with less marked expression in neuronal cell bodies. The enzyme was colocalized with myelin basic protein (MBP) in myelin sheaths but not in axons. At the ultrastructural level, the enzyme was localized to myelin sheaths. Expression of the enzyme increased between P9 and P14 during the postnatal development, presumably in accordance with myelinogenesis. Cultured oligodendrocytes at 7 days in vitro expressed the enzyme in cytoplasmic processes where the enzyme was colocalized with MBP. Immunoreactivity for COX-2 was detected in white matter and cultured oligodendrocytes. Relatively selective localization of prostamide/PGF synthase suggests that myelin sheaths of the CNS may serve as the sites for producing prostamide F(₂α) and/or PGF(₂α), which may contribute to the formation and maintenance of central myelin.
    Brain research 10/2010; 1367:22-32. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.10.019 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) strain is a model of age-related neurodegeneration in the limbic forebrain. To investigate changes in protein expression profiles involved in neurodegeneration, we performed two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and compared protein expression in the limbic and non-limbic forebrains of SAMP10 and control mice at various ages. Among protein spots in which patterns of aging in expression in the limbic forebrain differed between SAMP10 and control, we identified three proteins by mass spectrometry: pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase (PLPP), collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) and alpha-internexin. Expression of PLPP was increased in the limbic forebrain of 3-month-old SAMP10 mice. Levels of CRMP-2 and phosphorylated alpha-internexin were increased in the limbic forebrain of SAMP10 mice at age 8 months and remained high until 14 months. Western blot revealed elevation in the level of phosphorylated CRMP-2 and the ratio of phosphorylation of alpha-internexin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that alpha-internexin was chiefly distributed in axons. Aging in SAMP10 mice was associated with abnormality of PLPP, CRMP-2 and alpha-internexin, all of which are known to be involved in brain cytoskeleton formation and associated with acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. These proteins are promising targets for further investigation of the mechanisms underlying brain aging.
    Mechanisms of ageing and development 06/2010; 131(6):379-88. DOI:10.1016/j.mad.2010.05.002 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ageing brain is characterized by degenerative changes in both neurons and glia. Although neurons are known to lose dendritic complexity with ageing, age-related changes in the morphology of microglia have not been well documented. We investigated potential age-related changes in microglial morphology using mouse models. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) in which neuronal degeneration begins to appear around 8 months of age and becomes progressively remarkable with advancing age was used as a model of brain ageing. Senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) in which age-related neuronal changes are inconspicuous was used as usual-ageing controls. Hippocampal sections prepared from 3-, 8- and 14-month-old SAMP10 and 3-, 8-, 14- and 24-month-old SAMR1 mice were stained immunohistochemically with anti-Iba-1 antibody to highlight microglia. Stick figures of individual microglia reflecting the length and complexity of cytoplasmic processes were made by camera lucida drawing. Parameters representing morphological features of microglia were quantified using an image analyzer: area of convex closure, cell body area, number of primary processes, maximal branch order, combined projection length, number of segments and number of tips. Pathological changes of processes such as beading and clusters of fragmented twigs were counted. In microglia of 3- and 8-month-old SAMP10 mice, combined projection length was shorter and numbers of segments and tips were smaller than those in age-matched SAMR1 mice. Similar changes were detected in SAMR1 mice at age 14 months and older. Microglia of SAMP10 mice at all ages were characterized by having frequent pathological changes in processes, which were not remarkable in SAMR1 mice at any age. These morphological abnormalities in microglia of SAMP10 mice preceded the onset of neuronal degeneration and may lead to making brain tissue less protective to neurons. We propose that preceding abnormalities in microglia may contribute to the vulnerability to age-related neuronal degeneration in SAMP10 mice.
    Neuropathology 05/2010; 31(1):20-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1789.2010.01126.x · 1.65 Impact Factor

  • Neuroscience Research 12/2009; 65. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2009.09.1391 · 1.94 Impact Factor

  • Neuroscience Research 12/2009; 65. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2009.09.027 · 1.94 Impact Factor

  • Neuroscience Research 12/2009; 65. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2009.09.1425 · 1.94 Impact Factor