[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure , and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy.
Current Cardiology Reports 12/2015; 17(12). DOI:10.1007/s11886-015-0668-7 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness (defined as the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one's own physical and mental processes) is associated with obesity and central adiposity.
Study participants (n = 394) were from the New England Family Study, a prospective birth cohort, with median age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Central adiposity was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with primary outcomes android fat mass and android/gynoid ratio. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2).
Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that participants with low vs. high MAAS scores were more likely to be obese (prevalence ratio for obesity = 1.34 (95 % confidence limit (CL): 1.02, 1.77)), adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, birth weight, childhood socioeconomic status, and childhood intelligence. Furthermore, participants with low vs. high MAAS level had a 448 (95 % CL 39, 857) g higher android fat mass and a 0.056 (95 % CL 0.003, 0.110) greater android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Prospective analyses demonstrated that participants who were not obese in childhood and became obese in adulthood (n = 154) had -0.21 (95 % CL -0.41, -0.01; p = 0.04) lower MAAS scores than participants who were not obese in childhood or adulthood (n = 203).
Dispositional mindfulness may be inversely associated with obesity and adiposity. Replication studies are needed to adequately establish whether low dispositional mindfulness is a risk factor for obesity and adiposity.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12529-015-9513-z · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood adversity, characterized by abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, is a problem that exerts a significant impact on individuals, families, and society. Growing evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with health decline in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the current review, we first provide an overview of the association between ACEs and CVD risk, with updates on the latest epidemiological evidence. Second, we briefly review plausible pathways by which ACEs could influence CVD risk, including traditional risk factors and novel mechanisms. Finally, we highlight the potential implications of ACEs in clinical and public health. Information gleaned from this review should help physicians and researchers in better understanding potential long-term consequences of ACEs and considering adapting current strategies in treatment or intervention for patients with ACEs.
Current Cardiology Reports 10/2015; 17(10):645. DOI:10.1007/s11886-015-0645-1 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity affects more than one third of US adults and is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Traditional behavioral interventions for weight loss typically focus on diet and exercise habits and often give little attention to the role of stress and emotions in the initiation and maintenance of unhealthy behaviors, which may account for their modest results and considerable variability in outcomes. Stress eating and emotional eating are increasingly recognized as important targets of weight loss interventions. Mindfulness-based interventions were specifically developed to promote greater self-efficacy in coping with stress and negative emotions and appear to be effective for a variety of conditions. In recent years, researchers have begun to study mindfulness interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management. This review describes the rationale for the use of mindfulness in interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management, summarizes the research to date, and suggests priorities for future research.
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 10/2015; 9(10). DOI:10.1007/s12170-015-0474-1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between coping styles and allostatic load among African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study (2000-2004). Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Strategies Inventory-Short Form; allostatic load was measured by using 9 biomarkers standardized into z-scores. Sex-stratified multivariable linear regressions indicated that females who used disengagement coping styles had significantly higher allostatic load scores (β = 0.016; 95% CI, 0.001-0.032); no such associations were found in males. Future longitudinal investigations should examine why disengagement coping style is linked to increased allostatic load to better inform effective interventions and reduce health disparities among African American women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that early life factors may influence coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; however, little is known about the contributions of prenatal cortisol. Objectives were to prospectively assess the associations of maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy with offspring's 10-year CHD risk during middle age.
Participants were 262 mother-offspring dyads from the New England Family Study. Maternal free cortisol was assessed in third-trimester maternal serum samples. Ten-year CHD risk was calculated in offspring at a mean age of 42 years, using the validated Framingham risk algorithm incorporating diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, age, and sex.
In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses adjusted for age and race/ethnicity, high versus low maternal cortisol tertile was associated with 36.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4% to 72.5%) greater mean 10-year CHD risk score in women. There was no association in men (-2.8%, 95% CI = -23.8% to 24.0%). Further adjustment for in utero socioeconomic position showed 26.1% (95% CI = -0.5% to 59.9%) greater CHD risk in women. Adjustment for maternal age and size for gestational age had little effect on findings.
Maternal prenatal cortisol levels were positively associated with 10-year CHD risk among female, and not male, offspring. Adjusting for socioeconomic position during pregnancy reduced effect size in women, suggesting that it may be a common prior factor in both maternal cortisol and CHD risk. These findings provide evidence that targeting mothers who have elevated prenatal cortisol levels, including elevated cortisol in the setting of low socioeconomic position, may potentially reduce long-term CHD risk in their offspring.
Psychosomatic Medicine 03/2015; 77(3). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000164 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The impact of a healthy lifestyle on risk of heart failure (HF) is not well known.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a combination of lifestyle factors on incident HF and to further investigate whether weighting each lifestyle factor has additional impact.
METHODS: Participants were 84,537 post-menopausal women from the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) observational study, free of self-reported HF at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HL score) was created wherein women received 1 point for each healthy criterion met: high-scoring Alternative Healthy Eating Index, physically active, healthy body mass index, and currently not smoking. A weighted score (wHL score) was also created in which each lifestyle factor was weighted according to its independent magnitude of effect on HF. The incidence of hospitalized HF was determined by trained adjudicators using standardized methodology.
RESULTS: There were 1,826 HF cases over a mean follow-up of 11 years. HL score was strongly associated with risk of HF (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.62], 0.36 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.46], 0.24 [95% CI: 0.19 to 0.31], and 0.23 [95% CI: 0.17 to 0.30] for HL score of 1, 2, 3, and 4 vs. 0, respectively). The HL score and wHL score were similarly associated with HF risk (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.52] for HL score; HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.55] for wHL score, comparing the highest tertile to the lowest). The HL score was also strongly associated with HF risk among women without antecedent coronary heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: An increasingly healthy lifestyle was associated with decreasing HF risk among post-menopausal women, even in the absence of antecedent coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Weighting the lifestyle factors had minimal impact. Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2014; 64(17):1777–1785. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.981 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation.Methods
We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age = 42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders.ResultsIn separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3 mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease.Conclusions
Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of adversities during childhood. This evidence is consistent with studies demonstrating that adverse exposures in the maternal environment during gestation have lasting effects on development of the immune system. If these results reflect causal associations, they suggest that interventions to improve the social and environmental conditions of pregnancy would promote health over the life course. It remains necessary to identify the mechanisms that link maternal conditions during pregnancy to the development of fetal immune and other systems involved in adaptation to environmental stressors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Mindfulness (the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one’s own physical and mental processes) is receiving substantial interest as a potential determinant of health. However, little is known whether mindfulness is associated with cardiovascular health.
The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness is associated with cardiovascular health.
Study participants (n = 382) were from the New England Family Study, born in Providence, RI, USA, with mean age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Cardiovascular health was assessed based on American Heart Association criteria. Cross-sectional multivariable-adjusted log binomial regression analyses were performed.
Analyses demonstrated that those with high vs. low MAAS had prevalence ratio (PR) for good cardiovascular health of 1.83 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 3.13), adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. There were significant associations of high vs. low mindfulness with nonsmoking (PR = 1.37, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.76), body mass index
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 10/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1007/s12529-014-9448-9 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959-1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005-2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates.
American Journal of Epidemiology 06/2014; 180(3). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu127 · 5.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify psychosocial factors associated with sedentary behavior, we tested whether perceived discrimination is associated with sedentary behavior. Methods: Black and white men and women (N = 3270) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
(CARDIA) Study reported experiences of discrimination and time engaged in total and screen time sedentary behaviors in 2010-11. Results: There were no associations of discriminatory experiences with total sedentary behavior time. However, discriminatory experiences were positively associated
with screen time for black men (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.86) and white women (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.00) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Conclusion: Among black men and white women, discriminatory experiences were correlated with
more screen time sedentary behavior.
American journal of health behavior 06/2014; 38(5):641-649. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.38.5.1 · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate dose-response associations between misperceived weight and 32 health risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Methods: Participants included 13,864 US high school students in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Comparing
the degree of agreement between perceived and reported actual weight, weight misperception was determined as 5 categories. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of weight misperception with 32 health risk behaviors. Results: Both underestimated and
overestimated weight were statistically significantly associated with all 32 health risk behaviors in a dose-response manner after adjustment for age, sex and race/ethnicity, where greater weight misperception was associated with higher engagement in health risk behaviors. Conclusions:
Understanding potential impacts of weight misperception on health risk behaviors could improve interventions that encourage healthy weight perception and attainment for adolescents.
American journal of health behavior 06/2014; 38(5):765-780. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.38.5.14 · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work suggests that leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, is sensitive to effects of social stress and may also provide early indication of premature aging. Using data from a birth cohort with LTL information at birth and in middle adulthood we examined a potential source of race-based health disparity by testing the hypothesis that Blacks would demonstrate a faster rate of telomere shortening than Whites. Linear regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for pack years, BMI, education and social factors, diet, exercise, marital status, and age. At birth black individuals had LTLs that were longer, on average, than their White counterparts (b = 3.85, p < 0.01). However, rate of shortening was greater for Blacks, who showed a larger difference in length between birth and adulthood (b = 5.10, p = 0.01) as compared with Whites, resulting in smaller racial differences in absolute adult LTL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether the childhood family psychosocial environment (characterized by cold, unaffectionate interactions, conflict, aggression, neglect and/or low nurturance) affects coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to evaluate associations of childhood family psychosocial environment with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. The study population included 2659 CARDIA study participants, aged 37-52 years. Childhood family psychosocial environment was measured using a risky family questionnaire via self-report. Carotid IMT was calculated using the average of 20 measurements of mean common carotid, bulb and internal carotid IMT, assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images. Utilizing linear regression analyses adjusted for age, a 1-unit (range 0-21) increase in risky family score was associated with 0.0036 (95% CI: 0.0006,0.0066 mm) and 0.0020 (95% CI: 0.0002,0.0038) mm increase in mean IMT in white males and females, respectively. Formal mediation analyses and covariate adjustments suggested childhood socioeconomic position and smoking may be important mechanisms in white males and females, as well as education and depressive symptomatology in white males. No associations were found in black participants. Formal statistical tests for interaction between risky family score and sex, and between risky family score and race/ethnicity, demonstrated borderline evidence of interactions for both sex (p = 0.12) and race/ethnicity (p = 0.14) with risky family score for associations with mean IMT. In conclusion, childhood family psychosocial environment was positively associated with IMT in white participants, with little evidence of association in black participants. Mechanisms in white participants may include potential negative impacts of socioeconomic constraints on parenting quality, potentially influencing offspring's cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), socioeconomic position (e.g. education), and/or psychosocial functioning (e.g. depression), which may in turn lead to atherosclerotic processes. Borderline racial/ethnic differences in findings should be replicated, but add to literature exploring race/ethnicity-specific associations of parenting approaches with health outcomes.
Social Science [?] Medicine 03/2014; 104:15-22. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.12.015 · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk.
The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease.
Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered.
One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses.
Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine 02/2014; 48(2). DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9600-4 · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position) cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes) and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components.
Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥ 20 years from NHANES 2001-2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI) included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI.
Healthful clustering (SRI = 0) was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics.
Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.