Eric B Loucks

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

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Publications (59)230.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between coping styles and allostatic load among African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study (2000-2004). Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Strategies Inventory-Short Form; allostatic load was measured by using 9 biomarkers standardized into z-scores. Sex-stratified multivariable linear regressions indicated that females who used disengagement coping styles had significantly higher allostatic load scores (β = 0.016; 95% CI, 0.001-0.032); no such associations were found in males. Future longitudinal investigations should examine why disengagement coping style is linked to increased allostatic load to better inform effective interventions and reduce health disparities among African American women.
    Preventing chronic disease 10/2015; 12. DOI:10.5888/pcd12.150166 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Preventing chronic disease 08/2015; in press. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that early life factors may influence coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; however, little is known about the contributions of prenatal cortisol. Objectives were to prospectively assess the associations of maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy with offspring's 10-year CHD risk during middle age. Participants were 262 mother-offspring dyads from the New England Family Study. Maternal free cortisol was assessed in third-trimester maternal serum samples. Ten-year CHD risk was calculated in offspring at a mean age of 42 years, using the validated Framingham risk algorithm incorporating diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, age, and sex. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses adjusted for age and race/ethnicity, high versus low maternal cortisol tertile was associated with 36.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4% to 72.5%) greater mean 10-year CHD risk score in women. There was no association in men (-2.8%, 95% CI = -23.8% to 24.0%). Further adjustment for in utero socioeconomic position showed 26.1% (95% CI = -0.5% to 59.9%) greater CHD risk in women. Adjustment for maternal age and size for gestational age had little effect on findings. Maternal prenatal cortisol levels were positively associated with 10-year CHD risk among female, and not male, offspring. Adjusting for socioeconomic position during pregnancy reduced effect size in women, suggesting that it may be a common prior factor in both maternal cortisol and CHD risk. These findings provide evidence that targeting mothers who have elevated prenatal cortisol levels, including elevated cortisol in the setting of low socioeconomic position, may potentially reduce long-term CHD risk in their offspring.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 03/2015; 77(3). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000164 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adiposity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, suggesting an important role for adipose tissue in the development of these conditions. The epigenetic underpinnings of adiposity are not well understood, and studies of DNA methylation in relation to adiposity have rarely focused on target adipose tissue. Objectives were to evaluate whether genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with measures of adiposity, including central fat mass, body fat distribution and body mass index. Participants were 106 men and women (mean age 47 years) from the New England Family Study. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Adiposity phenotypes included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio, as well as body mass index. Adipose tissue genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were associated with all four adiposity phenotypes, after adjusting for race, sex and current smoking (omnibus p-values <0.001). After further adjustment for adipose cell-mixture effects, associations with android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and trunk:limb fat ratio remained. In gene-specific analyses, adiposity phenotypes were associated with adipose tissue DNA methylation in several genes that are biologically relevant to the development of adiposity, such as AOC3, LIPE, SOD3, AQP7 and CETP. Blood DNA methylation profiles were not associated with adiposity, before or after adjustment for blood leukocyte cell mixture effects. Findings show that DNA methylation patterns in adipose tissue are associated with adiposity. Adiposity, adipose tissue, DNA methylation, epigenetics. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyu236 · 9.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Education is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; however the mechanisms are poorly understood. The study objectives were to evaluate the extent to which rarely measured factors (literacy, time preference, sense of control) and more commonly measured factors (income, depressive symptomatology, body mass index) in the education-CHD literature explain the associations between education and CHD risk. Method. The study sample included 346 participants, aged 38 to 47 years (59.5% women), of the New England Family Study birth cohort. Ten-year CHD risk was calculated using the validated Framingham risk algorithm that utilizes diabetes, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, age, and gender. Multivariable regression and mediation analyses were performed. Results. Regression analyses adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and childhood confounders (e.g., parental socioeconomic status, intelligence) demonstrated that relative to those with greater than or equal to college education, men and women with less than high school had 73.7% (95% confidence interval [CI; 29.5, 133.0]) and 48.2% (95% CI [17.5, 86.8]) higher 10-year CHD risk, respectively. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects for reading comprehension in women (7.2%; 95% CI [0.7, 19.4]) and men (7.2%; 95% CI [0.8, 19.1]), and depressive symptoms (11.8%; 95% CI [2.5, 26.6]) and perceived constraint (6.7%, 95% CI [0.7, 19.1]) in women. Conclusions. Evidence suggested that reading comprehension in women and men, and depressive symptoms and perceived constraint in women, may mediate some of the association between education and CHD risk. If these mediated effects are interpreted causally, interventions targeting reading, depressive symptoms, and perceived constraint could reduce educational inequalities in CHD. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
    Health Education & Behavior 11/2014; 42(3). DOI:10.1177/1090198114560020 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The impact of a healthy lifestyle on risk of heart failure (HF) is not well known. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a combination of lifestyle factors on incident HF and to further investigate whether weighting each lifestyle factor has additional impact. Methods Participants were 84,537 post-menopausal women from the WHI (Women’s Health Initiative) observational study, free of self-reported HF at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HL score) was created wherein women received 1 point for each healthy criterion met: high-scoring Alternative Healthy Eating Index, physically active, healthy body mass index, and currently not smoking. A weighted score (wHL score) was also created in which each lifestyle factor was weighted according to its independent magnitude of effect on HF. The incidence of hospitalized HF was determined by trained adjudicators using standardized methodology. Results There were 1,826 HF cases over a mean follow-up of 11 years. HL score was strongly associated with risk of HF (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.62], 0.36 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.46], 0.24 [95% CI: 0.19 to 0.31], and 0.23 [95% CI: 0.17 to 0.30] for HL score of 1, 2, 3, and 4 vs. 0, respectively). The HL score and wHL score were similarly associated with HF risk (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.52] for HL score; HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.55] for wHL score, comparing the highest tertile to the lowest). The HL score was also strongly associated with HF risk among women without antecedent coronary heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension. Conclusions An increasingly healthy lifestyle was associated with decreasing HF risk among post-menopausal women, even in the absence of antecedent coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Weighting the lifestyle factors had minimal impact.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2014; 64(17):1777–1785. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.981 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation.Methods We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age = 42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders.ResultsIn separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3 mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease.Conclusions Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of adversities during childhood. This evidence is consistent with studies demonstrating that adverse exposures in the maternal environment during gestation have lasting effects on development of the immune system. If these results reflect causal associations, they suggest that interventions to improve the social and environmental conditions of pregnancy would promote health over the life course. It remains necessary to identify the mechanisms that link maternal conditions during pregnancy to the development of fetal immune and other systems involved in adaptation to environmental stressors.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 10/2014; 51. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.10.016 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mindfulness (the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one’s own physical and mental processes) is receiving substantial interest as a potential determinant of health. However, little is known whether mindfulness is associated with cardiovascular health. Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness is associated with cardiovascular health. Method Study participants (n = 382) were from the New England Family Study, born in Providence, RI, USA, with mean age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Cardiovascular health was assessed based on American Heart Association criteria. Cross-sectional multivariable-adjusted log binomial regression analyses were performed. Results Analyses demonstrated that those with high vs. low MAAS had prevalence ratio (PR) for good cardiovascular health of 1.83 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 3.13), adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. There were significant associations of high vs. low mindfulness with nonsmoking (PR = 1.37, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.76), body mass index
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 10/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1007/s12529-014-9448-9 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • Eric B Loucks
    JAMA Internal Medicine 07/2014; 174(7):1194-1195. DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1924 · 13.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959-1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005-2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates.
    American Journal of Epidemiology 06/2014; 180(3). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu127 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Stephen E Gilman · Eric B Loucks
    Social Science & Medicine 06/2014; 118. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.029 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify psychosocial factors associated with sedentary behavior, we tested whether perceived discrimination is associated with sedentary behavior. Methods: Black and white men and women (N = 3270) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study reported experiences of discrimination and time engaged in total and screen time sedentary behaviors in 2010-11. Results: There were no associations of discriminatory experiences with total sedentary behavior time. However, discriminatory experiences were positively associated with screen time for black men (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.86) and white women (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.00) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Conclusion: Among black men and white women, discriminatory experiences were correlated with more screen time sedentary behavior.
    American journal of health behavior 06/2014; 38(5):641-649. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.38.5.1 · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Yongwen Jiang · Marga Kempner · Eric B Loucks
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate dose-response associations between misperceived weight and 32 health risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Methods: Participants included 13,864 US high school students in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Comparing the degree of agreement between perceived and reported actual weight, weight misperception was determined as 5 categories. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of weight misperception with 32 health risk behaviors. Results: Both underestimated and overestimated weight were statistically significantly associated with all 32 health risk behaviors in a dose-response manner after adjustment for age, sex and race/ethnicity, where greater weight misperception was associated with higher engagement in health risk behaviors. Conclusions: Understanding potential impacts of weight misperception on health risk behaviors could improve interventions that encourage healthy weight perception and attainment for adolescents.
    American journal of health behavior 06/2014; 38(5):765-780. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.38.5.14 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work suggests that leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, is sensitive to effects of social stress and may also provide early indication of premature aging. Using data from a birth cohort with LTL information at birth and in middle adulthood we examined a potential source of race-based health disparity by testing the hypothesis that Blacks would demonstrate a faster rate of telomere shortening than Whites. Linear regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for pack years, BMI, education and social factors, diet, exercise, marital status, and age. At birth black individuals had LTLs that were longer, on average, than their White counterparts (b = 3.85, p < 0.01). However, rate of shortening was greater for Blacks, who showed a larger difference in length between birth and adulthood (b = 5.10, p = 0.01) as compared with Whites, resulting in smaller racial differences in absolute adult LTL.
    Biological psychology 05/2014; 99(1). DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.03.007 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether the childhood family psychosocial environment (characterized by cold, unaffectionate interactions, conflict, aggression, neglect and/or low nurturance) affects coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to evaluate associations of childhood family psychosocial environment with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. The study population included 2659 CARDIA study participants, aged 37-52 years. Childhood family psychosocial environment was measured using a risky family questionnaire via self-report. Carotid IMT was calculated using the average of 20 measurements of mean common carotid, bulb and internal carotid IMT, assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images. Utilizing linear regression analyses adjusted for age, a 1-unit (range 0-21) increase in risky family score was associated with 0.0036 (95% CI: 0.0006,0.0066 mm) and 0.0020 (95% CI: 0.0002,0.0038) mm increase in mean IMT in white males and females, respectively. Formal mediation analyses and covariate adjustments suggested childhood socioeconomic position and smoking may be important mechanisms in white males and females, as well as education and depressive symptomatology in white males. No associations were found in black participants. Formal statistical tests for interaction between risky family score and sex, and between risky family score and race/ethnicity, demonstrated borderline evidence of interactions for both sex (p = 0.12) and race/ethnicity (p = 0.14) with risky family score for associations with mean IMT. In conclusion, childhood family psychosocial environment was positively associated with IMT in white participants, with little evidence of association in black participants. Mechanisms in white participants may include potential negative impacts of socioeconomic constraints on parenting quality, potentially influencing offspring's cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), socioeconomic position (e.g. education), and/or psychosocial functioning (e.g. depression), which may in turn lead to atherosclerotic processes. Borderline racial/ethnic differences in findings should be replicated, but add to literature exploring race/ethnicity-specific associations of parenting approaches with health outcomes.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 03/2014; 104:15-22. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.12.015 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 02/2014; 48(2). DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9600-4 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position) cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes) and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods: Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥ 20 years from NHANES 2001-2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI) included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results: Healthful clustering (SRI = 0) was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions: Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.
    02/2014; 2014:389853. DOI:10.1155/2014/389853
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies in adults show associations between the hypofunctional seven-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), increased eating behaviour and/or obesity, particularly in females. We examined whether 7R is associated with total caloric intake and/or food choices in pre-schoolers. Methods: 150 four-year-old children taking part in a birth cohort study in Canada were administered a snack test meal in a laboratory setting. Mothers also filled out a food frequency questionnaire to address childrens' habitual food consumption. Total caloric and individual macronutrient intakes during the snack meal and specific types of foods as reported in the food diaries were compared across 7R allele carriers vs. non-carriers, using current BMI as a co-variate. Results: We found significant sex by genotype interactions for fat and protein intake during the snack test. Post hoc testing revealed that in girls, but not boys, 7R carriers ate more fat and protein than did non-carriers. Based on the food diaries, across both sexes, 7R carriers consumed more portions of ice cream and less vegetables, eggs, nuts and whole bread, suggesting a less healthy pattern of habitual food consumption. Conclusion: The 7R allele of DRD4 influences macronutrient intakes and specific food choices as early as four years of age. The specific pattern of results further suggests that prior associations between the 7R allele and adult overeating/obesity may originate in food choices observable in the preschool years. Longitudinal follow-up of these children will help establish the relevance of these findings for obesity risk and prevention.
    Appetite 11/2013; 73:15-22. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.10.004 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Recent work suggests effective emotion regulation may protect against risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), but the mechanisms remain unknown. Strategies for regulating emotions vary in how effectively they mitigate potentially toxic effects of stressful life experiences, and therefore may be differentially associated with CHD risk. In this study, we examined the emotion regulation strategies of reappraisal and suppression in relation to inflammation, a biological state associated with both stress and CHD. We hypothesized that suppression would be associated with elevated inflammation and reappraisal would be associated with lower levels of inflammation. Methods: We studied adult offspring (n = 379; mean age = 42.2 years) of Collaborative Perinatal Project participants, a national cohort of pregnant women enrolled in 1959-1966. Validated measures of two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal and suppression. Inflammation was measured as plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We fit multiple linear regression models predicting CRP while controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors, including depressive symptoms, measured across the life course. Results: A 1 standard deviation increase in reappraisal was associated with significantly lower CRP (b = -0.18, SE = 0.06, p < .01) controlling for demographics. This relation was somewhat attenuated in life course models, with adulthood body mass index partially explaining the association. A 1 standard deviation increase in suppression was associated with significantly higher CRP (b = 0.21, SE = 0.05, p < .001), and this association was not substantively attenuated with further covariate adjustment. Conclusion: Adaptive emotion regulation was associated with lower levels of inflammation and maladaptive emotion regulation was associated with higher levels of inflammation. If these associations are confirmed by prospective and experimental studies, such evidence may provide insight into novel targets for interventions to promote health and reduce cardiovascular risk.
    Health Psychology 07/2013; 32(7):748-56. DOI:10.1037/a0030068 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine whether social and behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease, including education, physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, and smoking, cluster (i.e., co-occur more than expected as the result of chance) in U.S. adults. Methods: The study included 4305 male and 4673 female subjects aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Risk factors included: ≤high school diploma/general educational development certificate; <150 minutes of moderate/vigorous physical activity per week; <3 or <2 servings of vegetables and fruit, respectively, per day; and smoking cigarettes. Indicator variables were summed into a sociobehavioral risk index (SRI, range 0 [no risk factors] to 4 [all risk factors]). Ratios of observed-to-expected prevalence (under the assumption of independence) of the SRI were assessed. Statistical significance was evaluated by the use of randomly permuted average observed-to-expected SRI ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: In male subjects, the ratio of observed-to-expected prevalence of SRI = 0 was 1.70 (permuted ratio = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.92-1.08), and SRI = 4 was 2.10 (permuted ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.86-1.14), demonstrating significant clustering. In females, the ratio of observed-to-expected prevalence of SRI = 0 was 1.67 (permuted ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.92-1.08), and SRI = 4 was 1.86 (permuted ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.85-1.15). Conclusions: Social and behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease cluster in this sample of U.S. adults.
    Annals of epidemiology 05/2013; 23(7). DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.04.007 · 2.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

987 Citations
230.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2014
    • Brown University
      • Alpert Medical School
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2011
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2006
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
      Druid Hills, GA, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Society, Human Development, and Health
      Cambridge, MA, United States