[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2014; 449(4):412–418. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonicatyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clinical settings, serum antibody levels serve as markers of pathology. For example, antibodies related to autoimmune diseases are among the conventional targets in laboratory tests. Simple clinical tests can improve the efficacy of laboratory practice. This study describes a single-step, wash-free technique for optically detecting antibodies in human serum through the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanoparticles. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the amount of antibiotin dissolved in human serum was measured with a LSPR-based biosensor in a wash-free manner using a conventional 96-well microtiter plate and a plate reader. For an efficient surface modification of biosensors, zwitterionic copolymer was used as a scaffold on the gold nanoparticle surface to immobilize antigen and blocking reagent. Single-step, wash-free measurement of antibiotin in human serum was successfully achieved. In addition, nonspecific responses from serum contents were significantly reduced because both the copolymer and hydrophilic antigen reagent that we employed were composed of poly(ethylene oxide) spacer. Comparative experiments of the antigen-antibody reaction in serum to that in buffered solution revealed that serum is a favorable environment for the biological reaction. In conclusion, our gold-nanoparticle-based LSPR method may provide a rapid and simple way to measure the amount of antibody in serum quantitatively in clinical practice.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 04/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates hematopoiesis in mouse models. The involvement of osteoblasts in this process has been well investigated; however, the effects of PTH on human hematopoiesis and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are unclear. Here, we show that BM-MSCs contribute to the hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of PTH via upregulation of cadherin-11 (CDH11). When culture-expanded human BM-MSCs were stimulated with PTH, their ability to expand co-cultured CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) was enhanced. Furthermore, when PTH-treated BM-MSCs were subcutaneously implanted into NOD/SCID mice, the induction of hematopoietic cells was enhanced. Culture-expanded human BM-MSCs expressed CDH11, and the level of CDH11 expression increased following PTH stimulation. Depletion of CDH11 expression in BM-MSCs using small interfering RNA abolished the enhancement of HPC expansion by PTH-treated BM-MSCs. In lethally irradiated mice that underwent BM transplantation, CDH11 expression in BM-MSCs was higher and survival was better in PTH-treated mice than in control mice. The number of hematopoietic cells in BM and the number of red blood cells in peripheral blood were higher in PTH-treated mice than in control mice. Our results demonstrate that PTH stimulates hematopoiesis through promoting the upregulation of CDH11 expression in BM-MSCs, at least in part. PTH treatment may be an effective strategy to enhance the ability of BM-MSCs to support hematopoiesis. Stem Cells 2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are of myeloid origin and are able to suppress T cell responses. The role of MDSCs in autoimmune diseases remains controversial, and little is known about the function of MDSCs in autoimmune arthritis. In this study, we clarify that MDSCs play crucial roles in the regulation of proinflammatory immune response in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. MDSCs accumulated in the spleens of mice with CIA when arthritis severity peaked. These MDSCs inhibited the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and their differentiation into Th17 cells in vitro. Moreover, MDSCs inhibited the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 by CD4(+) T cells in vitro, whereas they promoted the production of IL-10. Adoptive transfer of MDSCs reduced the severity of CIA in vivo, which was accompanied by a decrease in the number of CD4(+) T cells and Th17 cells in the draining lymph nodes. However, depletion of MDSCs abrogated the spontaneous improvement of CIA. In conclusion, MDSCs in CIA suppress the progression of CIA by inhibiting the proinflammatory immune response of CD4(+) T cells. These observations suggest that MDSCs play crucial roles in the regulation of autoimmune arthritis, which could be exploited in new cell-based therapies for human rheumatoid arthritis.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we describe how a F-probe incorporated into an endogenous protein by a chemical biology method revealed protein dynamics. By explicit determination of ligand-bound and unbound structures with X-ray crystallography, the quantitative comparison of the protein's dynamics in live cells and in vitro is presented. These results clearly demonstrated the greater conformational fluctuations of the intracellular protein, partially due to macromolecular crowding effects.
Chemical Communications 03/2013; 49(27):2801-3. · 6.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to the definitive role of the transcription factor, CCAAT/Enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), in steady-state granulopoiesis, previous findings have suggested that granulopoiesis during emergency situations, such as infection, is dependent on C/EBPβ. In this study, a novel lentivirus-based reporter system was developed to elucidate the molecular switch required for C/EBPβ-dependency. The results demonstrated that two cyclic AMP responsive elements (CREs) in the proximal promoter region of C/EBPβ were involved in the positive regulation of C/EBPβ transcription during granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced differentiation of bone marrow cells. In addition, the transcripts of CRE binding (CREB) family proteins were readily detected in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. CREB was upregulated, phosphorylated and bound to the CREs in response to GM-CSF stimulation. Retroviral transduction of a dominant negative CREB mutant reduced C/EBPβ mRNA levels and significantly impaired the proliferation/differentiation of granulocyte precursors, while a constitutively active form of CREB facilitated C/EBPβ transcription. These data suggest that CREB proteins are involved in the regulation of granulopoiesis via C/EBPβ upregulation.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54862. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family, is effective against various types of malignant tumor cells. We studied whether the combination of SFN and radiation would be more effective against osteosarcoma cells when compared to these treatments alone. LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells were cultured with various concentrations of SFN for 24 h and/or 2 Gy X-irradiation. The effects of individual and combination treatments on the number of cells, the cell cycle, cell proliferation-related factors and apoptosis were analyzed. The combination of SFN plus radiation had significantly greater antitumor effects than either treatment alone. Exposure to SFN increased the population of cells in the G2/M phase. Combination treatment resulted in a higher percentage of cells being in sub-G1 than did SFN alone. In addition, the combination of SFN and radiation effectively induced nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies, as shown by DAPI staining. The combination of SFN and 2 Gy radiation increased the cleavage and activation of caspase-3 compared with SFN or radiation alone, as shown by western blotting. Although radiation alone increased the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt proteins, the combination of SFN and radiation induced suppression of ERK and Akt phosphorylation when compared with radiation alone. We found that SFN enhanced the radiosensitivity of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells by inducing apoptosis through G2/M-phase arrest and by inhibiting ERK and Akt activation. These findings suggest that SFN can be used as a radiosensitizer for osteosarcomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zoledronic acid (ZOL), a third-generation bisphosphonate, inhibits bone resorption, as well as exhibiting direct antitumor activity. To date, however, the combined effects of ZOL and ionizing radiation (IR) have not been assessed in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. We have, therefore, assessed the combined effects of ZOL and IR in fibrosarcoma cells. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were treated with ZOL and/or IR, together or sequentially and the antitumor effects were assessed. We found that ZOL significantly enhanced IR-induced apoptosis, especially when cells were treated with ZOL followed by IR. We, therefore, assessed the detailed mechanism of sequential treatment with ZOL and IR. Cells in G2 and M phases, the most radiosensitive phases of the cell cycle, were not increased by low concentrations of ZOL. However, the levels of expression of Akt, ERK1/2 and NF-κB proteins, all of which are related to radioadaptive resistance, were increased within a short time after irradiation with 3 Gy, and this expression was inhibited by a low concentration of ZOL, which blocked the prenylation of small GTPases. This sequential treatment also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that the combination of ZOL with IR may be beneficial in treating patients with soft tissue sarcoma.
International Journal of Oncology 12/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Tumor cells produce a large amount of acidic metabolites due to their high metabolic condition. However, cytosolic pH (pH(c)) of tumor cells is identical to or even slightly higher than that of normal cells. To maintain pH(c) at a normal or higher level, tumor cells would have to have higher expression and/or activity of H(+) transporting systems than normal cells. The purpose of the present study was to identify effects of ethyl-isopropyl amiloride (EIPA, an inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)) on proliferation of human gastric cancer MKN28 cells. Methods: Effects of EIPA on proliferation, pH(c), [Cl(-)](c) and expression of proteins regulating cell cycle and MAPKs were studied in MKN28 expressing NHE exposed to EIPA for 48 h. Results: EIPA suppressed proliferation of MKN28 cells by causing G(0)/G(1) arrest without any significant effects on pH(c), but associated with reduction of [Cl(-)](c). Although EIPA alone had no effects on pH(c), EIPA co-applied with DIDS (an inhibitor of Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers; i.e., anion exchanger (AE) and Na+-driven Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger (NDCBE)) reduced pH(c), suggesting that DIDS-sensitive Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) transporters such as AE and/or NDCBE keep pH(c) normal by stimulating HCO(3)(-) uptake coupled with Cl(-) release under an NHE-inhibited condition. EIPA-induced lowered [Cl(-)](c) up-regulated expression of p21associated with phosphorylation of MAPKs, suppressing proliferation associated with G(0)/G(1) arrest. Conclusions : EIPA suppressed proliferation of MKN28 cells through up-regulation of p21 expression via reduction of [Cl(-)](c) as a result from DIDS-sensitive Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger-mediated compensation for keeping pH(c) normal under an NHE-inhibited condition. This is the first study revealing that an NHE inhibitor suppressed the proliferation of cancer cells by reducing [Cl(-)](c) but not pH(c).
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 10/2012; 30(5):1241-1253. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulopoiesis is tightly regulated to meet host demands during both "steady-state" and "emergency" situations, such as infections. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) plays critical roles in emergency granulopoiesis, but the precise developmental stages in which C/EBPβ is required are unknown. In this study, a novel flow cytometric method was developed that successfully dissected mouse bone marrow cells undergoing granulopoiesis into five distinct subpopulations (#1-5) according to their levels of c-Kit and Ly-6G expression. After the induction of candidemia, rapid mobilization of mature granulocytes and an increase in early granulocyte precursors accompanied by cell cycle acceleration was followed by a gradual increase in granulocytes originating from the immature populations. Upon infection, C/EBPβ was upregulated at the protein level in all the granulopoietic subpopulations. The rapid increase in immature subpopulations #1 and #2 observed in C/EBPβ knockout mice at 1 d postinfection was attenuated. Candidemia-induced cell cycle acceleration and proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitors were also impaired. Taken together, these data suggest that C/EBPβ is involved in the efficient amplification of early granulocyte precursors during candidemia-induced emergency granulopoiesis.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2012; 189(9):4546-55. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DJ-1/PARK7 has multiple functions as an antioxidant, an oncogene, and a molecular chaperone in vertebrates, and loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 cause early onset of Parkinson's disease. However, the function of invertebrate DJ-1 remains unknown. In order to investigate the function of planarian DJ-1, we isolated the planarian DJ-1 gene Dugesia japonica DJ-1 (DjDJ-1) and analyzed its expression and function. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that DjDJ-1 mRNA was expressed throughout the body, including the central nervous system, cells surrounding the pharynx, and stem cells. Planarian DjDJ-1 protein exhibited antioxidant function, similar to human DJ-1, as evidenced by the fact that recombinant DjDJ-1 protein reduced reactive oxygen species and protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from cell death. In addition, dopaminergic neurons in DjDJ-1(RNAi) planarians became susceptible to 6-hydroxydopamine, a dopaminergic neurotoxin. These results suggest that planarians have a DJ-1 ortholog, which has conserved antioxidant and neuroprotective functions.
Neuroscience Research 09/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BCR-ABL fusion oncoprotein accelerates differentiation and proliferation of myeloid cells during the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML). Here, the role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a regulator for 'emergency granulopoiesis,' in the pathogenesis of CP-CML was examined. C/EBPβ expression was upregulated in Lineage(-) CD34(+) CD38(-) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors isolated from bone marrow of patients with CP-CML. In EML cells, a mouse HSC line, BCR-ABL upregulated C/EBPβ, at least in part, through the activation of STAT5. Myeloid differentiation and proliferation induced by BCR-ABL was significantly impaired in C/EBPβ-deficient bone marrow cells in vitro. Mice that were transplanted with BCR-ABL-transduced C/EBPβ knockout bone marrow cells survived longer than mice that received BCR-ABL-transduced wild-type (WT) bone marrow cells. Significantly higher levels of leukemic stem cells were maintained in BCR-ABL-transduced C/EBPβ-deficient cells than in BCR-ABL-transduced WT cells. These results suggest that C/EBPβ is involved in BCR-ABL-mediated myeloid expansion. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the C/EBPβ-mediated stem cell loss might reveal a novel therapeutic strategy for eradication of CML stem cells.Leukemia advance online publication, 21 September 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.258.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 09/2012; · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastatic bone tumors cause pain and pathological fractures due to bone destruction. If we could enhance new osteogenic activities and prevent progression of osteolytic change by malignant cells, patients could achieve satisfactory activity of daily living. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), which leads to bone formation by osteoblasts, has been used for the treatment of fractures. LIPUS has been reported to enhance the effect of an anticancer drug on lymphoma and liver cancer cells. However, there have been no reports of proliferation, vascularization and migration effects on cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of LIPUS treatment on cancer and osteosarcoma cells and specifically whether it promotes bone formation without accelerating proliferation of tumor cells. We used MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse osteoblast cell line, LM8, a mouse osteosarcoma cell line, SaOS2, a human osteosarcoma cell line, 786-O, a human renal cancer cell line, PC-3, a human prostate cancer cell line, and A549, a human lung cancer cell line. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), Akt, β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cell migration were analyzed. LIPUS stimulation did not affect proliferation of all the cells examined. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt was induced by LIPUS stimulation in MC3T3-E1, LM8, SaOS2 and A549 cells, but not in PC-3 and 786-O cells. LIPUS stimulation did not significantly increase β-catenin. VEGF protein levels and cell migration were significantly increased only in MC3T3-E1 cells. It may be concluded that LIPUS stimulation on metastatic bone tumors induces differentiation of osteoblasts without proliferation of tumor cells. Our study suggests that LIPUS may be a new method of treatment without surgery for metastatic bone tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the past 20 years, we have found that acridine orange (AO) selectively accumulates in musculoskeletal sarcomas in vivo or exerts selective cytocidal effects against sarcoma cells in vitro after illumination of the tumor cells with visible light or irradiation of the cells with low-dose X-rays. Based on the data obtained from basic research, we have employed reduction surgery followed by photo- or radiodynamic therapy using AO (AO-PDT & RDT) in 71 patients with musculoskeletal sarcomas, in an attempt to maintain excellent limb function in the patients. We have obtained good local control rates and remarkably better limb functions with this approach as compared to the results obtained with the conventional wide resection surgery. Our basic research demonstrated that AO accumulates densely in intracellular acidic vesicles, especially lysosomes, in an acidity-dependent manner. In cancer cells that proliferate under hypoxic conditions or with Warburg's effect, active glycolysis produces an enormous number of protons, which are released by the cells via proton pumps into the extracellular fluid or lysosomes to maintain a neutral pH of the cytosolic fluid. Cancer cells contain many strongly acidic lysosomes of large sizes; therefore, AO shows marked and prolonged accumulation in the acidic lysosomes of cancer cells. Photon energy excites the AO resulting in the production of activated oxygen species, which oxidize the fatty acids of the lysosomal membrane, resulting in the leakage of lysosomal enzymes and protons, followed by apoptosis of the cancer cells. Based on these observations, we conclude that AO-PDT & RDT target acidic vesicles, especially the lysosomes, in cancer cells, to exhibit selective anti-cancer cell activity. Therefore, it is suggested that AO excited by photon energy has excellent potential as an anticancer "Magic Bullet".
Current pharmaceutical design 02/2012; 18(10):1414-20. · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Alzheimer disease (AD) patient brains, the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is associated with activated microglia. Aβ is derived from the amyloid precursor protein; two major forms of Aβ, that is, Aβ1-40 (Aβ40) and Aβ1-42 (Aβ42), exist. We previously reported that rat microglia phagocytose Aβ42, and high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), a chromosomal protein, inhibits phagocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous HMGB1 on rat microglial Aβ40 phagocytosis. In the presence of exogenous HMGB1, Aβ40 markedly increased in microglial cytoplasm, and the reduction of extracellular Aβ40 was inhibited. During this period, HMGB1 was colocalized with Aβ40 in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, exogenous HMGB1 inhibited the degradation of Aβ40 induced by the rat microglial cytosolic fraction. Thus, extracellular HMGB1 may internalize with Aβ40 in the microglial cytoplasm and inhibit Aβ40 degradation by microglia. This may subsequently delay Aβ40 clearance. We further confirmed that in AD brains, the parts of senile plaques surrounded by activated microglia are composed of Aβ40, and extracellular HMGB1 is deposited on these plaques. Taken together, microglial Aβ phagocytosis dysfunction may be caused by HMGB1 that accumulates extracellularly on Aβ plaques, and it may be critically involved in the pathological progression of AD.
International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2012; 2012:685739.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several useful spin trap agents have been identified for the identification and quantification of biological oxygen radicals. Among them, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) has been used most frequently as a spin trap agent. The function of DMPO in vivo, however, is still unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of DMPO in an in vivo model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were microinjected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 32 nmol) in the presence or absence of DMPO (0.4, 4 nmol). We investigated behavioral and histochemical parameters in this rat model of PD. In addition, to examine the effect of DMPO against oxidative stress, we performed an electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis. Intranigral injection of 6-OHDA alone caused behavioral dysfunction and a massive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Co-microinjection of 4 nmol DMPO, but not 0.4 nmol, significantly prevented 6-OHDA-induced behavioral impairments and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In ESR analysis, DMPO directly trapped hydroxyl radical ((·)OH) generated from 6-OHDA and Fe(2+) in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that DMPO attenuates 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a rat model of PD via scavenging (·)OH, and is a useful tool for biological research of oxidative stresses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells. Although new molecular targeting agents against MM have been developed based on the better understanding of the underlying pathogenesis, MM still remains an incurable disease. We previously demonstrated that β-catenin, a downstream effector in the Wnt pathway, is a potential target in MM using RNA interference in an in vivo experimental mouse model. In this study, we have screened a library of more than 100 000 small-molecule chemical compounds for novel Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors using a high-throughput transcriptional screening technology. We identified AV-65, which diminished β-catenin protein levels and T-cell factor transcriptional activity. AV-65 then decreased c-myc, cyclin D1 and survivin expression, resulting in the inhibition of MM cell proliferation through the apoptotic pathway. AV-65 treatment prolonged the survival of MM-bearing mice. These findings indicate that this compound represents a novel and attractive therapeutic agent against MM. This study also illustrates the potential of high-throughput transcriptional screening to identify candidates for anticancer drug discovery.
Blood Cancer Journal 11/2011; 1(11):e43. · 1.40 Impact Factor