[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with a poor prognosis and poses a significant burden to the health care system, but few studies have evaluated whether OHCA incidence and survival have changed over time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -The 2010 AHA guidelines suggested an increase in CPR compression depth with a target greater than 50 mm and no upper limit. This target is based upon limited evidence and we sought to determine the optimal compression depth range.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted temperature management has been shown to improve survival with good neurological outcome in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The optimal approach to inducing and maintaining targeted temperature management, however, remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate these processes of care with survival and neurological function in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some Emergency Medical Services currently use just one component of the Universal Termination of Resuscitation (TOR) Guideline, the absence of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), as the single criteria to terminate resuscitation, which may deny transport to potential survivors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac arrest physiology has been proposed to occur in three distinct phases: electrical, circulatory and metabolic. There is limited research evaluating the relationship of the 3-phase model of cardiac arrest to functional survival at hospital discharge. Furthermore, the effect of post-cardiac arrest targeted temperature management (TTM) on functional survival during each phase is unknown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships between shock pause duration and survival to hospital discharge from shockable out-of hospital (OHCA) cardiac arrest. Compressions during defibrillator charging (CDC) has been proposed as a technique to shorten shock pause duration.
We sought to determine the impact of CDC on shock pause duration and CPR quality measures in shockable OHCA.
We performed a retrospective review of all treated adult OHCA occurring over a one year period beginning August 1, 2011 after training EMS agencies in CDC. We included OHCA patients with an initial shockable rhythm, available CPR process data and shock pause data for up to the first three shocks of the resuscitation. CDC by EMS personnel was confirmed by review of impedance channel measures. We evaluated the relationship between CDC and shock pause duration as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures investigated the association between CDC and CPR quality measures.
Among 747 treated OHCA 149 (23.4%) presented in a shockable rhythm of which 129 (81.6%) met study inclusion criteria. Seventy (54.2%) received CDC. There was no significant difference between the CDC and no CDC group with respect to Utstein variables. Median pre-shock pause (15.0 vs. 3.5 sec; Δ 11.5; 95% CI: 6.81, 16.19), post-shock pause (4.0 vs. 3.0 sec; Δ 1.0; 95% CI: -2.57, 4.57), and peri-shock pause (21.0 vs. 9.0 sec; Δ 12.0; 95% CI: 5.03, 18.97) were all lower for those who received CDC. Mean chest compression fraction was significantly greater (0.77 vs. 0.70, Δ 0.07; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.11) with CDC. No significant difference was noted in compression rate or depth with CDC. Clinical outcomes did not differ between the two approaches (return of spontaneous circulation 62.7% vs. 62.9% p = 0.98, survival 25.4% vs. 27.1% p = 0.82), although the study was not powered to detect clinical outcome differences.
Compressions during defibrillator charging may shorten shock pause duration and improves chest compression fraction in shockable OHCA. Given the impact on shock pause duration, further study with a larger sample size is required to determine the impact of this technique on clinical outcomes from shockable OHCA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) varies between communities, due in part to variation in the methods of measurement. The Utstein template was disseminated to standardize comparisons of risk factors, quality of care and outcomes in patients with OHCA. We sought to assess whether OHCA registries are able to collate common data using the Utstein template. A subsequent study will assess whether the Utstein factors explain differences in survival between emergency medical services (EMS) systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a formal mentoring program on time to academic promotion and differences in gender-based outcomes. Methods: Comparisons of time to promotion (i) before and after implementation of a formal mentoring program and (ii) between mentored and non-mentored faculty matched for covariates. Using paired-samples t-testing and mixed repeated measures ANCOVA, we explored the effect of mentor assignment and influence of gender on time to promotion. Results: Promotional data from 1988 to 2010 for 382 faculty members appointed before 2003 were compared with 229 faculty members appointed in 2003 or later. Faculty appointed in 2003 or later were promoted 1.2 years (mean) sooner versus those appointed before 2003 (3.7 [SD = 1.7] vs. 2.5 [SD = 2], p < 0.0001). Regardless of year of appointment, mentor assignment appears to be significantly associated with a reduction in time to promotion versus non-mentored (3.4 [SD = 2.4] vs. 4.4 [SD = 2.6], p = 0.011). Gender effects were statistically insignificant. Post hoc analyses of time to promotion suggested that observed differences are not attributable to temporal effects, but rather assignment to a mentor. Conclusions: Mentoring was a powerful predictor of promotion, regardless of the year of appointment and likely benefited both genders equally. University resource allocation in support of mentoring appears to accelerate faculty advancement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This consensus statement was commissioned in 2012 by the Board of Directors of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology to improve maternal resuscitation by providing health care providers critical information (including point-of-care checklists) and operational strategies relevant to maternal cardiac arrest. The recommendations in this statement were designed to address the challenges of an actual event by emphasizing health care provider education, behavioral/communication strategies, latent systems errors, and periodic testing of performance. This statement also expands on, interprets, and discusses controversial aspects of material covered in the American Heart Association 2010 guidelines.
Anesthesia and analgesia 05/2014; 118(5):1003-1016. · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their wide use, whether antiarrhythmic drugs improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is not known. The ROC-ALPS is evaluating the effectiveness of these drugs for OHCA due to shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT).
ALPS will randomize 3,000 adults across North America with nontraumatic OHCA, persistent or recurring VF/VT after ≥1 shock, and established vascular access to receive up to 450 mg amiodarone, 180 mg lidocaine, or placebo in the field using a double-blind protocol, along with standard resuscitation measures. The designated target population is all eligible randomized recipients of any dose of ALPS drug whose initial OHCA rhythm was VF/VT. A safety analysis includes all randomized patients regardless of their eligibility, initial arrhythmia, or actual receipt of ALPS drug. The primary outcome of ALPS is survival to hospital discharge; a secondary outcome is functional survival at discharge assessed as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤3.
The principal aim of ALPS is to determine if survival is improved by amiodarone compared with placebo; secondary aim is to determine if survival is improved by lidocaine vs placebo and/or by amiodarone vs lidocaine. Prioritizing comparisons in this manner acknowledges where differences in outcome are most expected based on existing knowledge. Each aim also represents a clinically relevant comparison between treatments that is worth investigating.
Results from ALPS will provide important information about the choice and value of antiarrhythmic therapies for VF/VT arrest with direct implications for resuscitation guidelines and clinical practice.
American heart journal 05/2014; 167(5):653-659.e4. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted temperature management improves survival and neurologic outcomes for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors but may alter the accuracy of tests for predicting neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest.
We systematically searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL from database inception to September 2012.
Citations were screened for studies that examined diagnostic tests to predict poor neurologic outcome or death following targeted temperature management in adult cardiac arrest survivors.
Data on study outcomes and quality were abstracted in duplicate. We constructed contingency tables for each diagnostic test and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios.
Of 2,737 citations, 20 studies (n = 1,845) met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that three tests accurately predicted poor neurologic outcome with low false-positive rates: bilateral absence of pupillary reflexes more than 24 hours after a return of spontaneous circulation (false-positive rate, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.06; summary positive likelihood ratio, 10.45; 95% CI, 3.37-32.43), bilateral absence of corneal reflexes more than 24 hours (false-positive rate, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.09; positive likelihood ratio, 6.8; 95% CI, 2.52-18.38), and bilateral absence of somatosensory-evoked potentials between days 1 and 7 (false-positive rate, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.07; positive likelihood ratio, 12.79; 95% CI, 5.35-30.62). False-positive rates were higher for a Glasgow Coma Scale motor score showing extensor posturing or worse (false-positive rate, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.06-0.13; positive likelihood ratio, 7.11; 95% CI, 5.01-10.08), unfavorable electroencephalogram patterns (false-positive rate, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.04-0.12; positive likelihood ratio, 8.85; 95% CI, 4.87-16.08), myoclonic status epilepticus (false-positive rate, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.02-0.11; positive likelihood ratio, 5.58; 95% CI, 2.56-12.16), and elevated neuron-specific enolase (false-positive rate, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.06-0.23; positive likelihood ratio, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.82-9.42). The specificity of available tests improved when these were performed beyond 72 hours. Data on neuroimaging, biomarkers, or combination testing were limited and inconclusive.
Simple bedside tests and somatosensory-evoked potentials predict poor neurologic outcome for survivors of cardiac arrest treated with targeted temperature management, and specificity improves when performed beyond 72 hours. Clinicians should use caution with these predictors as they carry the inherent risk of becoming self-fulfilling.
Critical care medicine 04/2014; · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and debilitating. Randomized trials of interventions for TBI ideally assess effectiveness by using long-term functional neurological outcomes, but such outcomes are difficult to obtain and costly. If there is little change between functional status at hospital discharge versus 6 months, then shorter-term outcomes may be adequate for use in future clinical trials. Using data from a previously published multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled TBI clinical trial, we evaluated patterns of missing outcome data, changes in functional status between hospital discharge and 6 months, and 3 prognostic models to predict long-term functional outcome from covariates available at hospital discharge (functional measures, demographics, and injury characteristics). The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Hypertonic Saline trial enrolled 1282 TBI patients, obtaining the primary outcome of 6-month Glasgow Outcome Score Extended (GOSE) for 85% of patients but missing the primary outcome for the remaining 15%. Patients with missing outcomes had less severe injuries, higher neurological function at discharge (GOSE), and shorter hospital stays than patients whose GOSE was obtained. Of 1066 (83%) patients whose GOSE was obtained both at hospital discharge and at 6-months, 71% of patients had the same dichotomized functional status (severe disability/death vs. moderate/no disability) after 6 months as at discharge, 28% had an improved functional status, and 1% had worsened. Performance was excellent (C-statistic between 0.88 and 0.91) for all three prognostic models and calibration adequate for two models (p-values 0.22 and 0.85). Our results suggest that multiple imputation of the standard 6-month GOSE may be reasonable in TBI research when the primary outcome cannot be obtained through other means.
Journal of neurotrauma 02/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effectiveness of a resuscitation strategy may vary across communities. We hypothesize that a strategy that prioritizes initial emergency medical services (EMS) rhythm analysis (analyze early) will be associated with survival advantage among EMS systems with lower baseline (pretrial) ventricular fibrillation survival, whereas a strategy that prioritizes initial EMS cardiopulmonary resuscitation (analyze late) will be associated with survival advantage among systems with higher ventricular fibrillation baseline survival.
We conducted a secondary, post hoc study of a randomized trial of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Subjects were stratified according to randomization status (analyze early versus analyze late) and EMS agency baseline ventricular fibrillation survival. We used a mixed-effects model to determine whether the association between favorable functional survival to hospital discharge and trial intervention (analyze late versus analyze early) differed according to EMS agency baseline ventricular fibrillation survival (<20% or >20%).
Characteristics were similar among patients randomized to analyze early (n=4,964) versus analyze late (n=4,426). For EMS agencies with baseline ventricular fibrillation survival less than 20%, analyze late compared with analyze early was associated with a lower likelihood of favorable functional survival (3.8% versus 5.5%; odds ratio [OR]=0.67 [95% CI 0.50, 0.90]). Conversely, among agencies with a ventricular fibrillation survival greater than 20%, analyze late compared with analyze early was associated with higher likelihood of favorable functional survival (7.5% versus 6.1%; OR=1.22 [95% CI 0.98, 1.52]). In the multivariable-adjusted model, for every 10% increase in baseline ventricular fibrillation survival, analyze late versus analyze early was associated with a 34% increase in odds of favorable functional survival (OR=1.34 [95% CI 1.07 to 1.66]).
The findings suggest that system-level characteristics may influence resuscitation outcomes.
Annals of emergency medicine 02/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The incidence of chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM), heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise. The existing health care system must evolve to meet the growing needs of patients with these chronic diseases and reduce the strain on both acute care and hospital-based health care resources. Paramedics are an allied health care resource consisting of highly-trained practitioners who are comfortable working independently and in collaboration with other resources in the out-of-hospital setting. Expanding the paramedic's scope of practice to include community-based care may decrease the utilization of acute care and hospital-based health care resources by patients with chronic disease. METHODS/DESIGN: This will be a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial comparing a community paramedic intervention to standard of care for patients with one of three chronic diseases. The objective of the trial is to determine whether community paramedics conducting regular home visits, including health assessments and evidence-based treatments, in partnership with primary care physicians and other community based resources, will decrease the rate of hospitalization and emergency department use for patients with DM, HF and COPD. The primary outcome measure will be the rate of hospitalization at one year. Secondary outcomes will include measures of health system utilization, overall health status, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention over the same time period. Outcome measures will be assessed using both Poisson regression and negative binomial regression analyses to assess the primary outcome. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will be used to inform decisions around the implementation of community paramedic programs. If successful in preventing hospitalizations, it has the ability to be scaled up to other regions, both nationally and internationally. The methods described in this paper will serve as a basis for future work related to this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02034045. Date: 9 January 2014.