Katrina Bauer

Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, California, United States

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Publications (14)42.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Advances in treatment have improved ovarian cancer survival for most women, although less for the elderly. We report on this disparity and add further evidence about the relationship among age, comorbidity, and survival after ovarian cancer. To examine age and comorbidity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded cancer registries examined 2367 women residing in New York and Northern California diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (1998-2000). Subjects were identified through tumor registries, treatment data were supplemented with physician survey, and comorbidity was identified through hospital discharge database linkages. Proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the risk of death by age and comorbidity, adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors. Crude survival at 1 year and 3 years was 71.9% and 50.1%, respectively. Within stage, age-specific survival rates were lower in the oldest groups, particularly for those with advanced disease. For age 75+, 3-year survival was 13% vs. 50% in those <35 (stage IV). For all stages, women without comorbidity had higher survival rates than those with comorbidity. Older age and comorbidity were both associated with advanced stage and less aggressive treatment. The adjusted risk of death was 40%, and it was 80% higher for the 65-74 and 75+ groups, respectively, compared to women 35-64 (p<0.00). Comorbidity increased the risk of death by 40% (p<0.00). This study confirmed the independent adverse effects of age and comorbidity on survival following ovarian cancer. As the population ages, the co-occurrence of ovarian cancer and comorbidity will increase. Further work identifying critical conditions that impact survival could potentially inform complex treatment decisions.
    Journal of Women s Health 07/2012; 21(9):887-94. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Carol A Parise, Katrina R Bauer, Vincent Caggiano
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence and mortality of breast cancer vary according to demographic factors such as age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographic region. This study assesses the variation of these factors in the use of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) among 8 regions of California. The authors identified 85,574 cases of first primary female invasive breast cancer with complete data diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between race/ethnicity, age, SES, and receipt of RT after BCS within each of the regions of California. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Age was a significant predictor of receipt of RT after BCS in all regions. In Los Angeles (LA), lower SES was associated with decreasing odds of RT. Racial disparities were evident only in LA, where black (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97) and Hispanic (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96) women were about 15% less likely to receive RT than white women. Racial disparities in the receipt of RT after BCS exist only in LA, where African American and Hispanic women are less likely to receive this form of adjuvant treatment. Lower SES was also associated with a reduced likelihood of receipt of RT in LA. Women age 70 years and older are less likely to receive RT after BCS in all regions of California.
    Cancer 09/2011; 118(9):2516-24. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of surgical staging performed on surgically treated epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with apparent early stage disease and to determine if receipt of surgical staging had an influence on survival. Detailed surgical staging information was collected from medical records for 721 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2000 with EOC. Patients resided in California or New York and were identified through population-based cancer registries. Nearly 90% of patients had removal of the omentum and evaluation of bowel serosa and mesentery but only 72% had assessment of retroperitoneal lymph nodes and the majority of patients did not receive biopsies of other peritoneal locations. Only lymph node assessment (as well as node assessment combined with washings and omentectomy) had a statistically significant association with improved survival. The 5-year survival for women with node sampling was 84.2% versus 69.6% for those without this surgical procedure, and patients who did not have lymph node assessment had nearly twice the risk of death as those who did. When patients were stratified by receipt of chemotherapy, lack of node sampling had an effect only on patients who also had no chemotherapy (adjusted HR=2.2, CI=1.0-4.5). The results of this population-based study confirm the prognostic importance of surgical staging for women with EOC, and the important role of gynecologic oncologists in treating these patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy does not appear to further improve survival for those women who receive adequate surgical staging.
    Gynecologic Oncology 01/2011; 121(1):94-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care (POC-BP) Study enabled a reabstraction study of the quality of population-based, central cancer registry data on the characteristics and initial treatment of breast cancer in females and prostate cancer in the United States. Stratified random samples of 9,103 female breast cancers and 8,995 prostate cancers were available for the analysis, using the independently reabstracted data as the gold standard to compute measurements of agreement. A slight majority (53% [8/15]) of the cancer site and treatment combinations showed kappa statistics > or = 0.60 and percent agreements, sensitivities, and predictive values positive > or = 80%: surgery and radiation for the 2 cancers, radiation completed and chemotherapy for breast cancer, and radiation modality and hormone therapy for prostate cancer. The qualities of the Collaborative Stage (CS) site-specific factors and derived variables for the 2 cancers were inconsistent, which confirmed the need to evaluate the recently-implemented CS algorithm. The data quality analysis from POC-BP underscores the importance of examining the quality of specific data variables by cancer site, thereby highlighting those variables for which data collection procedures could be improved.
    J Registry Manag 01/2011; 38(2):75-86.
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    Katrina Bauer, Carol Parise, Vincent Caggiano
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    ABSTRACT: The 2007 St Gallen international expert consensus statement describes three risk categories and provides recommendations for treatment of early breast cancer. The set of recommendations on how to best treat primary breast cancer is recognized and used by clinicians worldwide. We now examine the variability of five-year survival of the 2007 St Gallen Risk Classifications utilizing the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes. Using the population-based California Cancer Registry, 114,786 incident cases of Stages 1-3 invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 were identified. Cases were assigned to Low, Intermediate, or High Risk categories. Five-year-relative survival was computed for the three St Gallen risk categories and for the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes for further differentiation. There were 9,124 (13%) cases classified as Low Risk, 44,234 (65%) cases as Intermediate Risk, and 14,340 (21%) as High Risk. Within the Intermediate Risk group, 33,735 (76%) were node-negative (Intermediate Risk 2) and 10,499 (24%) were node-positive (Intermediate Risk 3). For the High Risk group, 6,149 (43%) had 1 to 3 positive axillary lymph nodes (High Risk 4) and 8,191 (57%) had four or more positive lymph nodes (High Risk 5). Using five-year relative survival as the principal criterion, we found the following: a) There was very little difference between the Low Risk and Intermediate Risk categories; b) Use of the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes within the Intermediate and High Risk categories separated each into a group with better five-year survival (ER-positive) and a group with worse survival (ER-negative), irrespective of HER2-status; c) The heterogeneity of the High Risk category was most evident when one examined the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes; (d) HER2-positivity did not always translate to worse survival, as noted when one compared the triple positive subtype (ER+/PR+/HER2+) to the triple negative subtype (ER-/PR-/HER2-); and (e) ER-negativity appeared to be a stronger predictor of poor survival than HER2-positivity. The use of ER/PR/HER2 subtype highlights the marked heterogeneity of the Intermediate and High Risk categories of the 2007 St Gallen statements. The use of ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and correlation with molecular classification of breast cancer is recommended.
    BMC Cancer 01/2010; 10:228. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Carol A Parise, Katrina R Bauer, Vincent Caggiano
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    ABSTRACT: Both age and race have been identified as independent predictors of breast cancer subtype but the association of age with subtype within each race is not well understood. This study assesses the association of age with the eight breast cancer subtypes as defined by ER/PR/HER2 among white, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander women. This study included 69,358 women with primary invasive breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of age with each of the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes for each race adjusted for socioeconomic status, stage, grade, and tumor size. The odds of African-American women having a triple-negative tumor were not statistically significantly increased for women under 46 when compared to the African-American women aged 46-69 (OR=0.96; 95% CI=0.80-1.16). A similar pattern was observed for the ER-/PR-/HER2+ subtype. Hispanic women under age 46 (OR=0.83; 95% CI=0.71-0.97) and over age 70 (OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.57-0.89) were less likely to have the ER-/PR-/HER2+ subtype. Asian/Pacific Islander women under age 46 also had reduced odds (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.55-0.82) of the ER-/PR-/HER2+ subtype. The ER/PR/HER2 subtypes vary with age and differences in this variation depend on race. It is important to define breast cancer using the ER/PR/HER2 subtype and the significance of age and race should not be overlooked.
    Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 10/2009; 76(1):44-52. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer research examining either molecular profiles or biomarker subtypes has focused on the estrogen receptor negative/progesterone receptor negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) and ER-/PR-/HER2+ subtypes. Less is known about the epidemiology or clinical outcome of the other subtypes. This study examines the eight combinations of ER/PR/HER2 in patients with invasive breast cancer. The 5-year relative survival and the distribution among demographic, socioeconomic, and tumor characteristics of each of the subtypes are examined. Using the California Cancer Registry, 61,309 women with primary invasive breast cancer were classified according to ER/PR/HER2 status. Five-year relative survival was computed for the eight subtypes. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the distribution of cases across all subtypes. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute the adjusted odds of having one of the five subtypes with the best and worst survival. Survival varied from 96% (ER+/PR+/HER2-) to 76% (ER-/PR-/HER2+ and ER-/PR-/HER2-). The four subtypes with the poorest survival were all ER negative. Women who were younger than age 50, non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, of the lowest SES groups, and had stage IV tumors that were undifferentiated were overrepresented in ER-/PR-/HER2+ and triple negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) subtypes. Asian Pacific Islanders had increased odds (OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-1.57) of having the ER-/PR-/HER2+ subtype. Stage III tumors (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08-1.44) and stage IV tumors (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.27-1.98) had higher odds than stage I tumors of being ER-/PR-/HER2+. Stage IV tumors (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.44-0.67) strongly decreased the odds of the ER-/PR-/HER2- subtype. Poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumors were over 20 times as likely as well-differentiated tumors of being ER-/PR-/HER2- or ER-/PR-/HER2+. There are considerable differences in survival, demographics, and tumor characteristics among the eight subtypes. We recommend reporting breast cancer as an ER/PR/HER2 subtype and precisely documenting demographic and tumor characteristics.
    The Breast Journal 09/2009; 15(6):593-602. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Monica Brown, Katrina Bauer, Mary Pare
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. It is estimated that 7% of women who have breast cancer will develop a subsequent second independent breast tumor within 10 years of the first. The status of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human growth hormone (HER2) receptors, individually and as phenotypic combinations, impacts the clinical course of breast cancer and may impact the course of subsequent primary tumors and patient survival. Our aims were to determine tumor marker phenotype concordance between first and second primary breast cancers (FPBC and SPBC), describe demographic and clinical characteristics, and examine first tumor treatments associated with phenotype concordance. A total of 76,209 cases of female invasive breast cancer were identified in the California Cancer Registry from 1999 to 2004. Of those, 1,407 women who had not undergone a prophylactic mastectomy, had information on the status of three tumor markers, and were diagnosed with an SPBC during the study period were selected. SPBCs were significantly smaller, diagnosed at a higher stage and were node positive. Patients whose FPBC was ER(+)/-/PR(+)/-/HER2- and triple negative (TN) (ER-/PR-/HER2-), often had concordant phenotypes for their SPBC. ER(+)/-/PR(+)/-/HER2+ and HER2-positive (ER-/PR-/HER2+) FPBCs, often had discordant phenotypes for their SPBC. ER(+)/-/PR(+)/-/HER2- SPBCs often lacked HER2 expression and were ER and/or PR positive. Tumor laterality and synchronicity significantly predicted concordance as did having a FPBC whose phenotypes were ER(+)/-/PR(+)/-/HER2+, HER2-positive and TN, while first primary tumor treatment with chemotherapy predicted discordance. The relationship between multiple primary breast cancer phenotype concordance and patient prognosis has yet to be determined. Our results indicate that SPBC surveillance strategies include consideration of FPBC phenotype. Although our results are provocative, they may have been influenced by current criteria used to determine tumor independence.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2009; 120(1):217-27. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study used data from the California Cancer Registry to comprehensively examine first primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST) by the International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC) diagnostic groups and to compare their incidence by age groups, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and tumor behavior. The study period, 2001-2005, represents the first 5 years of benign PCNST data collection in the state. The age-adjusted incidence rates were 2.1 for malignant and 1.3 for benign per 100,000. Children younger than 5 years old had the highest incidence of malignant PCNST (2.6 per 100,000). Teens aged 15-19 had the highest incidence of benign PCNST (1.8 per 100,000). Age-specific incidence rates were nearly the same for Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and Asian/Pacific Islanders for malignant PCNST among children younger than 5 (2.6-2.7 per 100,000); non-Hispanic whites had the highest rates in the 5-14 year-old age group (2.5 per 100,000) and Asian/Pacific Islanders the highest among the 15-19 year old age group (2.3 per 100,000). We found no statistically significant differences in the incidence of malignant PCNST by race/ethnicity in any age group. Astrocytoma had the highest incidence for both malignant and benign histology in most age groups.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 05/2009; 94(2):263-73. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the incidence of first primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST) in California from 2001-2005. This study period represents the first five years of data collection of benign PCNST by the California Cancer Registry. California's age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) for malignant and benign PCNST (5.5 and 8.5 per 100,000, respectively). Malignant PCNST were highest among non-Hispanic white males (7.8 per 100,000). Benign PCNST were highest among African American females (10.5 per 100,000). Hispanics, those with the lowest socioeconomic status, and those who lived in rural California were found to be significantly younger at diagnosis. Glioblastoma was the most frequent malignant histology, while meningioma had the highest incidence among benign histologies (2.6 and 4.5 per 100,000, respectively). This study is the first in the US to compare malignant to benign PCNST using a population-based data source. It illustrates the importance of PCNST surveillance in California and in diverse communities.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 05/2009; 94(2):249-61. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (triple negative [TN]) have been associated with high-grade histology, aggressive clinical behavior, and poor survival. It has been determined that breast cancers that are negative for ER and PR but positive for HER2 (double negative [DN]) share features with TN breast cancers. In this report, the authors quantified the contribution of HER2 as well as demographic and tumor characteristics to the survival of women with TN tumors, DN tumors, and other breast cancers (OBC).METHODS In total, 61,309 women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1999–2004 were identified in the California Cancer Registry. Demographic and tumor characteristics of women with TN tumors were compared with those from women with DN tumors and women with OBC. A compound proportional hazards regression analysis (PHPH) (a generalization of the Cox proportional hazards model) was used to model these characteristics.RESULTSWomen with TN tumors were younger, African American, Hispanic, and of lower socioeconomic status (SES), whereas women with DN tumors were slightly older; African American, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Women with TN and DN tumors presented with larger, higher grade, and higher stage than women with OBC. Survival among women with TN tumors was poorer compared with that among women with OBC but was nearly the same as that of women with DN tumors. Results of the regression analysis indicated that disease stage, tumor grade, SES, and race/ethnicity were significant risk factors for survival. Negative ER and PR status was associated with an increased risk of death. There was a small but significant difference in both long-term and short-term survival patients who had TN tumors compared with patients who had DN tumors.CONCLUSIONS Patients with TN tumors shared many clinical, demographic, and tumor features and had survival that was very similar survival to that of patients with DN tumors, and survival for both groups contrasted greatly with survival for patients with OBC. Disease stage, tumor grade, SES, race/ethnicity, negative ER and PR status, rather than negative HER2 status, were risk factors for survival. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 02/2008; 112(4):737 - 747. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor markers are becoming increasingly important in breast cancer research because of their impact on prognosis, treatment, and survival, and because of their relation to breast cancer subtypes. The triple-negative phenotype is important because of its relation to the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. Using the population-based California Cancer Registry data, we identified women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer between 1999 and 2003. We examined differences between triple-negative breast cancers compared with other breast cancers in relation to age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), stage at diagnosis, tumor grade, and relative survival. A total of 6370 women were identified as having triple-negative breast cancer and were compared with the 44,704 women with other breast cancers. Women with triple-negative breast cancers were significantly more likely to be under age 40 (odds ratio [OR], 1.53), and non-Hispanic black (OR, 1.77) or Hispanic (OR, 1.23). Regardless of stage at diagnosis, women with triple-negative breast cancers had poorer survival than those with other breast cancers, and non-Hispanic black women with late-stage triple-negative cancer had the poorest survival, with a 5-year relative survival of only 14%. Triple-negative breast cancers affect younger, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women in areas of low SES. The tumors were diagnosed at later stage and were more aggressive, and these women had poorer survival regardless of stage. In addition, non-Hispanic black women with late-stage triple-negative breast cancer had the poorest survival of any comparable group.
    Cancer 06/2007; 109(9):1721-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    01/2006: pages 15-30;
  • Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 64:S37.