[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-(14)C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old) had increased body weight (BW, 53%), liver (107%) and fat (∼300%), but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (-21-24%). Plasma BCAAs and BCKAs were elevated 45-69% and ∼100%, respectively, in obese rats. Processes facilitating these rises appeared to include increased dietary intake (23%), leucine (Leu) turnover and proteolysis [35% per g fat free mass (FFM), urinary markers of proteolysis: 3-methylhistidine (183%) and 4-hydroxyproline (766%)] and decreased BCKDC per g kidney, heart, gastrocnemius and liver (-47-66%). A process disposing of circulating BCAAs, protein synthesis, was increased 23-29% by obesity in whole-body (FFM corrected), gastrocnemius and liver. Despite the observed decreases in BCKDC activities per gm tissue, rates of whole-body Leu oxidation in obese rats were 22% and 59% higher normalized to BW and FFM, respectively. Consistently, urinary concentrations of eight BCAA catabolism-derived acylcarnitines were also elevated. The unexpected increase in BCAA oxidation may be due to a substrate effect in liver. Supporting this idea, BCKAs were elevated more in liver (193-418%) than plasma or muscle, and per g losses of hepatic BCKDC activities were completely offset by increased liver mass, in contrast to other tissues. In summary, our results indicate that plasma BCKAs may represent a more sensitive metabolic signature for obesity than BCAAs. Processes supporting elevated BCAA]BCKAs in the obese Zucker rat include increased dietary intake, Leu and protein turnover along with impaired BCKDC activity. Elevated BCAAs/BCKAs may contribute to observed elevations in protein synthesis and BCAA oxidation.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59443. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be a key mediator in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. NO is the oxidative metabolite of L-arginine, and is produced by a family of enzymes, collective termed nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Thus, administration of L-arginine might enhance liver regeneration after a hepatectomy. Another amino acid, L-glutamine, which plays an important role in catabolic states and is a crucial factor in various cellular and organ functions, is widely known to enhance liver regeneration experimentally. Thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of an L-arginine supplement on liver regeneration, and to compared this with supplementation with L-glutamine and L-alanine (the latter as a negative control), using a rat partial hepatectomy model.
Before and after a 70% hepatectomy, rats received one of three amino acid solutions (L-arginine, L-glutamine, or L-alanine). The effects on liver regeneration of the administered solutions were examined by assessment of restituted liver mass, staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and total RNA and DNA content 24 and 72 hours after the operation.
At 72 hours after the hepatectomy, the restituted liver mass, the PCNA labeling index and the DNA quantity were all significantly higher in the L-arginine and L-glutamine groups than in the control. There were no significant differences in those parameters between the L-arginine and L-glutamine groups, nor were any significant differences found between the L-alanine group and the control.
Oral supplements of L-arginine and L-glutamine enhanced liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, suggesting that an oral arginine supplement can clinically improve recovery after a major liver resection.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2012; 10:99. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overproduction of hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles is a major abnormality of lipoprotein dysregulation in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to examine the relationship between systemic/hepatic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and apolipoprotein (apo)B100-containing VLDL production.
At the age of 19 wks, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats showed systemic inflammation (plasma TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels increased), insulin resistance (plasma retinol binding protein 4 and soluble CD36 levels were higher), dyslipidemia and fatty liver (plasma and liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels were higher as well as total VLDL-, VLDL(1)-, VLDL(2)-apoB100 and VLDL-triglycerides were overproduced), compared with the control rats. In livers of OLETF rats, mRNA levels of tnf, il1b and il6 were increased, but an anti-inflammatory protein, zinc finger protein 36, and its mRNA expression were decreased. We also found that the liver mRNA, protein levels, and tyrosine phosphorylation (pY) of insulin receptor (InsR) substrate (IRS) 2, but not IRS1, were decreased in OLETF rats; pY of InsR and Akt protein and phospho-Akt (ser437) were also reduced; but protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B protein was overexpressed. The gene expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 2, and glycogen synthase were decreased, but phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten and glycogen synthase kinase 3β mRNAs were overexpressed, compared with the controls. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c mRNA, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 mRNA, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA/protein, and CD36 mRNA/protein levels were increased and lipoprotein lipase and Niemann-Pick c1-like1 mRNA levels were decreased, which are all involved in lipogenesis. Decreased sirtuins1-3 mRNA levels were also observed in OLETF rats.
These abnormal genes, proteins expression and phosphorylation of multiple pathways related to inflammatory, insulin signaling and lipogenesis may be important underlying factors in VLDL-apoB100 particles overproduction observed in T2D. Our data contribute to the further understanding of an association of dyslipoproteinemia with systemic metabolic disorders, fatty liver and dysregulated hepatic metabolic pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) regulates lipid metabolism in the liver. It is unclear, however, how this receptor changes in liver cancer tissue. On the other hand, mouse carcinogenicity studies showed that PPARα is necessary for the development of liver cancer induced by peroxisome proliferators, and the relationship between PPARα and the development of liver cancer have been the focus of considerable attention. There have been no reports, however, demonstrating that PPARα is involved in the development of human liver cancer.
The subjects were 10 patients who underwent hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. We assessed the expression of PPARα mRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and non-cancerous tissue, as well as the expression of target genes of PPARα, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and cyclin D1 mRNAs. We also evaluated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in the glycolytic system.
The amounts of PPARα, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA in cancerous sections were significantly increased compared to those in non-cancerous sections. The level of cyclin D1 mRNA tends to be higher in cancerous than non-cancerous sections. Although there was a significant correlation between the levels of PPARα mRNA and cyclin D1 mRNA in both sections, however the correlation was higher in cancerous sections.
The present investigation indicated increased expression of PPARα mRNA and mRNAs for PPARα target genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma. These results might be associated with its carcinogenesis and characteristic features of energy production.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2011; 9:167. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration stimulates glucose uptake into muscles and whole body glucose oxidation in rats. The authors examined the effect of decreased plasma BCAA concentrations induced by clofibrate treatment on glucose tolerance in rats. Since clofibrate, a drug for hyperlipidemia (high serum triglyceride concentration), is a potent inhibitor of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase, clofibrate treatment (0.2 g/kg body weight) activated the hepatic branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, resulting in decreased plasma BCAA concentrations by 30% to 50% from the normal level. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted after clofibrate administration, and the results showed that peak plasma glucose concentration and the area under the curve of glucose concentration during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were significantly higher in clofibrate-treated rats than in control rats. This impaired glucose tolerance in the clofibrate-treated rats was ameliorated by administration of BCAAs (0.45 g/kg body weight, leucine:isoleucine:valine = 2:1:1), which kept plasma BCAA concentrations at normal levels during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. These results suggest that plasma BCAAs play an important role in maintaining normal glucose tolerance in rats.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 10/2011; 36(3):337-43. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass depends on the equilibrium between protein synthesis and protein breakdown; diminished functional demand during unloading breaks this balance and leads to muscle atrophy. The current study analyzed time-course alterations in regulatory genes and proteins in the unloaded soleus muscle and the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on muscle atrophy and abundance of molecules that regulate protein turnover. Short-term (6 days) hindlimb suspension of rats resulted in significant losses of myofibrillar proteins, total RNA, and rRNAs and pronounced atrophy of the soleus muscle. Muscle disuse induced upregulation and increases in the abundance of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), increases in gene and protein amounts of two ubiquitin ligases (muscle RING-finger protein 1 and muscle atrophy F-box protein), and decreases in the expression of cyclin D1, the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ERK1/2. BCAA addition to the diet did not prevent muscle atrophy and had no apparent effect on regulators of proteasomal protein degradation. However, BCAA supplementation reduced the loss of myofibrillar proteins and RNA, attenuated the increases in 4E-BP1, and partially preserved cyclin D1, mTOR and ERK1 proteins. These results indicate that BCAA supplementation alone does not oppose protein degradation but partly preserves specific signal transduction proteins that act as regulators of protein synthesis and cell growth in the non-weight-bearing soleus muscle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to examine alterations in the concentrations of plasma free amino acids, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and urea nitrogen induced by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young men. Overnight-fasted subjects ingested drinks containing 1 or 5 g of a BCAA mixture (weight ratio of 1 : 2.3 : 1.2 for isoleucine : leucine : valine), and blood was intermittently collected for 3 h after ingestion. Ingestion of the BCAA mixture resulted in significant increases in the plasma concentrations of individual BCAAs, corresponding to the amounts of amino acids ingested. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids tended to decrease in the trial with 5 g BCAAs, suggesting that BCAA ingestion affects the metabolism of these amino acids. The ingestion of BCAAs temporarily increased plasma insulin levels and affected plasma concentrations of FFAs, but had almost no effect on glucose or urea nitrogen.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2011; 57(1):114-7. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors examined the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on squat-exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) using 12 young, healthy, untrained female participants. The experiment was conducted with a crossover double-blind design. In the morning on the exercise-session day, the participants ingested either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine = 1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin at 100 mg/kg body weight before the squat exercise, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats/set with 3-min intervals between sets. DOMS showed a peak on Days 2 and 3 in both trials, but the level of soreness was significantly lower in the BCAA trial than in the placebo. Leg-muscle force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions was measured 2 d after exercise (Day 3), and the BCAA supplementation suppressed the muscle-force decrease (to ~80% of the value recorded under the control conditions) observed in the placebo trial. Plasma BCAA concentrations, which decreased after exercise in the placebo trial, were markedly elevated during the 2 hr postexercise in the BCAA trial. Serum myoglobin concentration was increased by exercise in the placebo but not in the BCAA trial. The concentration of plasma elastase as an index of neutrophil activation appeared to increase after the squat exercise in both trials, but the change in the elastase level was significant only in the placebo trial. These results suggest that muscle damage may be suppressed by BCAA supplementation.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 06/2010; 20(3):236-44. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) kinase (BDK) is responsible for the regulation of BCKDH complex, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). In the present study, we investigated the expression and activity of hepatic BDK in spontaneous type 2 diabetes using hyperinsulinemic Zucker diabetic fatty rats aged 9weeks and hyperglycemic, but not hyperinsulinemic rats aged 18weeks. The abundance of hepatic BDK mRNA and total BDK protein did not correlate with changes in serum insulin concentrations. On the other hand, the amount of BDK bound to the complex and its kinase activity were correlated with alterations in serum insulin levels, suggesting that hyperinsulinemia upregulates hepatic BDK. The activity of BDK inversely corresponded with the BCKDH complex activity, which was suppressed in hyperinsulinemic rats. These results suggest that insulin regulates BCAA catabolism in type 2 diabetic rats by modulating the hepatic BDK activity.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2010; 393(2):303-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a highly sensitive nonradioisotope method for the measurement of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activity using alpha-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate ([1-(13)C]KIC) as substrate. The enzyme reaction was performed in a 10-ml test tube. After incubation of the reaction mixture (1 ml), the reaction was terminated by acidification, followed by the addition of internal standard (3.5 micromol K(2)CO(3)) for calculation of (13)CO(2). The (13)CO(2) released to the gas phase in the test tube was calculated from the molar ratio of (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) assayed by gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A distinct linear relationship between (13)CO(2) production rate and BCKDC activity was obtained when using purified BCKDC. The detection limit of (13)CO(2) in the assay method was at least 0.167 nmol, which is similar to that in the previously reported radiochemical method. The enzyme assay was found to be linear with respect to reaction time and quantity of enzyme used up to approximately 60 nmol (13)CO(2) produced. We measured BCKDC activities in several rat tissues, including skeletal muscle. The activities of BCKDC obtained are comparable to those reported previously. These results suggest that the novel BCKDC assay method using [1-(13)C]KIC is useful for measurement in tissues with low BCKDC activity such as skeletal muscle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) is responsible for the committed step in branched-chain amino acid catabolism. In the present study, we examined BCKDC regulation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats both before (8 weeks of age) and after (25 weeks of age) the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as controls. Plasma branched-chain amino acid and branched-chain alpha-keto acid concentrations were significantly increased in young and middle-aged OLETF rats. Although the hepatic complex was nearly 100% active in all animals, total BCKDC activity and protein abundance of E1alpha, E1beta, and E2 subunits were markedly lower in OLETF than in LETO rats at 8 and 25 weeks of age. In addition, hepatic BCKDC activity and protein amounts were significantly decreased in LETO rats aged 25 weeks than in LETO rats aged 8 weeks. In skeletal muscle, E1beta and E2 proteins were significantly reduced, whereas E1alpha tended to increase in OLETF rats. Taken together, these results suggest that (1) whole-body branched-chain alpha-keto acid oxidation capacity is extremely reduced in OLETF rats independently of diabetes development, (2) the aging process decreases BCKDC activity and protein abundance in the liver of normal rats, and (3) differential posttranscriptional regulation for the subunits of BCKDC may exist in skeletal muscle.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 08/2009; 58(10):1489-95. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to examine alterations in plasma free amino acid concentrations induced by squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young, untrained female subjects. In the morning on the exercise session day, participants ingested drinks containing either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine=1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin (placebo) at 0.1 g/kg body weight 15 min before a squat exercise session, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats, with 3 min intervals between sets. In the placebo trial, plasma BCAA concentrations were decreased subsequent to exercise, whereas they were significantly increased in the BCAA trial until 2 h after exercise. Marked changes in other free amino acids in response to squat exercise and BCAA supplementation were observed. In particular, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids were temporarily decreased in the BCAA trial, being significantly lower than those in the placebo trial. These results suggest that BCAA intake before exercise affects methionine and aromatic amino acid metabolism.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 07/2009; 55(3):288-91. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) by thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was analyzed at two potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations. IC(50) values of 4.6 and 8.0 microM and inhibition constant values of 3.2 and 16.4 microM were obtained in the presence of 20 and 100 mM K(+), respectively. These results suggest that BDK is less sensitive to TPP inhibition under physiological TPP and K(+) concentrations.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 06/2009; 73(5):1189-91. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid catabolic pathway. We have developed a method of BCKDC purification from rat liver using hydrophobic interaction column chromatography (Shimomura et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 283, 293-299 (1990)). Here we report a modification of the method designed to obtain the purified enzyme with high reproducibility.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 04/2009; 73(3):766-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on body temperature and plasma free amino acid concentrations in rats. A catheter was placed in the jugular vein of the rats in order to draw blood from and to inject LPS into awake animals. On the day of the experiment, body temperature was recorded during the experiment (330 min) and blood was drawn before and at several time points after injection of LPS (10 microg/kg body weight). Body temperature in LPS-treated rats began to rise approximately 30 min after injection with a peak at 120 min, and afterward remained approximately 1 degree C higher than that in control rats through the end of the experiment. Concentrations of many plasma free amino acids were decreased by LPS treatment, with a nadir at approximately 120 min, and then were increased to the level of or over the control. It appears that thermoregulatory responses induced by LPS treatment may be related to alterations in plasma free amino acid concentrations. Effects of LPS treatment on the dynamics of plasma free branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations in rats with peroral or intravenous administration of BCAAs were also examined. The results showed that the rise in plasma BCAA concentrations after peroral BCAA administration was significantly suppressed by LPS treatment, but the dynamics of plasma BCAAs after intravenous administration was not affected by LPS, suggesting that LPS treatment inhibited the intestinal absorption of BCAAs into the circulation. These results suggest that the availability of administered BCAAs to the body tissues during sepsis is higher following parenteral than peroral administration.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2009; 54(6):460-6. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex is the most important regulatory enzyme in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism. We examined the regulation of hepatic BCKDH complex activity in spontaneous type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Hepatic BCKDH complex activity in these rats was significantly lower than in corresponding control rats. The amount of BCKDH complex in OLETF rats corresponded to the total activity of the complex. Activity and abundance of the bound form of BCKDH kinase, which is responsible for inactivation of the complex, showed an inverse correlation to BCKDH complex activity in OLETF rats. Dietary supplementation of 5% BCAAs for 10 weeks markedly increased BCKDH complex activity, and decreased the activity and bound form of BCKDH kinase in the rats. These results suggest that BCAA catabolism in type 2 diabetes is downregulated and enhanced by BCAA supplementation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2008; 373(1):94-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle atrophy results from a variety of conditions such as disease states, neuromuscular injuries, disuse, and aging. Absence of gravitational loading during spaceflight or long-term bed rest predisposes humans to undergo substantial loss of muscle mass and, consequently, become unfit and/or unhealthy. Disuse- or inactivity-induced skeletal muscle protein loss takes place by differential modulation of proteolytic and synthetic systems. Transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational events are involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and degradation in myofibers, and these regulatory events are known to be responsive to contractile activity. However, regardless of the numerous studies which have been performed, the intracellular signals that mediate skeletal muscle wasting due to muscular disuse are not completely comprehended. Understanding the triggers of atrophy and the mechanisms that regulate protein loss in unloaded muscles may lead to the development of effective countermeasures such as exercise and dietary intervention. The objective of the present review is to provide a window into the molecular processes that underlie skeletal muscle remodeling and to examine what we know about exercise and nutrition countermeasures designed to minimize muscle atrophy.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 09/2006; 52(4):233-47. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leucine stimulates protein synthesis by modulating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. We hypothesized that promotion of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism might influence the leucine-induced protein synthesis. Clofibric acid (an active metabolite of clofibrate) is known to promote the BCAA catabolism by activation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), the rate-limiting enzyme of the BCAA catabolism. In the present study, we examined the phosphorylation state of mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in liver of rats with or without activation of the BCKDC by clofibrate treatment. Clofibrate-treated rats were prepared by oral administration of clofibrate 5 h before sacrifice. In order to stimulate phosphorylation of components in the mTOR signaling pathway, rats were orally administered with leucine 1 h before sacrifice. Clofibrate treatment almost fully activated hepatic BCKDC and significantly decreased the plasma leucine concentration in rats without leucine administration, resulting in decreased mTOR and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Similarly, in rats administered with leucine, clofibrate treatment attenuated the predicted increase in plasma leucine concentration as well as the phosphorylation of mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1. These results suggest that BCAA catabolism enhanced by clofibrate treatment has significant influences on the leucine-induced activation of translation initiation processes.
Life Sciences 08/2006; 79(8):737-43. · 2.56 Impact Factor