Shruti Chopra

Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (13)41.5 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, researchers have been working extensively on various novel properties of polymers to develop increased efficiency of drug delivery and improve bioavailability of various drug molecules, especially macromolecules. Chitosan, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, because of its protonated/polymeric nature, provides effective and safe absorption of peptide and protein drugs. Its transmucosal absorption is, however, limited to acidic media because of its strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. A new partially quaternized chitosan derivative, N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC), has been synthesized with improved solubility, safety and effectiveness as an absorption enhancer at neutral pH and in aqueous environment. It enhances the absorption, especially of peptide drugs, by reversible opening of tight junctions in between epithelial cells, thereby facilitating the paracellular diffusion of peptide drugs. This derivative thus opens new perspectives as a biomaterial for various pharmaceutical applications/drug delivery systems. This review deals with the potential use of the quaternized chitosan derivative as a permeation enhancer for the mucosal delivery of macromolecular drugs along with its other biomedical applications.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 10/2008; 60(9):1111-9. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of extraocular disease is mainly limited by the inability to provide long-term extraocular drug delivery without avoiding the systemic drug exposure and/or affecting the intraocular structures and poor availability of drugs, which may be overcome by prolonging the contact time with the ocular surface, for instance with bioadhesive polymers. In the present study, mucoadhesive chitosan (CS)-sodium alginate (ALG) nanoparticles were investigated as a new vehicle for the prolonged topical ophthalmic delivery of antibiotic, gatifloxacin. A modified coacervation or ionotropic gelation method was used to produce gatifloxacin-loaded submicroscopic nanoreservoir systems. It was optimised using design of experiments by employing a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken statistical design. Independent variables studied were the amount of the bioadhesive polymers: CS, ALG and the amount of drug in the formulation. The dependent variables were the particle size, zetapotential, encapsulation efficiency and burst release. Response surface plots were drawn, statistical validity of the polynomials was established and optimised formulations were selected by feasibility and grid search. Nanoparticles were characterised by FT-IR, DSC, TEM and atomic force microscopy. Drug content, encapsulation efficiency and particle properties such as size, size distribution (polydispersity index) and zetapotential were determined. The designed nanoparticles have average particle size from 205 to 572 nm (polydispersity from 0.325 to 0.489) and zetapotential from 17.6 to 47.8 mV. Nanoparticles revealed a fast release during the first hour followed by a more gradual drug release during a 24-h period following a non-Fickian diffusion process. Box-Behnken experimental design thus facilitated the optimisation of mucoadhesive nanoparticulate carrier systems for prolonged ocular delivery of the drug.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 04/2008; 68(3):513-25. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simple, accurate, reproducible, selective, sensitive and cost effective UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of trigonelline in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Trigonelline was estimated at 265 nm in deionised water and at 264 nm in phosphate buffer (pH 4.5). Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 1-20microg mL(-1) (r2=0.9999) in deionised water and 1-24 microg mL(-1) (r2=0.9999) in the phosphate buffer medium. The apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity coefficient were found to be 4.04 x 10(3)L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0422 microg cm(-2)/0.001A in deionised water; and 3.05 x 10(3)L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0567 microg cm(-2)/0.001A in phosphate buffer media, respectively. These methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 0.12 and 0.37 microg mL(-1) in deionised water and 0.13 and 0.40 microg mL(-1) in phosphate buffer medium, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of trigonelline in pharmaceutical formulations (vaginal tablets and bioadhesive vaginal gels). The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, specific and reproducible (percent relative standard deviation <2%), while being simple and less time consuming and hence can be suitably applied for the estimation of trigonelline in different dosage forms and dissolution studies.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 11/2007; 68(3):516-22. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New, simple, cost effective, accurate and reproducible UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of moxifloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Moxifloxacin was estimated at 296 nm in 0.1N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) and at 289 nm in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-12 microg ml(-1) (r2=0.9999) in hydrochloric acid and 1-14 microg ml(-1) (r2=0.9998) in the phosphate buffer medium. The apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity coefficient were found to be 4.63 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) and 9.5 ng cm(-2)/0.001 A in hydrochloric acid; and 4.08 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) and 10.8 ng cm(-2)/0.001 A in phosphate buffer media, respectively indicating the high sensitivity of the proposed methods. These methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 0.0402, 0.1217 microg ml(-1) in hydrochloric acid and 0.0384, 0.1163 microg ml(-1) in phosphate buffer medium, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, i.v. infusions, eye drops and polymeric nanoparticles). The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%), while being simple, cheap and less time consuming and hence can be suitably applied for the estimation of moxifloxacin in different dosage forms and dissolution studies.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 10/2007; 68(2):250-6. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present research work aimed at development and optimisation of mucoadhesive polyherbal gels (MPG) for vaginal drug delivery. As the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of the gels correlate well to each other the prepared MPGs were optimised for maximum mucoadhesion using a relationship between the storage modulus (G') and Gel Index (GI), by employing a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken statistical design. Independent variables studied were the polymer concentration (X(1)), honey concentration (X(2)) and aerosil concentration (X(3)). Aerosil has been investigated for the first time to improve the consistency of gels. The dependent variables studied were the elastic modulus, G'(Y(1)), gel index (Y(2)), and maximum detachment force (Y(3)) with applied constraints of 500<or=Y(1)<or=700 and 4<or=Y(2)<or=5. Response surface plots were drawn, statistical validity of the polynomials was established and optimised formulations was selected by feasibility and grid search. Three types of Carbopol studied were Carbopol 934P, Carbopol 974P and Polycarbophil. In vitro release studies were carried out for the optimised formulations and the data were fitted to release kinetics equations. Validation of the optimisation study with 8 confirmatory runs indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Gels showed a gradual sustained release by a non-Fickian diffusion process. Incorporation of aerosil to gels was found to improve the rheological and mucoadhesion properties by about 50-54% and 7-11%, respectively. The Box-Behnken design facilitated the optimisation of polyherbal gel formulations for enhanced vaginal drug delivery by optimum mucoadhesion and longer retention.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 08/2007; 67(1):120-31. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present research work was to systemically device a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology by employing a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken statistical design. Independent variables studied were the amount of the release retardant polymers - HPMC K15M (X(1)), HPMC K100M (X(2)) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (X(3)). The dependent variables were the burst release in 15 min (Y(1)), cumulative percentage release of drug after 60 min (Y(2)) and hardness (Y(3)) of the tablets with constraints on the Y(2)=31-35%. Statistical validity of the polynomials was established. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out for the optimized formulation and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. The polynomial mathematical relationship obtained Y(2)=32.91-2.30X(1)-5.69X(2)-0.97X(3)-0.41X(1)X(2)+0.21X(1)X(3)-0.92X(1)(2)-1.89X(2)(2) (r(2)=0.9944) explained the main and quadratic effects, and the interactions of factors influencing the drug release from matrix tablets. The adjusted (0.9842) and predicted values (0.9893) of r(2) for Y(2) were in close agreement. Validation of the optimization study indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Tablets showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a non-fickian diffusion process. The Box-Behnken experimental design facilitated the formulation and optimization of sustained release hydrophilic matrix systems of losartan potassium.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 05/2007; 66(1):73-82. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, sensitive, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for densitometric determination of moxifloxacin both as a bulk drug and from pharmaceutical formulation was developed and validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method employed TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of n-propanol-ethanol-6M ammonia solution (4:1:2, v/v/v). Densitometric analysis of moxifloxacin was carried out in the absorbance mode at 298 nm. Compact spots for moxifloxacin were found at R(f) value of 0.58+/-0.02. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r=0.9925 in the working concentration range of 100-800 ng spot(-1). The method was validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness, robustness, specificity, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The LOD and LOQ were 3.90 and 11.83 ng spot(-1), respectively. Drug was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, wet heat treatment and photodegradation. All the peaks of degradation products were well resolved from the standard drug with significantly different R(f) values. Statistical analysis proves that the developed HPTLC method is reproducible and selective. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as stability-indicating one. Moreover, the proposed HPTLC method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of the acidic and alkaline degradation processes at different temperatures. Arrhenius plot was constructed and apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant, half-life and activation energy were calculated. In addition the pH-rate profile for degradation of moxifloxacin in constant ionic strength buffer solutions within the pH range 1.2-10.8 was studied.
    Analytica chimica acta 02/2007; 582(1):75-82. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study describes stress degradation studies on a biomarker, trigonelline following the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines under different stress conditions and establishment of a stability‐indicating HPTLC assay method. Analysis of trigonelline was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F‐254 and mobile phase consisting of n‐propanol‐methanol‐water (4:1:4 v/v/v). Spectrodensitometric scanning was carried out in absorbance mode at 269 nm for trigonelline (Rf=0.46±0.02). Trigonelline was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, wet heat treatment, and photodegradation. Statistical analysis proves that the developed HPTLC method is reproducible and selective. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability‐indicating one. Moreover, the method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of the acidic and alkaline degradation processes at different temperatures and to study degradation in constant ionic strength buffer solutions within the pH range 1–11.
    Journal of Liquid Chromatography &amp Related Technologies 01/2007; 30(4):557-574. · 0.57 Impact Factor
  • S Chopra, G V Patil, S K Motwani
    Journal of Controlled Release 12/2006; 116(2):e102-4. · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of trigonelline was developed and validated for the determination of trigonelline in herbal extracts and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Analysis of trigonelline was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. Linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase consisting of n-propanol-methanol-water (4:1:4, v/v/v) at room temperature (25+/-2 degrees C). Camag TLC scanner III was used for spectrodensitometric scanning and analysis in absorbance mode at 269 nm. The system was found to give compact spots for trigonelline (R(f) value of 0.46+/-0.02). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9991+/-0.0002 in the concentration range 100-1200 ng spot(-1) with respect to peak area. According to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines the method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness and ruggedness. The limits of detection and quantification were determined. The trigonelline content of herbal extracts quantified and estimated from the formulation was found to be well within limits (+/-5% of the labeled content of the formulations). Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of trigonelline.
    Analytica chimica acta 10/2006; 577(1):46-51. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology is of great interest to researchers and industrialists and nanocolloidal carrier systems for drug delivery have been studied in great detail, but while much research has been carried out on the preparation of nanoparticles using a variety of techniques employing various solvents, no attention has been given to the quality of solvents used in the process of nanoparticles characterization. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of solvents quality on the chitosan nanoparticles characterization for average particle size (Z) and polydispersity index (P.I.). Particle size distribution study showed that the number of particles contributed by solvents significantly affects both the Z and P.I. of the nanoparticulate suspensions leading to ambiguous results. While the Z decreases upon dilution with organic solvents, the phosphate buffer and water causes a net increase in Z because of the introduction of larger extraneous nanoparticles. The P.I. was found to increase with dilution because of the differences in the size of the polymeric nanoparticles and the nanoparticles introduced by the solvent upon dilution. The study thus recommends use of the highest quality of solvents in nanoparticles manufacturing and characterization process to avoid the generation of erroneous results.
    Journal of Experimental Nanoscience 09/2006; 1(3):307-316. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, sensitive, selective, precise and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for determination of gatifloxacin both as a bulk drug and from polymeric nanoparticles was developed and validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method employed thin-layer chromatography (TLC) aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of n-propanol-methanol-concentrated ammonia solution (25%) (5:1:0.9, v/v/v). This solvent system was found to give compact spots for gatifloxacin (R(f) value of 0.60+/-0.02). Densitometric analysis of gatifloxacin was carried out in the absorbance mode at 292 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r=0.9953 with respect to peak area in the concentration range of 400-1200 ng spot(-1). The mean value (+/-S.D.) of slope and intercept were 9.66+/-0.05 and 956.33+/-27.67, respectively. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness and recovery. The limits of detection and quantitation were 2.73 and 8.27 ng spot(-1), respectively. Gatifloxacin was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation and dry heat treatment. The drug undergoes degradation under acidic and basic conditions and upon wet and dry heat treatment. The degraded products were well separated from the pure drug. The statistical analysis proves that the developed method for quantification of gatifloxacin as bulk drug and from polymeric nanoparticles is reproducible and selective. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as stability-indicating one.
    Analytica chimica acta 09/2006; 576(2):253-60. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical technologists have been working extensively on various mucoadhesive polymeric systems to create an intimate and prolonged contact at the site of administration. Chitosan is one of the most promising polymers because of its non-toxic, polycationic biocompatible, biodegradable nature, and particularly due to its mucoadhesive and permeation enhancing properties. Due to its potential importance in controlled drug delivery applications, pharmaceutical scientists have exploited this mucoadhesive polymer. However, chitosan suffers from limited solubility at physiological pH and causes presystemic metabolism of drugs in intestinal and gastric fluids in the presence of proteolytic enzymes. These inherent drawbacks of chitosan have been overcome by forming derivatives such as carboxylated, various conjugates, thiolated, and acylated chitosan, thus providing a platform for sustained release formulations at a controlled rate, prolonged residence time, improved patient compliance by reducing dosing frequency, enhanced bioavailability and a significant improvement in therapeutic efficacy. We have explored the potential benefits of these improved chitosan derivatives in modern drug delivery.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 09/2006; 58(8):1021-32. · 2.03 Impact Factor