F Abad

Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (14)41.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We established primary cultures of human pheochromocytoma chromaffin cells. We then tried to find what mechanism of their secretory apparatus could be altered to produce the massive release of catecholamines into the circulation and the subsequent hypertensive crisis observed in patients suffering this type of tumor. Their whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents could be pharmacologically separated into components similar to those found in normal human adrenal chromaffin cells: 20% L-type, 30% N-type, and 50% P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. However, modulation of the channels by exogenous or endogenous ATP and opioids, via a G-protein membrane-delimited pathway, was deeply altered; some cells having no modulation or very little modulation alternated with others having normal modulation. This may be the cause of the uncontrolled secretory response, measured amperometrically at the single-cell level. Some cells secreted for long time periods and were insensitive to nifedipine (L-type channel blocker) or to omega-conotoxin MVIIC (N/P/Q-type channel blocker), while others were highly sensitive to nifedipine and partially sensitive to omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Alteration of the autocrine/paracrine modulation of Ca2+ channels may lead to indiscriminate Ca2+ entry and exacerbate catecholamine release responses in human pheochromocytoma cells.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 07/2000; 440(2):253-63. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have not demonstrated any statistically significant differences between teicoplanin and vancomycin with regard to efficacy. A cost-minimization analysis was conducted to compare the economical impact of the treatment with vancomycin and teicoplanin in intensive care patients. Information on resource utilization was retrospectively collected from 100 consecutive clinical histories of patients hospitalized in a Spanish Intensive Care Unit, who had been given a glycopeptide antibiotic (50 teicoplanin and 50 vancomycin) for the treatment of a suspected or proven infection. Although personnel, material, and monitoring costs were higher in the vancomycin group, the acquisition costs and the total costs were much lower in this group, so the resulting total costs per day were 5508 ptas (33 euros) for vancomycin-treated patients and 9893 ptas (59.5 euros) for teicoplanin-treated patients. The savings with vancomycin for a 10-day course of treatment would be approximately 40697 ptas (244.5 euros) per patient. Results were consistent for a variety of conditions that were included in the sensitivity analysis.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 07/2000; 15(1):65-71. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human adrenal medullary chromaffin cells were prepared and cultured from a cystic tumoral adrenal gland whose medullary tissue was unaffected. Adrenaline-containing and noradrenaline-containing cells were identified using a confocal fluorescence microscope and antibodies against dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Current/voltage (I/V) curves performed with the voltage-clamped cells bathed in 10 mM Ba2+ (holding potential, Vh=-80 mV) revealed the presence of only high-threshold voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels; T-type Ca2+ channels were not seen. By using supramaximal concentrations of selective Ca2+ channel blockers, the whole-cell IBa could be fractionated into various subcomponents. Thus, IBa had a 25% fraction sensitive to 1 microM nifedipine (L-type channels), 21% sensitive to 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA (N-type channels), and 60% sensitive to 2 microM omega-agatoxin IVA (P/Q-type channels). The activation of IBa was considerably slowed down, and the peak current was inhibited upon superfusion with 10 microM ATP. The slow activation and peak current blockade were reversed by strong depolarizing pre-pulses to +100 mV (facilitation). A drastic facilitation of IBa was also observed in voltage-clamped human chromaffin cell surrounded by other unclamped cells; in contrast, in voltage-clamped cells not immersed in a cell cluster, facilitation was scarce. So, facilitation of Ca2+ channels in a voltage-clamped cell seems to depend upon the exocytotic activity of neighbouring unclamped cells, which is markedly increased by Ba2+. It is concluded that human adrenal chromaffin cells mostly express P/Q-types of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (60%). L-Type channels and N-type channels are also expressed, but to a considerably minor extent (around 20% each). This dominance of P/Q-type channels in human chromaffin cells clearly contrasts with the relative proportion of each channel type expressed by chromaffin cells of five other animal species studied previously, where the P/Q-type channels accounted for 5-50%. The results also provide strong support for the hypothesis that Ca2+ channels of human chromaffin cells are regulated in an autocrine/paracrine fashion by materials co-secreted with the catecholamines, i.e. ATP and opiates.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 11/1998; 436(5):696-704. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: External Ca(2+) entry through various Ca(2+)-channel subtypes is responsible for the large oscillations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, [Ca(2+)](i), and cell death induced by veratridine in primary cultures of bovine chromaffin cells. Blockade by omega-conotoxin GVIA (GVIA) of N-type Ca(2+) channels, by omega-agatoxin IVA (IVA) of P-type Ca(2+) channels, or by furnidipine of L-type Ca(2+) channels did not afford cytoprotection. However, (omega-conotoxin MVIIC (MVIIC), a wide-spectrum blocker of N-, P- and Q-type Ca(2+) channels greatly protected the cells against the cytotoxic effects of veratridine. Furnidipine further enhanced the cytoprotecting effects of MVIIC. MVIIC but not furuidipine, markedly reduced the oscillations of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by veratridine in single fura-2-loaded chromaffin cells. The results suggest that Ca(2+) entry through any of the different Ca(2+) channel subtypes present in bovine chromaffin cells might be cytotoxic. They also support two ideas: (i) that wide-spectrum neuronal Ca(2+) channel blockers (i.e. MVIIC) might be better cytoprotecting agents than more specific neuronal Ca(2+) channel blockers (i.e., GVIA, IVA, furnidipine); and (ii) that combined Ca(2+) channel blockers may provide greater cytoprotection than single compounds.
    Brain Research 05/1996; 714(1-2):209-14. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: External Ca2+ entry through various Ca t+-channel subtypes is responsible for the large oscillations of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, and cell death induced by veratridine in primary cultures of bovine chromaffin cells. Blockade by ω-conotoxin GVIA (GVIA) of N-type Ca2+ channels, by ω-agatoxin GIVA (IVA) of P-type Ca2+ channels, or by furnidipine of L-type Ca2+ channels did not afford cytoprotection. However, ω-conotoxin MVIIC (MVIIC), a wide-spectrum blocker of N-, P- and Q-type Ca2+ channels greatly protected the cells against the cytotoxic effects of veratridine. Furnidipine further enhanced the cytoprotecting effects of MVIIC. MVIIC but not fumidipine, markedly reduced the oscillations of [Ca2+]i induced by veratridine in single fura-2-loaded chromaffin cells. The results suggest that Ca2+ entry through any of the different Ca2+ channel subtypes present in bovine chromaffin cells might be cytotoxic. They also support two ideas: (i) that wide-spectrum neuronal Ca2+ channel blockers (i.e. MVIIC) might be better cytoprotecting agents than more specific neuronal Ca2+ channel blockers (i.e., GVIA, IVA, furnidipine); and (ii) that combined Ca2+ channel blockers may provide greater cytoprotection than single compounds.
    Brain Research. 01/1996; 714:209-214.
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    ABSTRACT: We present in this report the characteristics of the damage induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2 on bovine chromaffin cells in primary culture. Cytotoxicity was quantified using catecholamine cell contents, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, trypan blue exclusion and morphological appearance. An excellent correlation between these four parameters was found. The cytotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine were Ca(2+)-independent. In spite of this, the Ca2+ channel antagonists R56865 (N-[1-(4-(fluorophenoxy)butyl)]-4-piperidinyl-N-methyl-2-benzo-thiazo lamine) lidoflazine exhibited marked cytoprotective effects against both 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2. The selective dopamine uptake blocker, bupropion, increased the viability of 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2-treated cells from 20% to around 80%. Catalase drastically protected against the cytotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2. In contrast, desferrioxamine gave better protection against H2O2 cytotoxicity; glutathione and N-acetylcysteine only afforded substantial protection against 6-hydroxydopamine. Three main conclusions emerge from this study. (1st) 6-Hydroxydopamine causes chromaffin cell damage via a mechanism probably related to the production of free radicals, but unrelated to Ca2+ ions. Cytoprotection afforded by R56865 and lidoflazine must be unrelated to their Ca2+ antagonist properties. This suggests a novel component in the cytoprotective mechanism of action of these drugs. (2nd) The strong cytoprotective effects of bupropion seem to be unrelated to its ability to block the plasmalemmal dopamine carrier. (3rd) Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in primary cultures are a suitable model for adult neurons to study the basic mechanism of cell damage, and to screen new drugs with putative neuroprotective properties.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 06/1995; 293(1):55-64. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present in this report the characteristics of the damage induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2 on bovine chromaffin cells in primary culture. Cytotoxicity was quantified using catecholamine cell contents, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, trypan blue exclusion and morphological appearance. An excellent correlation between these four parameters was found. The cytotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine were Ca2+-independent. In spite of this, the Ca2+ channel antagonists R56865 (N-[1-(4-(fluorophenoxy)butyl)]-4-piperidinyl-N-methyl-2-benzo-thiazolamine) and lidoflazine exhibited marked cytoprotective effects against both 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2. The selective dopamine uptake blocker, bupropion, increased the viability of 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2-treated cells from 20% to around 80%. Catalase drastically protected against the cytotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2. In contrast, desferrioxamine gave better protection against H2O2 cytotoxicity; glutathione and N-acetylcysteine only afforded substantial protection against 6-hydroxydopamine. Three main conclusions emerge from this study. (1st) 6-Hydroxydopamine causes chromaffin cell damage via a mechanism probably related to the production of free radicals, but unrelated to Ca2+ ions. Cytoprotection afforded by R56865 and lidoflazine must be unrelated to their Ca2+ antagonist properties. This suggests a novel component in the cytoprotective mechanism of action of these drugs. (2nd) The strong cytoprotective effects of bupropion seem to be unrelated to its ability to block the plasmalemmal dopamine carrier. (3rd) Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in primary cultures are a suitable model for adult neurons to study the basic mechanism of cell damage, and to screen new drugs with putative neuroprotective properties.
    European Journal of Pharmacology Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 01/1995; 293(1):55-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of bovine chromaffin cells to 30 microM veratridine for 24 h led to 70-80% cell death as reflected by phase contrast microscopy, trypan blue exclusion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell catecholamine contents. Na+ deprivation, Ca2+ deletion or tetrodotoxin (5 microM) prevented the veratridine-induced cell damage. Nimodipine and verapamil, but not omega-conotoxin GVIA afforded 20-30% protection. Flunarizine protected the cells by 80% and R56865 by 60%. Stimulation of fura-2-loaded single bovine chromaffin cells with 30 microM of 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) or 59 mM K+ caused fast increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, ([Ca2+]i). The [Ca2+]i rose from 0.1 to peaks of 1.9 microM, which quickly declined to near basal levels with a t1/2 of around 30 s. In spite of sustained stimulation with these two depolarizing agents, the [Ca2+]i remained low and did not undergo oscillations. In contrast, veratridine (30 microM) caused large and frequent oscillatory changes in the [Ca2+]i which were long-lasting and did not disappear even 30 min after washing out the toxin. The [Ca2+]i oscillations were reversibly suppressed by Na+ or Ca2+ removal and by 5 microM tetrodotoxin. Selective L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (10 microM nimodipine or verapamil) or N-type Ca2+ channel blockers (1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA) did not affect the [Ca2+]i oscillations. In contrast, flunarizine or R56865 (10 microM each) suppressed the oscillations of [Ca2+]i. The results demonstrate that bovine chromaffin cells have the necessary machinery to develop prolonged and repetitive [Ca2+]i oscillations in the presence of veratridine; however, 'physiological' depolarizing stimuli did not cause oscillations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    European Journal of Pharmacology 09/1994; 270(4):331-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of bovine chromaffin cells to 30 μM veratridine for 24 h led to 70–80% cell death as reflected by phase contrast microscopy, trypan blue exclusion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell catecholamine contents. Na+ deprivation, Ca2+ deletion or tetrodotoxin (5 μM) prevented the veratridine-induced cell damage. Nimodipine and verapamil, but not ω-conotoxin GVIA afforded 20–30% protection. Flunarizine protected the cells by 80% and R56865 by 60%. Stimulation of fura-2-loaded single bovine chromaffin cells with 30 μM of 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) or 59 mM K+ caused fast increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, ([Ca2+]i). The [Ca2+]i rose from 0.1 to peaks of 1.9 μM, which quickly declined to near basal levels with a of around 30 s. In spite of sustained stimulation with these two depolarizing agents, the [Ca2+]i remained low and did not undergo oscillations. In contrast, veratridine (30 μM) caused large and frequent oscillatory changes in the [Ca2+]i which were long-lasting and did not disappear even 30 min after washing out the toxin. The [Ca2+]i oscillations were reversibly suppressed by Na+ or Ca2+ removal and by 5 μM tetrodotoxin. Selective L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (10 μM nimodipine or verapamil) or N-type Ca2+ channel blockers (1 μM ω-conotoxin GVIA) did not affect the [Ca2+]i oscillations. In contrast, flunarizine or R56865 (10 μM each) suppressed the oscillations of [Ca2+]i. The results demonstrate that bovine chromaffin cells have the necessary machinery to develop prolonged and repetitive [Ca2+]i oscillations in the presence of veratridine; however, ‘physiological’ depolarizing stimuli did not cause oscillations. These non-inactivating [Ca2+]i oscillations may induce Ca2+ overload, thus explaining the well known cytotoxic effects of veratridine in neuronal and chromaffin cell cultures. Drugs such as flunarizine and the novel cytoprotective agent R56865, which prevent such oscillations, avoid Ca2+ overload and cell damage. The results also suggest that external Ca2+ entry through N- or L-type Ca2+ channels can equally be associated with the veratridine-evoked cell damage.
    European Journal of Pharmacology: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 08/1994;
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    ABSTRACT: 1. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels regulate the release of catecholamines mediated by muscarinic stimulation of cat adrenal chromaffin cells. Two parameters were measured: the secretory response to brief pulses of methacholine (100 microM for 10 s) in intact cat adrenal glands perfused at a high rate with oxygenated Krebs solution; and the changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, produced by puff applications of methacholine pulses (also 100 microM for 10 s) in isolated single cat adrenal chromaffin cells loaded with Fura-2. 2. A pulse of methacholine released 805 +/- 164 ng of catecholamines (mean of thirty-two pulses). d-Tubocurarine (DTC) increased the secretory response in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximum increase (around 1000 ng catecholamines over control values) was reached at 100 microM-DTC and the EC50 was around 10 microM. 3. The secretory responses to methacholine alone, or to the combination of methacholine plus DTC, were strongly dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]o. Thus Ca2+o removal from the perfusing solution for 5-10 min abolished catecholamine release. 4. At 0.1 microM, isradipine (an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker) inhibited by 71% the secretory response to DTC plus methacholine. At 1 microM, Bay K 8644 (an L-type Ca2+ channel activator) increased 2-fold the secretory response to DTC plus methacholine (2746 ng of catecholamines). 5. Apamin (1 microM) increased 3.5-fold the secretory response to methacholine pulses (from 500 to 1800 ng of catecholamines). 6. Methacholine pulses enhanced [Ca2+]i from the resting level of 100 nM to a peak of 1000 nM which quickly declined to basal level. DTC (100 microM) enhanced by 20% the [Ca2+]i peak and substantially prolonged its duration. 7. Apamin (1 microM) increased by 60% the [Ca2+]i peak evoked by methacholine, and delayed the initiation of decline of the [Ca2+]i peak. 8. These results are compatible with the idea that muscarinic stimulation depolarizes the cat adrenal chromaffin cell through an unidentified mechanism. Depolarization is probably counteracted by activation of Ca2+i-dependent K+ channels. Therefore, inhibition of these channels enhances depolarization and firing of action potentials which activate voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels to increase further the Ca2+i signal and the secretory response. Thus Ca2+i-dependent K+ channels, probably of the small-conductance type (SK), seem to be involved in the modulation of muscarinic-evoked catecholamine release responses in cat adrenal chromaffin cells.
    The Journal of Physiology 09/1992; 454:213-30. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the study reported here we have reached two conclusions. First, the cat adrenal medulla chromaffin cell possesses a dopamine D1 receptor that seems to be coupled to an adenylyl cyclase. Second, this receptor regulates the muscarinic-mediated catecholamine release response through a negative feed-back loop which uses cyclic AMP as a second messenger. These conclusions are supported by the following findings: (i) SKF38393 (a selective D1 receptor agonist), but not quinpirole (a selective D2 agonist), inhibits the methacholine-mediated catecholamine release responses in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of around 1-2 microM). (ii) SCH23390 (a selective D1 antagonist), but not sulpiride (a selective D2 antagonist), reversed by 70% the inhibitory effects of SKF38393. (iii) Dibutyril cyclic AMP (500 microM) inhibited by 80% the secretory effects of methacholine.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/1992; 183(3):1019-24. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. In view of conflicting reports on the source of Ca2+ needed to trigger the secretory response to muscarinic stimulation of chromaffin cells, we have reinvestigated this problem in the cat adrenal gland perfused with oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. Above a basal rate of secretion of 60 ng/30 s of total catecholamines, 5 s pulses of 100 microM-methacholine evoked 10-fold increases of secretion. This response was entirely mediated by muscarinic receptors, since it was blocked by submicromolar concentrations of atropine but not by d-tubocurarine. 2. Delayed application of methacholine pulses after Ca2+ removal from the Krebs solution led to a progressive decline of the secretory response with a t1/2 of 15 s. Secretion was blocked by 85% after a 60 s period of Ca2+ deprivation; extension of the external Ca2+ (Ca2+o) wash-out period up to 5 min did not further reduce the secretory response. 3. When EGTA (1 mM) was present in the 0 Ca2+ solution, the rate of decline of methacholine responses, as a function of the time of exposure to 1 mM-EGTA, was similar to that obtained with 0 Ca2+. Again, about 15-20% of the secretory response was resistant even to prolonged periods of washing out with the 0 Ca(2+)-EGTA solution. 4. The Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 microM) first decreased and then accelerated the rate of decline of methacholine responses upon Ca2+o wash-out. Particularly relevant is the complete blockade of secretion when the Ca2+o wash-out is performed in the presence of this ionophore. This suggests the existence of a small intracellular functional Ca2+ store sensitive to ionomycin. 5. After abolition of the secretory response through 60 s periods of wash-out with a 0 Ca(2+)-EGTA-ionomycin solution, followed by delayed 5 s methacholine pulses after Ca2+o reintroduction, the glands instantly recovered their normal muscarinic-mediated secretory response. This suggests that upon muscarinic stimulation, Ca2+ required by the secretory machinery to trigger such response immediately comes from extracellular sources. How Ca2+o gains the cell interior so fast upon muscarinic stimulation is unknown; we have previously suggested that the muscarinic receptor in the cat chromaffin cell could be coupled to an ionophore channel which might be chemically activated by muscarinic agonists. 6. Secretory responses to 5 s pulses with 35 or 100 mM-K+ declined faster (t1/2 of 3 and 6 s, respectively) upon Ca2+o wash-out than those of methacholine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
    The Journal of Physiology 02/1992; 445:725-40. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of 17-alpha-estradiol on the secretion of catecholamines from the perfused bovine and cat adrenal gland and bovine chromaffin cells in culture elicited by dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), methacholine and high potassium were studied. In perfused cat adrenal glands, secretion of catecholamines evoked by pulses of DMPP (1 microM for 30 sec) was decreased by 17-alpha-estradiol at concentrations of 1 and 10 microM by 50 and 80%, respectively. However, secretion evoked by pulses of methacholine (3 microM for 30 sec) was not affected by 1 microM of 17-alpha-estradiol and was affected to a variable extent by 10 microM 17-alpha-estradiol. Catecholamine secretion evoked by higher concentrations of methacholine (100 microM for 60 sec) was reduced by 50% by 10 microM 17-alpha-estradiol. 17-alpha-Estradiol decreased secretion evoked by pulses of 120 mM K+ for 10 sec to a similar extent in the perfused bovine and cat adrenal gland. The 45Ca++ uptake into bovine chromaffin cells in culture stimulated by DMPP (100 microM for 10 sec) or high K+ (59 mM for 10 sec) was almost inhibited completely by 100 microM 17-alpha-estradiol. The rapid action precludes a classical genomic mechanism and suggests effects at the cell membrane.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 11/1991; 259(1):279-85. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/1991; 635:459-63. · 4.38 Impact Factor