[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One approach to creating more beneficial therapeutic antibodies is to develop bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), particularly IgG-like formats with tetravalency, which may provide several advantages such as multivalent binding to each target antigen. Although the effects of configuration and antibody-fragment type on the function of IgG-like bsAbs have been studied, there have been only a few detailed studies of the influence of the variable fragment domain order. Here, we prepared four types of hEx3-scDb-Fc, IgG-like bsAbs, built from a single-chain hEx3-Db (humanized bispecific diabody [bsDb] that targets epidermal growth factor receptor and CD3), to investigate the influence of domain order and fusion manner on the function of a bsDb with an Fc fusion format. Higher cytotoxicities were observed with hEx3-scDb-Fcs with a variable light domain (VL)-variable heavy domain (VH) order (hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs) compared with a VH-VL order, indicating that differences in the Fc fusion manner do not affect bsDb activity. In addition, flow cytometry suggested that the higher cytotoxicities of hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH may be attributable to structural superiority in cross-linking. Interestingly, enhanced degradation resistance and prolonged in vivo half-life were also observed with hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH. hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH and its IgG2 variant exhibited intense in vivo antitumor effects, suggesting that Fc-mediated effector functions are dispensable for effective anti-tumor activities, which may cause fewer side effects. Our results show that merely rearranging the domain order of IgG-like bsAbs can enhance not only their antitumor activity, but also their degradation resistance and in vivo half-life, and that hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs are potent candidates for next-generation therapeutic antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gliding of microtubule filaments on surfaces coated with the motor protein kinesin has potential applications for nano-scale devices. The ability to guide the gliding direction in three dimensions allows the fabrication of tracks of arbitrary geometry in space. Here, we achieve this by using kinesin-coated glass wires of micrometer diameter range. Unlike previous methods in which the guiding tracks are fixed on flat two-dimensional surfaces, the flexibility of glass wires in shape and size facilitates building in-vitro devices that have deformable tracks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a complementary tool to nanofluidics, biomolecular based transport is envisioned for nanotechnological devices. We report a new method for guiding microtubule shuttles on multi-walled carbon nanotube tracks, aligned by dielectrophoresis on a functionalized surface. In the absence of electric field and in fluid flow, alignment is maintained. The directed translocation of kinesin propelled microtubules has been investigated using fluorescence microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microtubules gliding along carbon nanotubes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies contributes not only to their biological function, but also to their stability and tendency to aggregate. Here, we investigated the impact of the glycosylation status of an aggregated antibody that accumulated during the bioreactor culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that there was no apparent difference in the glycosylation patterns of monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregated forms of the antibody. In contrast, lectin binding assays, which enable the total amounts of specific sugar residues to be detected, showed that both galactose and fucose residues in dimers and large aggregates were reduced to 70-80% of the amount in monomers. These results strongly suggest that the lack of N-linked oligosaccharides, a result of deglycosylation or aglycosylation, occurred in a proportion of the dimeric and large aggregated components. The present study demonstrates that glycosylation heterogeneities are a potential cause of antibody aggregation in cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells, and that the lack of N-glycosylation promotes the formation of dimers and finally results in large aggregates.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 12/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aggregation of therapeutic antibodies during the manufacturing process is problematic because of the potential risks posed by the aggregates, such as an unexpected immune response. One of the hallmark effects of trehalose, a disaccharide consisting of two alpha-glucose units, is as a chemical chaperone with anti-aggregation activity. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a diabody-type bispecific antibody were cultured in medium containing trehalose and the aggregation of the secreted proteins during the culture process was analyzed. An analysis of the various forms of the antibody (monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregates) showed that trehalose decreased the relative content of large aggregates by two thirds. The aggregation kinetics indicated that trehalose directly inhibited the polymerization and aggregation steps in a nucleation-dependent aggregation mechanism. Moreover, both specific and volumetric antibody production were increased in CHO cells cultured in trehalose-containing medium. Thus, the addition of trehalose to recombinant CHO cell cultures would offer a practical strategy for quality improvement in the production of therapeutic antibodies.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 12/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The grating substrate covered with metal layer, plasmonic chip, and the bispecific antibody can make a key role for sensitive detection of a marker protein with immunosensor, because of the provision of enhanced fluorescence signal and the preparation of sensor surface densely modified with capture antibody, respectively. In this study, one of tumor markers, soluble epidermal growth factor receptor (s-EGFR), was selected as target to be detected. The ZnO and Ag-coated plasmonic chip with the precise regularity and appropriate duty ratio in the periodic structure further enhanced the fluorescence intensity. As for the sensor surface modification with capture antibody, bispecific antibody (anti-sEGFR x anti-ZnO antibody), the concentrated bispecific antibody solution was found to nonlinearly form a surface densely immobilized with antibody, because the binding process of bispecific antibody to ZnO surface can be competitive process with adsorption of phosphate. As a result, the interface on the plasmonic chip provided the 300 x enhanced fluorescence signal compared with that on a ZnO-coated glass slide, and therefore, s-EGFR was found to be quantitatively detected in a wide concentration range from 10 nM to 700 fM on our plasmonic surface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The construction of antibody fragments has the potential to reduce the high cost of therapeutic antibody production, but the structures of these fragments, with monovalency and the lack of an Fc region, can lead to reduced function. Multimerization is one strategy for recovering function that also yields better tumor-to-blood ratios than IgGs or monomeric antibody fragments because of rapid tumor uptake and clearance. Here, we constructed single-chain variable fragment (scFv) multimers by modifying the linker length and domain order of the humanized anti-EGFR antibody 528 (h528) and tested their ability to inhibit tumor growth. The h528 scFv multimers, expressed using a bacterial expression system, were successfully fractionated and inhibited cancer growth in a multimerization-dependent manner, whereas the h528 scFv monomer showed no inhibition. h528 scFv trimers with the VH-VL domain order and no linkers showed the highest in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects, which were comparable to those of the approved anti-EGFR therapeutic antibodies Cetuximab and Panitumumab. The trimers were also structurally stable in vitro and in vivo, which may be attributable to a strong interaction between the VH and VL of h528 Fv. Thus, h528 scFv multimers, especially trimers, are attractive as the next generation of anti-EGFR therapeutic antibodies and offer the possibility of low cost production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve the efficiency of conventional gene amplification systems, the effect of cell cycle modification during the gene amplification process on IgG production was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The full-length cDNA of CHO cell division cycle 25 homolog A (Cdc25A) was introduced into CHO DG44 cells and the effects of CDC25A overexpression on the cell cycle, transgene copy number and IgG productivity were examined. Both wild-type and mutated CDC25A-overexpressing CHO cells showed a rapid increase in transgene copy number compared with mock cells during the gene amplification process, in both cell pools and individual clones. High-producing clones were obtained with high frequency in CDC25A-overexpressing cell pools. The specific production rate of the isolated clone CHO SD-S23 was up to 2.9-fold higher than that of mock cells in the presence of 250 nM methotrexate (MTX). Cell cycle analysis revealed that the G2 to M phase transition rate was increased ∼1.5-fold in CDC25A-overexpressing CHO cells under MTX treatment. Our results show the improvement of conventional gene amplification systems via cell cycle engineering at an early stage of cell line development.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 06/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulosomes, which are assemblies of cellulases with various catalytic functions on a giant scaffoldin protein with a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), efficiently degrade solid cellulosic biomass by means of synergistically coupled hydrolysis reactions. In this study, we constructed hybrid nanocellulosomes from the biotinylated catalytic domains (CDs) of two catalytically divergent cellulases (an endoglucanase and a processive endoglucanase) and biotinylated CBMs by clustering the domains and modules on streptavidin-conjugated nanoparticles. Nanocellulosomes constructed by separately clustering each type of CD with multiple CBMs on nanoparticles showed 5-fold enhancement in cellulase degradation activity relative to that of the corresponding free CDs, and mixtures of the two types of nanocellulosomes gradually and synergistically enhanced cellulase degradation activity as the CBM valency increased (finally, 2.5 times). Clustering the two types of CD together on the same nanoparticle resulted in a greater synergistic effect that was independent of CBM valency; consequently, nanocellulosomes composed of equal amounts of the endo and endoprocessive CDs clustered on a nanoparticle along with multiple CBMs (CD/CBM = 7:23) showed the best cellulose degradation activity, producing 6.5 and 2.4 times the amount of reducing sugars produced from amorphous and crystalline cellulose, respectively, by the native free CDs and CBMs in the same proportions. Our results demonstrate that hybrid nanocellulosomes constructed from the building blocks of cellulases and cellulosomes modules have the potential to serve as high-performance artificial cellulosomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The domains of bispecific diabodies (BsDbs) can be ordered in four different ways; however, the influence of domain order on the cytotoxicity of BsDbs that retarget immune cells against tumor cells had not been addressed. We previously reported the marked antitumor effects of a humanized BsDb that targets epidermal growth factor receptor and CD3 (hEx3-Db). Here, we rearranged the domains of hEx3-Db to examine the influence of domain order on the function of BsDbs. We successfully prepared homogenous dimers of hEx3-Db in all four domain configurations. Interestingly, all three rearranged hEx3s inhibited cancer growth more effectively than did the original hEx3-Db, in which both components were in variable heavy domain (VH)-variable light domain (VL) order (redesignated as hEx3-HL), and the highest effects were observed with hEx3-LH (hEx3-Db with both components in VL-VH order). In addition, hEx3-LH had comparable in vitro growth inhibitory effects to those of the tandem single-chain variable fragment (scFv) format of hEx3-Db (hEx3-tandem scFv (taFv)), which we previously showed to have greater cytotoxicity than does hEx3-HL. Flow cytometry suggested that the enhanced cytotoxicity of hEx3-LH is attributable to structural superiority for cross-linking, similar to that of hEx3-taFv. Furthermore, hEx3-LH inhibited cancer growth in mice more effectively than did hEx3-taFv; this difference may be due to differences in antibody stability. Our results show that merely rearranging the domain order of BsDbs can enhance their effects beyond those with structural format conversion.
Protein Engineering Design and Selection 03/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinesin motor protein is one of the major contributors in cell
division and intracellular transportation of cargo. Kinesin converts
chemical energy into mechanical work with a yield greater than 50% and
it can transport large size cargo along several micrometers, moving on a
biopolymer track called microtubule. The kinesin-microtubule system has
been studied in vitro. Two main configurations exist. In the first one,
the gliding mode, microtubules are propelled by kinesin proteins bound
to a substrate. In the second one, the kinesin molecules ``walk'' on the
microtubule. Kinesin can be engineered in order to allow binding of
specific cargo. In this study, we are using biotinated kinesin which
allows strong non-covalent binding with streptavidin, which can cover
any nano object. Using fluorescence microscopy, transport of quantum
dots has been studied. Velocities have been analyzed and the results are
in good agreement with data from the literature. New approaches using
multiwall carbon nanotube tracks, aligned by dielectrophoresis, have
also been investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinesin, an enzyme molecule found in eukaryotic cells, walks on specific
paths, namely microtubules. These microtubules, self-assembled in-vitro,
cooperate with kinesin molecules by playing the role of either a track
for the molecular motors or a lengthy cargo lorry driven by the motor
molecules. One of major challenges in utilization of the latter case,
which is particularly advantageous for practical applications because of
the longer cruising range and the higher carrying capacity of the
bio-transporter, is herding the gliding microtubules. A general approach
to achieve this goal is aligning motor molecules along a track. In
previous attempts such tracks were physically and/or chemically
patterned on a glass surface. We use a kinesin-coated glass wire to
demonstrate kinesin-powered gliding movement of microtubules confined by
the wire-like structure. This new approach distinguishes itself in that
the glass wire track is an independent entity, being separable from a
two-dimensional surface in principle. We will also discuss quantitative
analysis of the guided motility and potential applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular evolution was used to generate capping molecules that selectively bound to the noncellulose components in cellulosic biomass and facilitated access of cellulolytic enzymes to the substrate components. The peptides, which were selected by means of a phage-display method, strongly promoted the enzymatic degradation of cellulose components in the biomass.
Green Chemistry 01/2013; 15(2). · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the nano-scale many proteins act as biological actuators for rotation or translation. Among these proteins, the building blocks of self-assembled, highly efficient natural motors, kinesin is considered a promising tool in the development of synthetic nanorobots. Conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work, harnessed by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate, propels kinesin along a cytoplasmic system of fibers, known as a microtubule. Even though recent efforts were made to engineer tailor-made artificial nanotransport systems using kinesin, no systematic study investigated how these systems can be organized from the bottom up using the surface plasmon resonance technique. Here, we show that it is possible to quantitatively evaluate how each component of such nanoscopic machines is sequentially assembled by monitoring the individual association of its components, focusing specifically on the kinesin association to microtubules as well as the cargo-kinesin association. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters reported here for the microtubules and recombinant biotinylated kinesin binding process properties are of utmost importance due to the current widespread use of biotinylated kinesin in the construction of synthetic nano-machines.
Journal of Applied Physics 12/2012; 112(12). · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We showed previously that humanization of 528, a murine anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, causes reduced affinity for its target. Here, to improve the affinity of the humanized antibody for use in cancer immunotherapy, we constructed phage display libraries focused on the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the antibody and carried out affinity selection. Two-step selections using libraries constructed in a stepwise manner enabled a 32-fold affinity enhancement of humanized 528 (h528). Thermodynamic analysis of the interactions between the variable domain fragment of h528 (h528Fv) mutants and the soluble extracellular domain of EGFR indicated that the h528Fv mutants obtained from the first selection showed a large increase in negative enthalpy change due to binding, resulting in affinity enhancement. Furthermore, mutants from the second selection showed a decrease in entropy loss, which led to further affinity maturation. These results suggest that a single mutation in the heavy chain variable domain (i.e. Tyr(52) to Trp) enthalpically contributed for overcoming the energetic barrier to the antigen-antibody interaction, which was a major hurdle for the in vitro affinity maturation of h528. We reported previously that the humanized bispecific diabody hEx3 Db, which targets EGFR and CD3, shows strong anti-tumor activity. hEx3 Db mutants, in which the variable domains of h528 were replaced with those of the affinity-enhanced mutants, were prepared and characterized. In a growth inhibition assay of tumor cells, the hEx3 Db mutants showed stronger anti-tumor activity than that of hEx3 Db, suggesting that affinity enhancement of h528Fv enhances the anti-tumor activity of the bispecific diabody.
Protein Engineering Design and Selection 10/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor