[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N(2)-[alpha-O-benzyl-N-(acetylmuramyl)-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl]-N(6)-trans-(m-nitrocinnamoyl)-L-lysine (muramyl dipeptide C, or MDP-C) has been synthesized as a novel, nonspecific immunomodulator. The present study shows that MDP-C induces strong cytolytic activity by macrophages on P388 leukemia cells and cytotoxic activity by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) on P815 mastocytoma cells. Our results also indicate that MDP-C is an effective stimulator for production of interleukin-2 and interleukin-12 by murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and production of interferon-gamma by CTLs. Additionally, MDP-C increases the expression levels of several surface molecules, including CD11c, MHC class I, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in BMDCs. Moreover, MDP-C remarkably enhances the immune system's responsiveness to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice for both antibody production and specific HBsAg T-cell responses ex vivo. Our results indicate that MDP-C is an apyrogenic, nonallergenic, and low-toxicity immunostimulator with great potential for diagnostic, immunotherapeutic, and prophylactic applications in diseases such as hepatitis B and cancers.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2005; 48(16):5112-22. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A parallel solution-phase synthesis of 2-quinoxalinol analogues is described. The key step-simultaneous reductions of m-Ar(NO2)2 to m-Ar(NH2)2 was investigated extensively. We obtained preliminary pharmacological activity of those analogues for the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release on mouse macrophage in vitro. Two compounds revealed inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 0.40 microM (7-amino-6-[(3-methoxypropyl)amino]-3-methyl-2-quinoxalinol) and 2.2 microM (7-amino-6-[(3-butoxypropyl)amino]-3-methyl-2-quinoxalinol), respectively.
Journal of Combinatorial Chemistry 04/2004; 6(3):431-6. · 4.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,5-Difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene starting material was treated via primary and/or secondary substitution with a variety of amino acids or amines and the aromatic m-dinitro groups were then reductively cyclized provide the 2-quinoxalinol analogs. The conditions for 1,5-dialkylamino-2,4-dinitrobenzene reduction have been systematically studied and optimized in solution. Three effective methods are described for the high-throughout generation of 2-quinoxalinol analogs.