[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of effective therapeutic strategies against prostate cancer bone metastases has been impeded by the lack of adequate animal models that are able to recapitulate the biology of the disease in humans. Bioengineered approaches allow researchers to create sophisticated experimentally and physiologically relevant in vivo models to study interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment under reproducible conditions. The aim of this study was to engineer a morphologically and functionally intact humanized organ bone which can serve as a homing site for human prostate cancer cells. Transplantation of biodegradable tubular composite scaffolds seeded with human mesenchymal progenitor cells and loaded with rhBMP-7 resulted in the development of a chimeric bone construct including a large number of human mesenchymal cells which were shown to be metabolically active and capable of producing extracellular matrix components. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the newly formed ossicle recapitulated the morphological features of a physiological organ bone with a trabecular network surrounded by a cortex-like outer structure. This microenvironment was supportive of the lodgement and maintenance of murine haematopoietic cell clusters, thus mimicking a functional organ bone. Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated that luciferase-transduced human PC3 cells reproducibly homed to the humanized tissue engineered bone constructs, proliferated, and developed macro-metastases. This model allows the analysis of interactions between human prostate cancer cells and a functional humanized bone organ within an immuno-incompetent murine host. The system can serve as a reproducible platform to study effects of therapeutics against prostate cancer bone metastases within a humanized microenvironment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The determinants and key mechanisms of cancer cell osteotropism have not been identified, mainly due to the lack of reproducible animal models representing the biological, genetic and clinical features seen in humans. An ideal model should be capable of recapitulating as many steps of the metastatic cascade as possible, thus facilitating the development of prognostic markers and novel therapeutic strategies. Most animal models of bone metastasis still have to be derived experimentally as most syngeneic and transgeneic approaches do not provide a robust skeletal phenotype and do not recapitulate the biological processes seen in humans. The xenotransplantation of human cancer cells or tumour tissue into immunocompromised murine hosts provides the possibility to simulate early and late stages of the human disease. Human bone or tissue-engineered human bone constructs can be implanted into the animal to recapitulate more subtle, species-specific aspects of the mutual interaction between human cancer cells and the human bone microenvironment. Moreover, the replication of the entire "organ" bone makes it possible to analyse the interaction between cancer cells and the haematopoietic niche and to confer at least a partial human immunity to the murine host. This process of humanisation is facilitated by novel immunocompromised mouse strains that allow a high engraftment rate of human cells or tissue. These humanised xenograft models provide an important research tool to study human biological processes of bone metastasis.
CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 05/2013; · 9.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes have been shown to act as mediators for cell to cell communication and as a potential source of biomarkers for many diseases, including prostate cancer. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by cells and consist of proteins normally found in multivesicular bodies, RNA, DNA and lipids. As a potential source of biomarkers, exosomes have attracted considerable attention, as their protein content resembles that of their cells of origin, even though it is noted that the proteins, miRNAs and lipids found in the exosomes are not a reflective stoichiometric sampling of the contents from the parent cells. While the biogenesis of exosomes in dendritic cells and platelets has been extensively characterized, much less is known about the biogenesis of exosomes in cancer cells. An understanding of the processes involved in prostate cancer will help to further elucidate the role of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles in prostate cancer progression and metastasis. There are few methodologies available for general isolation of exosomes, however validation of those methodologies is necessary to study the role of exosomal-derived biomarkers in various diseases. In this review, we discuss "exosomes" as a member of the family of extracellular vesicles and their potential to provide candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with dual roles in cancer biology including prostate cancer (PCa). On the one hand, there is evidence that it stimulates tumour angiogenesis, is involved in the initiation of PCa from an androgen-dependent to a castrate resistant state, plays a role in epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity, and may contribute to the aberrant regulation of eicosanoid pathways. On the other hand, TNF has also been reported to inhibit neovascularisation, induce apoptosis of PCa cells, and stimulate antitumour immunity. Much of the confusion surrounding its seemingly paradoxical roles in cancer biology stems from the dependence of its effects on the biological model within which TNF is investigated. This paper will address some of these issues and also discuss the therapeutic implications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily, is over-expressed by many common cancers including those of the prostate (PCa) and its expression is linked to cancer outcome. We have evaluated the effect of MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression on PCa development and spread in the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer. TRAMP mice were crossed with MIC-1/GDF15 overexpressing mice (MIC-1(fms)) to produce syngeneic TRAMP(fmsmic-1) mice. Survival rate, prostate tumor size, histopathological grades and extent of distant organ metastases were compared. Metastasis of TC1-T5, an androgen independent TRAMP cell line that lacks MIC-1/GDF15 expression, was compared by injecting intravenously into MIC-1(fms) and syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Whilst TRAMP(fmsmic-1) survived on average 7.4 weeks longer, had significantly smaller genitourinary (GU) tumors and lower PCa histopathological grades than TRAMP mice, more of these mice developed distant organ metastases. Additionally, a higher number of TC1-T5 lung tumor colonies were observed in MIC-1(fms) mice than syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice. Our studies strongly suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 has complex actions on tumor behavior: it limits local tumor growth but may with advancing disease, promote metastases. As MIC-1/GDF15 is induced by all cancer treatments and metastasis is the major cause of cancer treatment failure and cancer deaths, these results, if applicable to humans, may have a direct impact on patient care.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43833. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late stage Ovarian Cancer is essentially incurable primarily due to late diagnosis and its inherent heterogeneity. Single agent treatments are inadequate and generally lead to severe side effects at therapeutic doses. It is crucial to develop clinically relevant novel combination regimens involving synergistic modalities that target a wider repertoire of cells and lead to lowered individual doses. Stemming from this premise, this is the first report of two- and three-way synergies between Adenovirus-mediated Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase based gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PNP-GDEPT), docetaxel and/or carboplatin in multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer cells.
The effects of PNP-GDEPT on different cellular processes were determined using Shotgun Proteomics analyses. The in vitro cell growth inhibition in differentially treated drug resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines was established using a cell-viability assay. The extent of synergy, additivity, or antagonism between treatments was evaluated using CalcuSyn statistical analyses. The involvement of apoptosis and implicated proteins in effects of different treatments was established using flow cytometry based detection of M30 (an early marker of apoptosis), cell cycle analyses and finally western blot based analyses.
Efficacy of the trimodal treatment was significantly greater than that achieved with bimodal- or individual treatments with potential for 10-50 fold dose reduction compared to that required for individual treatments. Of note was the marked enhancement in apoptosis that specifically accompanied the combinations that included PNP-GDEPT and accordingly correlated with a shift in the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. PNP-GDEPT mediated enhancement of apoptosis was reinforced by cell cycle analyses. Proteomic analyses of PNP-GDEPT treated cells indicated a dowregulation of proteins involved in oncogenesis or cancer drug resistance in treated cells with accompanying upregulation of apoptotic- and tumour- suppressor proteins.
Inclusion of PNP-GDEPT in regular chemotherapy regimens can lead to significant enhancement of the cancer cell susceptibility to the combined treatment. Overall, these data will underpin the development of regimens that can benefit patients with late stage ovarian cancer leading to significantly improved efficacy and increased quality of life.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stemming from its inherent heterogeneity, single-agent treatments are essentially ineffective against castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, clinically relevant regimens that harness different modalities to maximize treatment efficacy without increasing cumulative toxicities are urgently needed. Based on this rationale, we investigated whether a novel combination of purine nucleoside phosphorylase-mediated, gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (PNP-GDEPT) with docetaxel against CRPC has superior efficacy in comparison with individual treatments. Methods: The in vitro cell growth inhibition in differentially treated murine and human CRPC cell lines was established using a cell-viability assay. The extent of synergy, additivity, or antagonism between treatments was evaluated using CalcuSyn statistical analyses. The local and systemic effects of docetaxel and/or PNP-GDEPT were tested in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice against human and murine CRPC tumors, respectively. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses and an evaluation of serum cytokine and serum toxicity profiles were conducted to characterize the differential host responses to treatment.
The combined use of PNP-GDEPT and docetaxel led to strong synergistic cell killing in vitro. Compared with the individual modalities, a combination of the 2 led to a marked reduction in "local and distant" tumor growth in vivo, and importantly, with lowered doses and without additional toxicities. Immunomodulation was indicated by enhanced immune cell infiltration and altered serum cytokine levels. Furthermore, a lowering of T-helper type 2 cytokines, MCP-1, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10 marked lower tumor burden and enhanced treatment efficacy.
PNP-GDEPT and docetaxel are a potent combination against CRPC in immunocompetent and immunodeficient settings; these outcomes have implications of translational potential for improved treatment and management of CRPC patients.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(12):4006-18. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3D in vitro model systems that are able to mimic the in vivo microenvironment are now highly sought after in cancer research. Antheraea mylitta silk fibroin protein matrices were investigated as potential biomaterial for in vitro tumor modeling. We compared the characteristics of MDA-MB-231 cells on A. mylitta, Bombyx mori silk matrices, Matrigel, and tissue culture plates. The attachment and morphology of the MDA-MB-231 cell line on A. mylitta silk matrices was found to be better than on B. mori matrices and comparable to Matrigel and tissue culture plates. The cells grown in all 3D cultures showed more MMP-9 activity, indicating a more invasive potential. In comparison to B. mori fibroin, A. mylitta fibroin not only provided better cell adhesion, but also improved cell viability and proliferation. Yield coefficient of glucose consumed to lactate produced by cells on 3D A. mylitta fibroin was found to be similar to that of cancer cells in vivo. LNCaP prostate cancer cells were also cultured on 3D A. mylitta fibroin and they grew as clumps in long term culture. The results indicate that A. mylitta fibroin scaffold can provide an easily manipulated microenvironment system to investigate individual factors such as growth factors and signaling peptides, as well as evaluation of anticancer drugs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aurora Kinase (AK) based therapy targeting AK-A & B is effective against some cancers. We have explored its potential against previously unreported incurable, metastatic androgen depletion independent Prostate Cancer (ADIPC). We used androgen sensitive (AS) and ADI lines derived from Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The relevance of this model was unequivocally established through focussed array, quantitative PCR and western blotting studies; significantly greater alteration of genes (fold change and number) representing major cancer pathways was shown in ADI cells compared to AS lines. A marked enhancement of in vivo growth of the ADI subline showing the greatest degree of gene modulations [TRAMP C1 (TC1)-T5: TC1-T5] reflected this. In contrast to the parental AS TC1 line, TC1-T5 cells grew with 100% incidence in the prostate, as lung pseudometastases and migrated to the bone and other soft tissues. The potential involvement of AKs in this transition was indicated by the significant upregulation of AK-A/B and their downstream regulators, survivin and phosphorylated-histone H3 in TC1-T5 cells compared to TC1 cells. This led to enhanced sensitivity of TC1-T5 cells to the pan-AK inhibitor, VX680 and to significant reduction in in vivo tumour growth rates when AK-A and/or B were downregulated in TC1-T5 cells. This cell growth inhibition was markedly enhanced when both AKs were downregulated and also led to substantially greater sensitivity of these cells to docetaxel, the only chemotherapeutic with activity against ADI PC. Finally, use of VX680 with docetaxel led to impressive synergies suggesting promise for treating clinical ADI metastatic PC.
Current cancer drug targets 01/2011; 12(2):144-63. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin(IL)-18 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with functions in immune modulation, angiogenesis and bone metabolism. In this study, the potential of IL-18 as an immunotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa) was examined using the murine model of prostate carcinoma, RM1 and a bone metastatic variant RM1(BM)/B4H7-luc. RM1 and RM1(BM)/B4H7-luc cells were stably transfected to express bioactive IL-18. These cells were implanted into syngeneic immunocompetent mice, with or without an IL-18-neutralising antibody (αIL-18, SK113AE4). IL-18 significantly inhibited the growth of both subcutaneous and orthotopic RM1 tumors and the IL-18 neutralizing antibody abrogated the tumor growth-inhibition. In vivo neutralization of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) completely eliminated the anti-tumor effects of IL-18 confirming an essential role of IFN-γ as a down-stream mediator of the anti-tumor activity of IL-18. Tumors from mice in which IL-18 and/or IFN-γ was neutralized contained significantly fewer CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than those with functional IL-18. The essential role of adaptive immunity was demonstrated as tumors grew more rapidly in RAG1−/− mice or in mice depleted of CD4+ and/or CD8+ cells than in normal mice. The tumors in RAG1−/− mice were also significantly smaller when IL-18 was present, indicating that innate immune mechanisms are involved. IL-18 also induced an increase in tumor infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils but not NK cells. In other experiments, direct injection of recombinant IL-18 into established tumors also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with an increase in intratumoral macrophages, but not T cells. These results suggest that local IL-18 in the tumor environment can significantly potentiate anti-tumor immunity in the prostate and clearly demonstrate that this effect is mediated by innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), can inhibit osteoclasts leading to decreased osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity in bone. Here, we used a mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic murine model of bone-metastatic prostate cancer, RM1(BM), to determine how inhibiting osteolysis with ZOL affects the ability of these cells to establish metastases in bone, the integrity of the tumour-bearing bones and the survival of the tumour-bearing mice.
The model involves intracardiac injection for arterial dissemination of the RM1(BM) cells in C57BL/6 mice. ZOL treatment was given via subcutaneous injections on days 0, 4, 8 and 12, at 20 and 100 µg/kg doses. Bone integrity was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histology with comparison to untreated mice. The osteoclast and osteoblast activity was determined by measuring serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) and osteocalcin, respectively. Mice were euthanased according to predetermined criteria and survival was assessed using Kaplan Meier plots.
Micro-CT and histological analysis showed that treatment of mice with ZOL from the day of intracardiac injection of RM1(BM) cells inhibited tumour-induced bone lysis, maintained bone volume and reduced the calcification of tumour-induced endochondral osteoid material. ZOL treatment also led to a decreased serum osteocalcin and TRAP 5b levels. Additionally, treated mice showed increased survival compared to vehicle treated controls. However, ZOL treatment did not inhibit the cells ability to metastasise to bone as the number of bone-metastases was similar in both treated and untreated mice.
ZOL treatment provided significant benefits for maintaining the integrity of tumour-bearing bones and increased the survival of tumour bearing mice, though it did not prevent establishment of bone-metastases in this model. From the mechanistic view, these observations confirm that tumour-induced bone lysis is not a requirement for establishment of these bone tumours.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19389. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between the expression of the cancer metastasis suppressor gene KAI1 and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human bladder cancer cell lines that express variable levels of KAI1.
Five bladder cancer cell lines (BL-28/0, BL-13/0, BL-17/0/×1, B10, and D2) were grown in standard culture conditions. Gelatinase activities in serum-free conditioned medium were assessed using gelatin zymography. Whole cell lysates were prepared and Western blotting used to detect the protein expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and KAI1. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyze the mRNA expression level of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and KAI1.
Western blotting analysis confirmed that KAI1 was expressed in BL-28/0 and Bl-13/0 but not in D2, B10 and BL-17/0/×1 cell lines. This was consistent with in vitro invasion assays reported previously which showed that cell lines lacking KAI1 expression were 2× to 10× more invasive than cell lines that expressed KAI1. MMP-2 protein was detected in BL-28/0, BL-13/0. and BL-17/0/×1 only. Very low levels of MMP-9 were present in BL-28/0, BL-13/0, B10, and BL-17/0/×1 but not D2, whilst very low levels of TIMP-1 were present in all cell lines. No TIMP-2 was detected. Gelatin zymography showed detectable MMP-2 expression in conditioned medium from BL-28/0 and BL-13/0. Very weak MMP-9 was detected in BL-28/0 conditioned medium only. mRNA expression of MMP-2 was only detectable in BL-28/0 and BL-13/0 cell lines. MMP-9 mRNA levels were extremely low in all lines and not detectable in D2 cells. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA were detected in all lines.
We found that KAI1 expression in bladder cancer cell lines is related to a poor invasive potential and expression of latent MMP-2 but not MMP-9. These results are unexpected given other studies showing high levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression in patients with invasive bladder cancer. This may reflect differences in the regulation and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in vitro compared with the in vivo situation, where tumor cells interact with the surrounding environment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ineffective treatment and poor patient management continue to plague the arena of clinical oncology. The crucial issues include inadequate treatment efficacy due to ineffective targeting of cancer deposits, systemic toxicities, suboptimal cancer detection and disease monitoring. This has led to the quest for clinically relevant, innovative multifaceted solutions such as development of targeted and traceable therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the intrinsic ability to "home" to growing tumors and are hypoimmunogenic. Therefore, these can be used as (a) "Trojan Horses" to deliver gene therapy directly into the tumors and (b) carriers of nanoparticles to allow cell tracking and simultaneous cancer detection. The camouflage of MSC carriers can potentially tackle the issues of safety, vector, and/or transgene immunogenicity as well as nanoparticle clearance and toxicity. The versatility of the nanotechnology platform could allow cellular tracking using single or multimodal imaging modalities. Toward that end, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is fast becoming a clinical favorite, though there is scope for improvement in its accuracy and sensitivity. In that, use of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPION) as MRI contrast enhancers may be the best option for tracking therapeutic MSC. The prospects and consequences of synergistic approaches using MSC carriers, gene therapy, and SPION in developing cancer diagnostics and therapeutics are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that have pleiotropic effects in a wide variety of cancer cell lines. Many of these biological effects involve key components of signal transduction pathways within cancer cells, including prostate cancer cells. Epidemiological studies have raised the hypothesis that isoflavones may play an important role in the prevention and modulation of prostate cancer growth. Since randomized phase III trials of isoflavones in prostate cancer prevention are currently lacking, the best evidence for this concept is presently provided by case control studies. However, in vitro data are much more convincing in regard to the activity of a number of isoflavones, and have led to the development of genistein and phenoxodiol in the clinic as potential treatments for cancer. In addition, the potential activity of isoflavones in combination with cytotoxics or radiotherapy warrants further investigation. This review focuses on the clinical pharmacology of isoflavones and its relevance to their development for use in the prevention of prostate cancer, and it evaluates some of the conflicting data in the literature.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is essentially incurable. Recently though, chemotherapy demonstrated a survival benefit ( approximately 2months) in the treatment of CRPC. While this was a landmark finding, suboptimal efficacy and systemic toxicities at the therapeutic doses warranted further development. Smart combination therapies, acting through multiple mechanisms to target the heterogeneous cell populations of PC and with potential for reduction in individual dosing, need to be developed. In that, targeted molecular chemotherapy has generated significant interest with the potential for localized treatment to generate systemic efficacy. This can be further enhanced through the use of oncolytic conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) to deliver molecular chemotherapy. The prospects of chemotherapy and molecular-chemotherapy as single and as components of combination therapies are discussed.
Cancer letters 07/2010; 293(1):1-14. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first 2-DE study using sequential dyes to analyse phospho-, glyco- and total tear protein profiles (Pro-Q Diamond for phosphoprotein, Pro-Q Emerald for glycoprotein and Sypro Ruby for total protein). This method minimised the gel-gel variations, allowing better comparisons among the three profiles and generated a whole map of PTM profiles of tear protein. A novel tear protein, dermcidin, was identified for the first time in this study. The identification of this antimicrobial protein suggests a new model of defence in tears. In addition, we are able to present the first experimental evidence of the presence of glycosylated lipocalin 1 and cystatin S. Nucleobindin 2 was only detected using phospho staining, suggesting it is only phosphorylated in tears. This study provides the groundwork for understanding the PTM of tear proteins and consequently these methods could be useful in the search for biomarkers in tears.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzymes (EC18.104.22.168) regulate the release of biologically active fatty acids and lysophospholipids from membrane phospholipid pools. These lipids are also substrates for intracellular biochemical pathways that generate potent autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators such as the eicosanoids and platelet activating factor. These factors, in turn, regulate cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, motility, tissue vascularisation, and immune surveillance in virtually all tissues, functions that are subverted by cancer cells for tumour growth and metastasis. Thus the relevance of PLA(2)-dependent pathways to the genesis and progression of cancer has been of interest since their discovery and with recent technological advances, their role in tumourigenesis has become more tractable experimentally. Limited human genetic studies have not yet identified PLA(2) enzymes as classical mutated oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. However, there is strong evidence that of the 22 identified human PLA(2) enzymes, ten of which have been studied in cancer to date, most are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of tumours derived from diverse organs. Correlative and functional studies implicate the expression of some secreted enzymes (sPLA(2)s), particularly the best studied enzyme Group IIA sPLA(2) in either tumour promotion or inhibition, depending on the organ involved and the biochemical microenvironment of tumours. As in immune-mediated inflammatory pathologies, genetic deletion studies in mice, supported by limited studies with human cells and tissues, have identified an important role for Group IVA PLA(2) in regulating certain cancers. Pharmacological intervention studies in prostate cancer suggest that hGIIA-dependent tumour growth is dependent on indirect regulation of Group IVA PLA(2). Group VI calcium-independent PLA(2) enzymes have also been recently implicated in tumourigenesis with in vitro studies suggesting multiple possible roles for these enzymes. Though apparently complex, further characterization of the regulatory relationships amongst PLA(2) enzymes, lipid mediator biosynthetic enzymes and the lipid mediators they produce during tumour progression is required to define the biochemical context in which the enzymes modulate cancer growth and development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite considerable success in treatment of early stage localized prostate cancer (PC), acute inadequacy of late stage PC treatment and its inherent heterogeneity poses a formidable challenge. Clearly, an improved understanding of PC genesis and progression along with the development of new targeted therapies are warranted. Animal models, especially, transgenic immunocompetent mouse models, have proven to be the best ally in this respect. A series of models have been developed by modulation of expression of genes implicated in cancer-genesis and progression; mainly, modulation of expression of oncogenes, steroid hormone receptors, growth factors and their receptors, cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, and tumor suppressor genes have been used. Such models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular and pathological aspects of PC initiation and progression. In particular, the transgenic mouse models based on multiple genetic alterations can more accurately address the inherent complexity of PC, not only in revealing the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and progression but also for clinically relevant evaluation of new therapies. Further, with advances in conditional knockout technologies, otherwise embryonically lethal gene changes can be incorporated leading to the development of new generation transgenics, thus adding significantly to our existing knowledge base. Different models and their relevance to PC research are discussed.
CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 02/2010; 29(1):123-42. · 9.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to seek an association between markers of metastatic potential, drug resistance-related protein and monocarboxylate transporters in prostate cancer (CaP).
We evaluated the expression of invasive markers (CD147, CD44v3-10), drug-resistance protein (MDR1) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1 and MCT4) in CaP metastatic cell lines and CaP tissue microarrays (n=140) by immunostaining. The co-expression of CD147 and CD44v3-10 with that of MDR1, MCT1 and MCT4 in CaP cell lines was evaluated using confocal microscopy. The relationship between the expression of CD147 and CD44v3-10 and the sensitivity (IC(50)) to docetaxel in CaP cell lines was assessed using MTT assay. The relationship between expression of CD44v3-10, MDR1 and MCT4 and various clinicopathological CaP progression parameters was examined.
CD147 and CD44v3-10 were co-expressed with MDR1, MCT1 and MCT4 in primary and metastatic CaP cells. Both CD147 and CD44v3-10 expression levels were inversely related to docetaxel sensitivity (IC(50)) in metastatic CaP cell lines. Overexpression of CD44v3-10, MDR1 and MCT4 was found in most primary CaP tissues, and was significantly associated with CaP progression.
Our results suggest that the overexpression of CD147, CD44v3-10, MDR1 and MCT4 is associated with CaP progression. Expression of both CD147 and CD44v3-10 is correlated with drug resistance during CaP metastasis and could be a useful potential therapeutic target in advanced disease.
British Journal of Cancer 01/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor