Haipeng Sun

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (10)40.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Recent work from our laboratory found that corticosteroids induce transcriptional activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in cardiomyocytes. Here we report that COX-2 gene promoter mutation studies indicate a role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in corticosterone-induced COX-2 gene expression. Corticosterone causes activation of p38 MAPK and subsequent CREB phosphorylation at serine 133 in cardiomyocytes. The inhibitors of p38 MAPK, SB202190 and SB203580, block corticosterone from inducing CREB phosphorylation and COX-2 gene expression while dominant-negative p38 MAPK or CREB prevents corticosterone from activating COX-2 promoter. Corticosterone does not induce p38 MAPK activation or COX2 expression in cardiac fibroblasts or HEK293 cells transfected with glucocorticoid receptor, suggesting that p38 MAPK activation is cell specific and necessary for corticosterone-induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes. While glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone inhibits COX-2 gene induction by corticosterone, mifepristone fails to inhibit p38 MAPK activation or CREB phosphorylation. In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAPK does not prevent corticosterone from activating glucocorticoid receptor. Our data suggest that two parallel signaling pathways, glucocorticoid receptor and p38 MAPK, act in concert to regulate the expression of COX-2 gene in cardiomyocytes.
    Cellular Signalling 11/2008; 20(11):1952-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychological stress increases the level of glucocorticoids in the circulating system. We found that dexamethasone administration in adult mice elevates the expression of COX-2 in the myocardium. With isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes, corticosterone (CT) at physiologically relevant doses (0.01-1 microM) induces the expression of COX-2 gene. The induction first appeared at 4 h and remained for at least 24 h with 1 microM CT treatment. This response is likely cardiomyocyte cell type specific since CT did not induce COX-2 expression in cardiac fibroblasts and glucocorticoids are known to suppress the expression of COX-2 in lymphocytes and several organs. Corticosteroids, but not estrogen or progesterone, induce COX-2 expression. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone (MF) prevented CT from inducing COX-2 gene, suggesting a GR-dependent induction in cardiomyocytes. COX-2 gene promoter deletion and mutation studies indicate a role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBP-beta) in CT-induced COX-2 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that CT caused the binding of both GR and C/EBP-beta to COX-2 promoter, while MF pretreatment blocked such binding. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that CT treatment induced the interaction of GR with C/EBP-beta. Small interfering RNA against C/EBP-beta prevented CT from activating COX-2 promoter or elevating COX-2 protein. Our data suggest that the interaction between GR and C/EBP-beta contributes to elevated COX-2 gene transcription by CT in cardiomyocytes.
    AJP Cell Physiology 10/2008; 295(4):C915-22. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT)-induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K/AKT signaling pathway whereas LY29 and WM decreased the activity of PI3K. LY303511 (LY30), a structural analogue and a negative control for PI3K inhibitory activity of LY29, also suppressed COX-2 induction. These data suggest PI3K-independent mechanisms in regulating CT-induced COX-2 expression. LY29 and LY30 do not inhibit glucocorticoid receptor transactivity. Both compounds have been reported to inhibit Casein Kinase 2 activity and modulate potassium and calcium levels independent of PI3K, while LY29 has been reported to inhibit mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), and DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK). Inhibitor of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), mTOR or DNA-PK failed to prevent CT from inducing COX-2 expression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker, and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, both attenuated CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. CT was found to increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which can be inhibited by LY29, TEA or nimodipine. These data suggest a possible role of calcium instead of PI3K in CT-induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2008; 232(1):25-32. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    Haipeng Sun, Elena Sheveleva, Qin M Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX) encodes a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids. Although COX-1 is constitutively expressed in many tissues, we found that glucocorticoids cause elevated expression of COX-1 gene in cardiomyocytes. Corticosterone (CT) at physiologically relevant doses (0.05-1 microm) induces transcriptional activation of COX-1 gene as shown by nuclear run-on and promoter reporter assays. An antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mifepristone, prevented CT from inducing COX-1. COX-1 gene promoter deletion and mutation studies indicate a role of Sp transcription factors in CT-induced COX-1 gene. EMSAs or chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that GR and Sp3 transcription factor bind to the promoter of COX-1 gene. Coimmunoprecipitation assays found an association of GR with Sp3. Silencing Sp3 protein with small interfering RNA suppressed CT-induced COX-1 promoter activation. Our data suggest that activated GR interacts with Sp3 transcription factor in binding to COX-1 promoter to enhance COX-1 gene expression in cardiomyocytes.
    Molecular Endocrinology 08/2008; 22(9):2076-84. · 4.75 Impact Factor
  • Haipeng Sun, Qin M Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Our recent study has demonstrated that glucocorticoids (GCs) induce cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) gene expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating the mechanism underlying corticosterone (CT) induced COX-1, we found that three structurally and mechanistically distinct GSK-3 inhibitors, LiCl, SB216763, and (2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), inhibited COX-1 transcription and protein induction. A genetic approach of expressing wild type GSK-3beta increased COX-1 promoter activity, which was abolished by LiCl. LiCl increased inhibitory GSK-3alpha/beta phosphorylation at Ser21/Ser9, while BIO or SB216763 prevented stimulatory phosphorylation at Tyr279/Tyr216 of GSK-3alpha/beta. GSK inhibitors failed to block nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or activation of glucocorticoid response element (GRE) by CT treatment. While Sp3 transcription factor mediates CT induced COX-1 expression, GSK inhibitors did not change the level of Sp3 protein or binding of Sp3 transcription factor to COX-1 promoter. The observed effect of GSK-3 inhibitors appears to be unique to COX-1 since LiCl or BIO does not prevent CT from inducing COX-2 gene. We conclude that GSK-3 inhibitors block CT from inducing COX-1 gene expression via a mechanism beyond GR and Sp3 transcription factor.
    Cardiovascular Toxicology 02/2008; 8(2):93-100. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FP prostanoid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors whose physiological activator is prostaglandin-F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). PGF(2alpha) has been implicated in wound healing and cardiac hypertrophy, which are both known to involve the induction of the immediate-early response gene, early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1). We hypothesized that activation of the human FP receptor by PGF(2alpha) could induce the expression of EGR-1 and found that 1 muM PGF(2alpha) produced a time-dependent induction of both mRNA and protein expression for EGR-1. This FP receptor-mediated induction of EGR-1 expression involved activation of the small GTPase Ras followed by activation of C-Raf and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1/2). Thus, induction of EGR-1 expression by PGF(2alpha) was blocked using dominant-negative constructs of Ras and C-Raf and the Raf kinase inhibitor 4-(4-(3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)ureido)phenoxy)-pyridine-2-carboxyllic acid methyamide-4-methylbenzenesulfonate (BAY43-9006). Likewise, the MEK1/2 inhibitor 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD98059) blocked the induction of EGR-1 expression by PGF(2alpha). FP receptor stimulation by PGF(2alpha) induced the phosphorylation of C-Raf, MEK1/2, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, consistent with the activation of a MAP kinase signaling cascade. PGF(2alpha) was also found to induce the expression of EGR-1 in rat cardiomyocytes through the activation of endogenous FP receptors. This induction of EGR-1 expression in cardiomyocytes also involved the activation of Raf and MAP kinase signaling and was dependent on the activation of protein kinase C. This is the first report to show the regulation of EGR-1 expression after PGF(2alpha) activation of FP receptors and suggests that this could be an early event involved in wound healing and cardiac hypertrophy.
    Molecular pharmacology 02/2008; 73(1):111-8. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nf-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that binds and activates the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoters of many antioxidant and detoxification genes. We found that H(2)O(2) treatment caused a rapid increase in endogenous Nrf2 protein level in rat cardiomyocytes. Semiquantitative or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction failed to show an increase of Nrf2 mRNA level by H(2)O(2) treatment. Measurements of Nrf2 protein stability excluded the possibility of Nrf2 protein stabilization. Although inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide prevented H(2)O(2) from elevating Nrf2 protein level, RNA synthesis inhibition with actinomycin D failed to do so. Measurements of new protein synthesis with [(35)S]methionine incorporation confirmed that H(2)O(2) increased the translation of Nrf2 protein. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase were able to abolish the induction of Nrf2 protein by H(2)O(2). Although H(2)O(2) increased phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, rapamycin failed to inhibit H(2)O(2) from elevating Nrf2 protein. H(2)O(2) also induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E and eIF2alpha within 30 and 10 min, respectively. Inhibiting eIF4E with small interfering siRNA or increasing eIF2alpha phosphorylation with salubrinal did not affect Nrf2 elevation by H(2)O(2). Our data present a novel phenomenon of quick onset of the antioxidant/detoxification response via increased translation of Nrf2 by oxidants. The mechanism underlying such stress-induced de novo protein translation may involve multiple components of translational machinery.
    Molecular Pharmacology 11/2007; 72(4):1074-81. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with multiple pathophysiological cardiovascular conditions. Recent studies have substantiated the finding that oxidants may contribute to the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we found that antioxidant enzyme catalase and antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, and lipoic acid prevent ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter-luciferase. H(2)O(2) induces a time- and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. A dominant negative form of NFAT3 transcription factor inhibited H(2)O(2) from activating NFAT3 promoter. An inhibitor of ERKs, but not phosphoinositide 3-kinase or p38 MAPKs, blocked NFAT3 activation by H(2)O(2). The NFAT3 binding site in the promoters of most genes contains a weak activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site adjacent to the core consensus NFAT binding sequence. ERK inhibitor PD98059 was found previously to inhibit AP-1 activation by H(2)O(2). Inactivation of AP-1 transcription factor by cotransfection of a dominant negative c-Jun, TAM67, prevented H(2)O(2) or ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter. NFAT3 promoter containing the core NFAT cis-element without AP-1 binding site failed to show activation by H(2)O(2) treatment. Our data suggest that hypertrophy inducers ANG II and H(2)O(2) may activate NFAT3 in cardiomyocyte through an AP-1 transcription factor-dependent mechanism.
    AJP Cell Physiology 05/2007; 292(4):C1248-55. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychological or physical stress induces an elevation of corticosteroids in the circulating system. We report here that corticosterone (CT) protects cardiomyocytes from apoptotic cell death induced by doxorubicin (Dox), an antineoplastic drug known to induce cardiomyopathy possibly through reactive oxygen species production. The cytoprotection induced by CT is within the range of physiologically relevant doses. The lowest dose tested, 0.1 microM (or 3.5 microg/dl), inhibited apoptosis by approximately 25% as determined by caspase activity. With 1 microM CT, cardiomyocytes gain a cytoprotective effect after 8 h of incubation and remain protected for at least 72 h. Hydrocortisone, cortisone, dexamethasone, and aldosterone but not androstenedione or cholesterol also induced cytoprotection. Analyses of 20,000 gene expression sequences using Affymetrix high-density oligonucleotide array found that CT caused up-regulation of 140 genes and down-regulation of 108 genes over 1.5-fold. Among the up-regulated genes are bcl-xL, metallothioneins, glutathione peroxidase-3, and glutathione S-transferases. Western blot analyses revealed that CT induced an elevation of bcl-xL but not bcl-2 or proapoptotic factors bax, bak, and bad. Inhibiting the expression of bcl-xL reduced the cytoprotective effect of CT. Our data suggest that CT induces a cytoprotective effect on cardiomyocytes in association with reprogramming gene expression and induction of bcl-xL gene.
    Molecular Pharmacology 07/2005; 67(6):1861-73. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidants cause activation of the AP-1 transcription factor in cardiomyocytes. c-Fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, is transiently induced by H2O2 and the induction is sensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. With high percentage gel electrophoresis, multiple c-Fos bands were resolved by Western blot analyses, indicating post-translational modification of newly synthesized c-Fos protein after H2O2 exposure. Treatment of immunoprecipitated c-Fos protein with the type 2 serine/threonine phosphatase A (PP2A) and immunoblotting of c-Fos protein with antibodies against phosphorylated serine or threonine demonstrated that c-Fos was phosphorylated at serine residues. A pharmacological inhibitor of JNKs inhibited the formation of multiple c-Fos bands without affecting c-fos transcription. The proteasomal inhibitor MG132 and Proteasome Inhibitor I extended the time course of c-Fos protein elevation. An increase in ubiquitin was detectable in c-Fos protein from H2O2-treated cells. Interestingly, treating the whole cell lysates with PP2A, but not calcineurin (i.e. PP2B), resulted in disappearance of c-Fos protein and MG132 was able to prevent this loss. H2O2 caused an elevation of PP2B and total phosphatase activity. The phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, but not PP2B inhibiter cypermethrin, extended the time course of c-Fos protein elevation after H2O2 exposure. These data suggest that JNK-mediated phosphorylation of newly synthesized c-Fos protects the protein from being degraded by the proteasome. PP2B independent dephosphorylation contributes to degradation of c-Fos protein during oxidative stress response of cardiomyocytes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2004; 279(32):33567-74. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

195 Citations
40.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • The University of Arizona
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Pharmacology
      • • College of Medicine
      Tucson, AZ, United States