[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increased leukocyte count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, but the association between leukocyte subtype counts and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes has not been determined. We therefore investigated the correlation between leukocyte subtype counts and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
This cross-sectional study involved 484 in-patients with type 2 diabetes (282 males and 202 females), who were hospitalized for glycemic control and underwent carotid ultrasonography at Kumamoto University Hospital between 2005 and 2011. Mean and maximum CCA-IMT was measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography.
Univariate analyses revealed that mean CCA-IMT was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV), urinary albumin excretion and duration of diabetes, but was negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose. Maximum CCA-IMT was positively and negatively correlated with the same factors as mean CCA-IMT except for fasting plasma glucose. Mean CCA-IMT was positively correlated with total leukocyte (r = 0.124, p = 0.007), monocyte (r = 0.373, p < 0.001), neutrophil (r = 0.139, p = 0.002) and eosinophil (r = 0.107, p = 0.019) counts. Maximum CCA-IMT was positively correlated with total leukocyte (r = 0.154, p < 0.001), monocyte (r = 0.398, p < 0.001), neutrophil (r = 0.152, p < 0.001) and basophil counts (r = 0.102, p = 0.027). Multiple regression analyses showed that monocyte count, age and PWV were significant and independent factors associated with mean CCA-IMT (adjusted R2 = 0.239, p < 0.001), and that monocyte count, age and urinary albumin excretion were significant and independent factors associated with maximum CCA-IMT (adjusted R2 = 0.277, p < 0.001).
Monocyte counts were positively correlated with both mean CCA-IMT and maximum CCA-IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes. Monocyte count may be a useful predictor of macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes.Trial registration: Trial registry no: UMIN000003526.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role inatherogenesis.Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known asa NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on the progression of atherosclerosis are not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of apocynin using apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) micein vivo and in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.In atherosclerosis-prone apoE(-/-) mice,apocyninsuppressed the progression of atherosclerosis, decreased 4-hydroxynonenal-positive area in atherosclerotic lesions,and mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intereukin-6 (IL-6) in aorta.In mouse peritoneal macrophages, apocynin suppressed the Ox-LDL-induced ROS generation, mRNA expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor,and cell proliferation.Moreover, immunohistochemicalstudies revealed that apocynin decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE(-/-) mice. These results suggested that apocyninsuppressedthe formation of atherosclerotic lesions, at least in part, by inactivation of macrophages.Therefore, apocyninmay be a potential therapeutic material to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
The accuracy of HbA1c values measured by use of a new portable device (A1CNow+) was evaluated by comparison with values measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Materials and methods
Venous blood samples were obtained from 144 subjects (111 diabetic and 33 non-diabetic subjects). HbA1c was measured by use of both the new device and HPLC for the same blood samples. The linearity of the results and the correlation between the two methods were evaluated.
HbA1c measured by HPLC (HbA1c-HPLC) ranged between 4.4 and 12.3 % whereas values measured by the new device (HbA1c-new device) ranged between 4.5 and 12.7 %. There was a strong positive correlation between HbA1c-HPLC (Y) and HbA1c-new device (X) (Y = 0.951X + 0.197, r = 0.989; p < 0.001; 95 % confidence interval of the slope 0.928–0.975; 95 % confidence interval of the intercept 0.015–0.379).
HbA1c results obtained by use of the new device correlated strongly with those measured by HPLC, indicating the new device could be useful for clinical use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrovascular complications are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a central role in the process of adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitization, and also possesses anti-atherogenic effects. Recently, some statins, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers have been reported to activate PPARγ. However, the impact of PPARγ activation on diabetic macrovascular complications is not fully understood. It has been reported that the activation of PPARγ by thiazolidinediones induces anti-atherogenic effects in vascular cells, including monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, in atherosclerotic animal models and in clinical studies. We have reported that hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), which are used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, activate PPARγ and mediate anti-atherogenic effects through PPARγ activation in macrophages. Also, telmisartan, an angiotensin type I receptor blocker, has been reported to have anti-atherogenic effects through PPARγ activation. Furthermore, we have reported that nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, can activate PPARγ, thereby mediating anti-atherogenic effects in macrophages. Therefore, statin therapy and part of anti-hypertensive therapy might produce beneficial effects through PPARγ activation in hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertensive patients with diabetes, and PPARγ might be a therapeutic target for diabetic macrovascular complications. In the present review, we focus on the anti-atherogenic effects of PPARγ and suggest potential therapeutic approaches to prevent diabetic macrovascular complications. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00182.x, 2012).
Journal of diabetes investigation. 02/2012; 3(1):11-23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telmisartan, an angiotensin type I receptor blocker (ARB), protects against the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of the antiatherosclerotic effects of telmisartan in macrophages and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
In macrophages, telmisartan increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activity and PPAR ligand-binding activity. In contrast, 3 other ARBs, losartan, valsartan, and olmesartan, did not affect PPARγ activity. Interestingly, high doses of telmisartan activated PPARα in macrophages. Telmisartan induced the mRNA expression of CD36 and ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), and these effects were abrogated by PPARγ small interfering RNA. Telmisartan, but not other ARBs, inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α, and these effects were abrogated by PPARγ small interfering RNA. Moreover, telmisartan suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced macrophage proliferation through PPARγ activation. In apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice, telmisartan increased the mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, decreased the number of proliferative macrophages in the lesion, and suppressed MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression in the aorta.
Telmisartan induced ABCA1/ABCG1 expression and suppressed MCP-1 expression and macrophage proliferation by activating PPARγ. These effects may induce antiatherogenic effects in hypertensive patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Although caloric restriction (CR) improves obesity-related disorders, the effects of CR on ER stress in obesity remain unknown. To investigate how CR affects ER stress in obesity, ob/ob mice were assigned to either ad libitum (AL) (ob-AL) or CR (ob-CR) feeding (2 g food/day) for 1-4 weeks. The body weight (BW) of ob-CR mice decreased to the level of lean AL-fed littermates (lean-AL) within 2 weeks. BW of lean-AL and ob-CR mice was less than that of ob-AL mice. The ob-CR mice showed improved glucose tolerance and hepatic insulin action compared with ob-AL mice. Levels of ER stress markers such as phosphorylated PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and the mRNA expression of activating transcription factor 4 were significantly higher in the liver and epididymal fat from ob-AL mice compared with lean-AL mice. CR for 2 and 4 weeks significantly reduced all of these markers to less than 35% and 50%, respectively, of the levels in ob-AL mice. CR also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in ob/ob mice. The CR-mediated decrease in PERK phosphorylation was similar to that induced by 4-phenyl butyric acid, which reduces ER stress in vivo. In conclusion, CR reduced ER stress and improved hepatic insulin action by suppressing JNK-mediated IRS-1 serine-phosphorylation in ob/ob mice.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2011; 404(1):339-44. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) can activate both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and PPARgamma. However, the detailed mechanisms of Ox-LDL-induced PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ox-LDL on PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation in macrophages. Ox-LDL, but not LDL, induced PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation in a dose-dependent manner. Ox-LDL transiently induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein expression, and COX-2 specific inhibition by NS-398 or meloxicam or small interference RNA of COX-2 suppressed Ox-LDL-induced PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation. Ox-LDL induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 specific inhibition abrogated Ox-LDL-induced COX-2 expression and PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation, whereas p38 MAPK-specific inhibition had no effect. Ox-LDL decreased the amounts of intracellular long chain fatty acids, such as arachidonic, linoleic, oleic, and docosahexaenoic acids. On the other hand, Ox-LDL increased intracellular 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) level through ERK1/2-dependent overexpression of COX-2. Moreover, 15d-PGJ(2) induced both PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation. Furthermore, COX-2 and 15d-PGJ(2) expression and PPAR activity were increased in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE-deficient mice. Finally, we investigated the involvement of PPARalpha and PPARgamma on Ox-LDL-induced mRNA expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Interestingly, specific inhibition of PPARalpha and PPARgamma suppressed Ox-LDL-induced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 mRNA expression and enhanced Ox-LDL-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, Ox-LDL-induced increase in 15d-PGJ(2) level through ERK1/2-dependent COX-2 expression is one of the mechanisms of PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation in macrophages. These effects of Ox-LDL may control excess atherosclerotic progression.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2008; 283(15):9852-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) can activate both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α
(PPARα) and PPARγ. However, the detailed mechanisms of Ox-LDL-induced PPARα and PPARγ activation are not fully understood.
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ox-LDL on PPARα and PPARγ activation in macrophages. Ox-LDL, but not LDL,
induced PPARα and PPARγ activation in a dose-dependent manner. Ox-LDL transiently induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and
protein expression, and COX-2 specific inhibition by NS-398 or meloxicam or small interference RNA of COX-2 suppressed Ox-LDL-induced
PPARα and PPARγ activation. Ox-LDL induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 specific inhibition abrogated
Ox-LDL-induced COX-2 expression and PPARα and PPARγ activation, whereas p38 MAPK-specific inhibition had no effect. Ox-LDL
decreased the amounts of intracellular long chain fatty acids, such as arachidonic, linoleic, oleic, and docosahexaenoic acids.
On the other hand, Ox-LDL increased intracellular 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) level through ERK1/2-dependent overexpression of COX-2. Moreover, 15d-PGJ2 induced both PPARα and PPARγ activation. Furthermore, COX-2 and 15d-PGJ2 expression and PPAR activity were increased in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE-deficient mice. Finally, we investigated the
involvement of PPARα and PPARγ on Ox-LDL-induced mRNA expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and monocyte chemoattractant
protein-1. Interestingly, specific inhibition of PPARα and PPARγ suppressed Ox-LDL-induced ATP-binding cassette transporter
A1 mRNA expression and enhanced Ox-LDL-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, Ox-LDL-induced
increase in 15d-PGJ2 level through ERK1/2-dependent COX-2 expression is one of the mechanisms of PPARα and PPARγ activation in macrophages. These
effects of Ox-LDL may control excess atherosclerotic progression.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2008; 283(15):9852-9862. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major substrate of both the insulin receptor and the IGF-1 receptor. In this study, we created IRS-1 transgenic (IRS-1-Tg) mice which express human IRS-1 cDNA under control of the mouse IRS-1 gene promoter. In the IRS-1-Tg mice, IRS-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in almost all tissues, but its protein expression was increased in very limited tissues (epididymal fat and skeletal muscle). IRS-1-Tg mice showed glucose intolerance and significantly enlarged epididymal fat mass, as well as elevated serum TNF-alpha concentrations. Importantly insulin signaling was significantly attenuated in the liver of IRS-1-Tg mice, which may contribute to the glucose intolerance. Our results suggest that excess IRS-1 expression may not provide a beneficial impact on glucose homeostasis in vivo.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2008; 364(2):301-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both statins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma ligands have been reported to protect against the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of statins on PPARgamma activation in macrophages. Statins increased PPARgamma activity, which was inhibited by mevalonate, farnesylpyrophosphate, or geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. Furthermore, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor mimicked the effects of statins. Statins inhibited the membrane translocations of Ras, RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42, and overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of RhoA (DN-RhoA) and Cdc42 (DN-Cdc42), but not of Ras or Rac, increased PPARgamma activity. Statins induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, DN-RhoA and DN-Cdc42 activated p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2. ERK1/2- or p38 MAPK-specific inhibitors abrogated statin-induced PPARgamma activation. Statins induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and increased intracellular 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) levels through ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways, and inhibitors or small interfering RNA of COX-2 inhibited statin-induced PPARgamma activation. Statins also activate PPARalpha via COX-2-dependent increases in 15d-PGJ(2) levels. We further demonstrated that statins inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expression, and these effects by statins were abrogated by the PPARgamma antagonist T0070907 or by small interfering RNA of PPARgamma or PPARalpha. Statins also induced ATP-binding cassette protein A1 or CD36 mRNA expression, and these effects were suppressed by small interfering RNAs of PPARgamma or PPARalpha. In conclusion, statins induce COX-2-dependent increase in 15d-PGJ(2) level through a RhoA- and Cdc42-dependent p38 MAPK pathway and a RhoA- and Cdc42-independent ERK1/2 pathway, thereby activating PPARgamma. Statins also activate PPARalpha via COX-2-dependent pathway. These effects of statins may explain their antiatherogenic actions.
Circulation Research 06/2007; 100(10):1442-51. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin autoimmune syndrome is characterized as producing polyclonal or monoclonal anti-insulin autoantibodies in a patient with no previous history of exposure to exogenous insulin. The patient is 44-year-old Japanese woman and she had symptoms of hypoglycaemia without exposure to exogenous insulin. The patient was considered to have IAS because high titre of anti-insulin autoantibodies (96-98%: bound/total) were found in her serum. Her HLA DR beta1 DNA sequences analysis revealed that she has the DRB1(*)0406 and DRB1(*)0901. Our patient have been taken alpha lipoic acid (ALA) before onset. SH group compounds are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IAS, and ALA contains SH. From these data, we propose the possibility of the correlation between pathogenesis of IAS and ALA, and it will be important to pay attention for ALA as a cause of hypoglycemia in such cases.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 04/2007; 75(3):366-7. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 75-year-old man with type 1 diabetes and history of insulin therapy for previous 3 years using only human recombinant ones was suffering from unstable glycemic control. He had a high level of total insulin and a high titer of insulin antibodies (IA) (bound/total ratio: 89.8%). Low affinity constant (k(1): 0.0312 x 10(8) M(-1)) and high binding capacity (b(1): 51.8 x 10(-8) M) of IA in the patient detected by the Scatchard analysis were not compatible with those of IA associated with exogenous insulin injections in the diabetic patients, but compatible with those of the insulin autoantibodies found in patients with insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), although he had DRB1*0405, which may have protection against IAS development. The glucose infusion rate during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was 2.84 mg/kg/min, suggesting a high level of insulin resistance. Steroid pulse therapy (1000 mg for 3 days) aimed at reducing the possible effect of the IA on his insulin resistance and glycemic instability successfully decreased IA titer (from 89.8 to 58.3%), lowered its binding capacity (51.8-9.8 x 10(-8) M), increased glucose infusion rate (from 2.84 to 5.55 mg/kg/min) and improved glycemic control (HbA(1c): from 10.0 to 7.4%) with reduced blood glucose excursion. In conclusion, the alteration in insulin pharmacokinetics induced by IA seemed to be the cause of the brittle diabetes of the present case. Steroid treatment might be useful for the improvement of glycamic control in such patients with high IA levels and unstable blood glucose.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 07/2006; 72(3):238-43. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major causes of fasting hypoglycemia in adults are insulinoma, factitious hypoglycemia and nesidioblastosis. The primary treatment for insulinoma is surgical removal of the tumor, but there are cases with hyperinsulinemia that cannot undergo surgery. Somatostatin analogue is one of the treatments used in such cases of insulinoma or persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. We report here a patient who had undetermined hyperinsulinemia and was successfully treated with a long-acting somatostatin analogue, which had recently become available. The patient, a 72-year-old female, who had previously been diagnosed as insulinoma and undergone partial pancreatectomy, was admitted complaining of the recurrence of hypoglycemic attacks after an interval of ten years. On admission, hypoglycemia (42 mg/dl), hyperinsulinemia (IRI: 79.3 microU/m) and low HbA1c (3.6%) were present. In 75 g-OGTT at 30 min after load, IRI reached 6623 microU/ml, while plasma glucose level was 88 mg/dl. The anti-insulin antibody was not present. Since attempts at tumor localization by imaging techniques failed and the patient refused further examinations or surgical treatment, we recommended her to take a medication with a somatostatin analogue. Insulin suppression test using 50 microg of octreotide improved plasma glucose and IRI levels, suggesting the usefulness of the treatment, and a monthly administration of 20 mg of long-acting octreotide has successfully controlled her symptoms of hypoglycemia for 10 months. Our case demonstrated the utility of the long-acting somatostatin analogue for long-term treatment of undetermined hyperinsulinemia. A preliminary loading test using short-acting octreotide may be useful to determine appropriate medication, especially in cases who cannot receive surgical treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a rare disorder and an unusual cause of Cushing s syndrome, of which familial transmission has rarely been reported. In this study, a mother and her son, the former affected with definite AIMAH and the latter with possible AIMAH, are described. Although the mother manifested overt Cushing s syndrome, her son remained with no stigmata of Cushing s syndrome except for bilateral adrenal tumor and mild hypertension, and a full suppression of plasma cortisol by lowdose dexamethasone was observed in him. Recently, aberrant expression of adrenal receptors for various ligands has been noted in AIMAH patients. In our cases, provocation tests in vivo suggested that AVP and catecholamines promoted cortisol production through V1a and/or V1b receptors and via beta-adrenergic receptor, respectively. Reverse transcriptional-PCR analysis of the operated adrenal tissues of mother revealed the abnormal expression of mRNA of receptors for V1b, V2, and LH/hCG, none of which was observed in a normal control. Inherited AIMAH is very rare, and the son might be at the earliest developmental stage of AIMAH among the cases reported so far. An intervention could be tried to prevent the development of overt Cushing s syndrome by suppression of the possible endogenous ligands or by blockade of the receptors that may be aberrantly expressed in his adrenal glands.