[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MS) and its cardiometabolic components (MSCs) have become increasingly prevalent, yet little is known about the genetics underlying MS risk in children. We examined the prevalence and genetics of MS-related traits among 670 non-diabetic Mexican American (MA) children and adolescents, aged 6-17 years (49 % female), who were participants in the San Antonio Family Assessment of Metabolic Risk Indicators in Youth study. These children are offspring or biological relatives of adult participants from three well-established Mexican American family studies in San Antonio, TX, at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. MS was defined as ≥3 abnormalities among 6 MSC measures: waist circumference, systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting and/or 2-h OGTT glucose. Genetic analyses of MS, number of MSCs (MSC-N), MS factors, and bivariate MS traits were performed. Overweight/obesity (53 %), pre-diabetes (13 %), acanthosis nigricans (33 %), and MS (19 %) were strikingly prevalent, as were MS components, including abdominal adiposity (32 %) and low HDL-cholesterol (32 %). Factor analysis of MS traits yielded three constructs: adipo-insulin-lipid, blood pressure, and glucose factors, and their factor scores were highly heritable. MS itself exhibited 68 % heritability. MSC-N showed strong positive genetic correlations with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and acanthosis nigricans, and negative genetic correlation with physical fitness. MS trait pairs exhibited strong genetic and/or environmental correlations. These findings highlight the complex genetic architecture of MS/MSCs in MA children, and underscore the need for early screening and intervention to prevent chronic sequelae in this vulnerable pediatric population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to identify and characterize the genetic variants related to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) linkage on 2q37. Of the positional candidate genes, we selected IRS1 and resequenced its 2-kb promoter region and exons for sequence variants in 32 subjects. A total of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. To comprehensively cover the 59-kb-long intron-1, eight additional tagging SNPs were selected from the HapMap. All the 19 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan Assay in the entire data set (N = 670; 39 families). Association analyses between the SNPs and GFR and type 2 diabetes-related traits were performed using the measured genotype approach. Of the SNPs examined for association, only the Gly(972)Arg variant of IRS1 exhibited a significant association with GFR (P = 0.0006) and serum triglycerides levels (P = 0.003), after accounting for trait-specific covariate effects. Carriers of Arg972 had significantly decreased GFR values. Gly(972)Arg contributed to 26% of the linkage signal on 2q. Expression of IRS1 mutant Arg972 in human mesangial cells significantly reduced the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS1 and Akt kinase. Taken together, the data provide the first evidence that genetic variation in IRS1 may influence variation in GFR probably through impaired insulin receptor signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been rising alarmingly worldwide, including in the United States, but knowledge on specific genetic determinants of MS is very limited. Therefore, we planned to identify the genetic determinants of MS as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII) criteria. We performed linkage screen for MS using data from 692 Mexican Americans, who participated in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS). We found strong evidence for linkage of MS on chromosome 7q (LOD = 3.6, empirical P = 6.0 × 10(-5)), between markers D7S2212 and D7S821. In addition, six chromosomal regions exhibited potential evidence for linkage (LOD ≥1.2) with MS. Furthermore, we examined 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36, 18 SNPs) gene and guanine nucleotide binding protein, α transducing 3 (GNAT3, 11 SNPs) gene, located within the 1-LOD support interval region for their association with MS and its related traits. Several SNPs were associated with MS and its related traits. Remarkably, rs11760281 in GNAT3 and rs1194197 near CD36 exhibited the strongest associations with MS (P = 0.0003, relative risk (RR) = 1.6 and P = 0.004, RR = 1.7, respectively) and several other related traits. These two variants explained ~18% of the MS linkage evidence on chromosome 7q21, and together conferred approximately threefold increase in MS risk (RR = 2.7). In conclusion, our linkage and subsequent association studies implicate a region on chromosome 7q21 to influence MS in Mexican Americans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension or high blood pressure is a strong correlate of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We conducted a genome-wide linkage screen to identify susceptibility genes influencing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Mexican-Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES).
Using data from 1,089 individuals distributed across 266 families, we performed a multipoint linkage analysis to localize susceptibility loci for SBP and DBP by applying two models. In model 1, we added a sensible constant to the observed BP values in treated subjects [Tobin et al.; Stat Med 2005;24:2911-2935] to account for antihypertensive use (i.e. 15 and 10 mm Hg to SBP and DBP values, respectively). In model 2, we fixed values of 140 mm Hg for SBP and 90 mm Hg for DBP, if the treated values were less than the standard referenced treatment thresholds of 140/ 90 mm Hg for hypertensive status. However, if the observed treated BP values were found to be above these standard treatment thresholds, the actual observed treated BP values were retained in order not to reduce them by substitution of the treatment threshold values.
The multipoint linkage analysis revealed strong linkage signals for SBP compared with DBP. The strongest evidence for linkage of SBP (model 1, LOD = 5.0; model 2, LOD = 3.6) was found on chromosome 6q14.1 near the marker D6S1031 (89 cM) in both models. In addition, some evidence for SBP linkage occurred on chromosomes 1q, 4p, and 16p. Most importantly, our major SBP linkage finding on chromosome 6q near marker D6S1031 was independently confirmed in a Caucasian population (LOD = 3.3). In summary, our study found evidence for a major locus on chromosome 6q influencing SBP levels in Mexican-Americans.
Human Heredity 02/2011; 71(1):1-10. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma triglyceride concentration is a component of the insulin resistance syndrome and is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and coronary heart disease. The goal of our study was to perform a genome-wide linkage scan to identify genetic regions that influence variation in plasma triglyceride levels in families that are enriched with individuals with type 2 diabetes.
We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 1,026 individuals distributed across 294 Mexican-American families, who were ascertained for type 2 diabetes, from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Plasma triglyceride values were transformed, and a variance-components technique was used to conduct multipoint linkage analysis.
After adjusting for the significant effects of sex and BMI, heritability for plasma triglycerides was estimated as 46 +/- 7% (P < 0.0001). Multipoint linkage analysis yielded the strongest evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides near marker D12S391 on chromosome 12p (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 2.4). Our linkage signal on chromosome 12p provides independent replication of a similar finding in another Mexican-American sample from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS). Combined multipoint linkage analysis of the VAGES and SAFDS data yielded significant evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides to a genetic location between markers GATA49D12 and D12S391 on 12p (LOD = 3.8, empirical P value = 2.0 x 10(-5)). This region on 12p harbors the gene-encoding adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), where we previously have shown that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations in the SAFDS. In the present study, we provided suggestive evidence in favor of association for rs929434 with triglyceride concentrations in the VAGES.
Collectively, these results provide strong evidence for a major locus on chromosome 12p that influences plasma triglyceride levels in Mexican Americans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase (ENPP1) is a positional candidate gene at chromosome 6q23 where we previously detected strong linkage with fasting-specific plasma insulin and obesity in Mexican Americans from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS). We genotyped 106 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ENPP1 in all 439 subjects from the linkage study, and measured association with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS)-related traits. Of 72 polymorphic SNPs, 24 were associated, using an additive model, with at least one of eight key metabolic traits. Three traits were associated with at least four SNPs. They were high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), leptin, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). HDL-C was associated with seven SNPs, of which the two most significant P values were 0.0068 and 0.0096. All SNPs and SNP combinations were analyzed for functional contribution to the traits using the Bayesian quantitative-trait nucleotide (BQTN) approach. With this SNP-prioritization analysis, HDL-C was the most strongly associated trait in a four-SNP model (P=0.00008). After accounting for multiple testing, we conclude that ENPP1 is not a major contributor to our previous linkage peak with MS-related traits in Mexican Americans. However, these results indicate that ENPP1 is a genetic determinant of these traits in this population, and are consistent with multiple positive association findings in independent studies in diverse human populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) repairs 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine residue (8-oxodG) an oxidatively damaged promutagenic base. Genetic variations in OGG1 gene have been shown to modulate DNA repair capacity and are related risk of tumor development. However, epidemiologic findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study is to determine whether genetic variants in OGG1 play a role in susceptibility to angiomyolipoma, a benign kidney tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients. To identify genetic variations, all seven exons of the OGG1 gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced in 22 TSC patients with angiomyolipoma (cases) and 18 controls. By direct sequencing, we identified four missense mutations in OGG1: Arg(45)Gln, Ala(85)Ser, Arg(229)Gln and Ser(326)Cys. Genotypic association with angiomyolipoma was performed using the measured genotype approach as implemented in the variance component analytical tools. Association analysis showed the presence of significant association (p = 0.01) only between the Ser(326)Cys polymorphism of OGG1 and angiomyolipoma. We also assessed the presence of oxidative DNA damage in kidney section from normal healthy subjects, normal kidney tissue from TSC patients and kidney angiomyolipoma tissue from TSC patients by immunostaining for 8-oxodG. 8-OxodG staining was highly abundant in kidney angiomyolipoma tissue from TSC patients compared to weak staining in uninvolved tissue from the same TSC patients or normal kidney from healthy subjects. Taken together, our findings suggest that Ser(326)Cys variant of OGG1 may confer risk for development of angiomyolipomas by increasing oxidative DNA damage.
Cancer biology & therapy 02/2008; 7(1):23-7. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The significance of gallbladder wall thickness (GBWT) in regard to gallbladder disease (GBD) is not completely understood. Thickening of the gallbladder wall has been observed in patients with acute calculous and acalculous cholecystitis and chronic cholecystitis. However, various pathologic processes, such as gallbladder cancer and nonbiliary disorders such as liver cirrhosis and viral hepatitis, could also cause thickening of the gallbladder wall. To date, there is no report available on the genetic factors influencing GBWT. Therefore we sought to estimate the heritability (h2) of GBWT and to perform a genome-wide search to identify the susceptibility genes for GBWT, using data from the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS), a family study of Mexican Americans. GBWT was measured by ultrasound. After adjusting for the significant effects of age, sex, GBD (i.e., asymptomatic gallstones), metabolic syndrome, and duration of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), GBWT was found to be under significant and appreciable additive genetic influences (h2 +/- SE = 0.38 +/- 0.09, P < 0.0001). The strongest evidence for linkage occurred between markers D11S912 and D11S968 on chromosome 11q24-q25 (LOD = 2.7), where we have already shown suggestive evidence for linkage of GBD (LOD = 2.7) in a subset of our SAFDGS data. Potential evidence for linkage occurred at markers D1S1728 (1p31.1; LOD = 1.4) and D16S748 (16p13.1; LOD = 1.4), respectively. In conclusion, our study provides suggestive evidence for linkage of GBWT on chromosome 11q in Mexican Americans, and future tasks of mapping susceptibility gene(s) for GBD and its related traits, such as GBWT, in this chromosomal region can be fruitful.
Human Biology 02/2008; 80(1):11-28. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individual propensity to chronic, low-grade inflammation--a determinant of atherosclerosis-is in part under the control of genetic factors. To identify genes involved in this modulation, we performed a 10cM genome screen for linkage with plasma C-reactive protein in 38 extended families including 317 non-diabetic and 177 type 2 diabetic family members (2547 relative pairs).
In a variance component analysis, heritability of CRP values was significant (h(2)=0.39, p<0.0001). This effect was independent of BMI and was present in both diabetic (h(2)=0.42, p=0.003) and non-diabetic (h(2)=0.34, p=0.0015) relatives. The strongest evidence of linkage with CRP was on chromosome 5p15, where the LOD score reached genome-wide significance (LOD=3.41, genome-wide p=0.013). Both diabetic and non-diabetic family members contributed to linkage at this location. Smaller linkage peaks were detected on chromosomes 5q35 (LOD=1.35) and 17p11 (LOD=1.33). When the analysis was restricted to diabetic family members, another peak of moderate intensity (LOD=2.17) was evident at 3p21.
A major gene influencing CRP levels appears to be located on chromosome 5p15, with an effect that is independent of diabetes. Another gene on 3p21 may control CRP variation but only in the presence of a diabetic or insulin-resistant environment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used to assess the progression of renal disease. We performed linkage analysis to localize genes that influence GFR using estimated GFR data from the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study. We also examined the effect of genotype by diabetes interaction (G x DM) on the detection of linkage to address whether genetic effects on GFR differ in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects.
GFR (N = 453) was estimated using the recently recalculated Cockcroft-Gault (GFR-CGc) and the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (GFR-4VMDRD) formulae. Both estimates of GFR exhibited significant heritabilities, but only GFR-CGc showed significant G x DM interaction. We therefore performed multipoint linkage analyses on both GFR measures using models that did not include G x DM interaction effects (Model 1) and that included G x DM interaction effects (Model 2, in the case of GFR-CGc).
The strongest evidence for linkage (Model 1) of both GFR-CGc (logarithm of odds [LOD] 2.9) and GFR-4VMDRD (LOD 2.6) occurred between markers D9S922 and D9S1120 on chromosome 9q. However, using Model 2, the strongest evidence for linkage of GFR-CGc on chromosome 2q was found near marker D2S427 (corrected LOD score [LOD(C)] 3.3) compared with the LOD score of 2.7 based on Model 1. Potential linkages (LOD or LOD(C) >or=1.2) were found only for GFR-CGc on chromosomes 3p, 3q, 4p, 8q, 11q, and 14q.
We found a major locus on chromosome 2q that differentially influences GFR in diabetic and nondiabetic environments in the Mexican-American population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the genetic association of neuropeptide Y receptor Y5 (NPY5R) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with measures of the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome. We genotyped 10 NPY5R SNPs in 439 Mexican American individuals (age=43.3+/-17.3 years and BMI=30.0+/-6.7 kg/m2) distributed across 27 pedigrees from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study and performed association analyses using the measured genotype approach as implemented in Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). Minor alleles for five (rs11100493, rs12501691, P1, rs11100494, rs12512687) of the NPY5R SNPs were found to be significantly (p<0.05) associated with fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations and decreased high-density lipoprotein concentrations. In addition, the minor allele for SNP P2 was significantly associated (p=0.031) with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-%beta). Linkage disequilibrium between SNP pairs indicated one haplotype block of five SNPs (rs11100493, rs12501691, P1, rs11100494, rs12512687) that were highly correlated (r2>0.98). These preliminary results provide evidence for association of SNPs in the NPY5R gene with dyslipidemia (elevated triglyceride concentrations and reduced high-density lipoprotein levels) in our Mexican American population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a variance components linkage analysis of renal function, measured as glomerular filtration rate (GFR), in 63 extended families with multiple members with type 2 diabetes. GFR was estimated from serum concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine in 406 diabetic and 428 nondiabetic relatives. Results for cystatin C were summarized because they are superior to creatinine results. GFR aggregates in families with significant heritability (h(2)) in diabetic (h(2) = 0.45, P < 1 x 10(-5)) and nondiabetic (h(2) = 0.36, P < 1 x 10(-3)) relatives. Genetic correlation (r(G) = 0.35) between the GFR of diabetic and nondiabetic relatives was less than one (P = 0.01), suggesting that genes controlling GFR variation in these groups are different. Linkage results supported this interpretation. In diabetic relatives, linkage was strong on chromosome 2q (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 4.1) and suggestive on 10q (LOD = 3.1) and 18p (LOD = 2.2). In nondiabetic relatives, linkage was suggestive on 3q (LOD = 2.2) and 11p (LOD = 2.1). When diabetic and nondiabetic relatives were combined, strong evidence for linkage was found only on 7p (LOD = 4.0). In conclusion, partially distinct sets of genes control GFR variation in relatives with and without diabetes on chromosome 2q, possibly on 10q and 18p in the former, and on 7p in both. None of these genes overlaps with genes controlling variation in urinary albumin excretion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low birth weight is an important cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Birth weight has been shown to be inversely correlated with adult complex diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the genetic factors influencing variation in birth weight and its association with diseases that occur in later life. We, therefore, have performed a genome-wide search to identify genes that influence birth weight in Mexican-Americans using the data from the San Antonio Family Birth Weight Study participants (n=840). Heritability of birth weight was estimated as 72.0+/-8.4% (P<0.0001) after adjusting for the effects of sex and term. Multipoint linkage analysis yielded the strongest evidence for linkage of birth weight (LOD=3.7) between the markers D6S1053 and D6S1031 on chromosome 6q. This finding has been replicated (LOD=2.3) in an independent European-American population. Together, these findings provide substantial evidence (LOD(adj)=4.3) for a major locus influencing variation in birth weight. This region harbors positional candidate genes such as chorionic gonadotropin, alpha chain; collagen, type XIX, alpha-1; and protein-tyrosine phosphatase, type 4A, 1 that may play a role in fetal growth and development. In addition, potential evidence for linkage (LOD>or=1.2) was found on chromosomes 1q, 2q, 3q, 4q, 9p, 19p and 19q with LODs ranging from 1.3 to 2.7. Thus, we have found strong evidence for a major gene on chromosome 6q that influences variation in birth weight in both Mexican- and European-Americans.
Human Molecular Genetics 05/2006; 15(10):1569-79. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gallbladder disease (GBD) is one of the major digestive diseases. Its risk factors include age, sex, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of GBD is high in minority populations, such as Native and Mexican Americans. Ethnic differences, familial aggregation of GBD, and the identification of susceptibility loci for gallstone disease by use of animal models suggest genetic influences on GBD. However, the major susceptibility loci for GBD in human populations have not been identified. Using ultrasound-based information on GBD occurrence and a 10-cM gene map, we performed multipoint variance-components analysis to localize susceptibility loci for GBD. Phenotypic and genotypic data from 715 individuals in 39 low-income Mexican American families participating in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study were used. Two GBD phenotypes were defined for the analyses: (1) clinical or symptomatic GBD, the cases of cholecystectomies due to stones confirmed by ultrasound, and (2) total GBD, the clinical GBD cases plus the stone carriers newly diagnosed by ultrasound. With use of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, five MS risk factors were defined: increased waist circumference, hypertriglyceredemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and high fasting glucose. The MS risk-factor score (range 0-5) for a given individual was used as a single, composite covariate in the genetic analyses. After accounting for the effects of age, sex, and MS risk-factor score, we found stronger linkage signals for the symptomatic GBD phenotype. The highest LOD scores (3.7 and 3.5) occurred on chromosome 1p between markers D1S1597 and D1S407 (1p36.21) and near marker D1S255 (1p34.3), respectively. Other genetic locations (chromosomes 2p, 3q, 4p, 8p, 9p, 10p, and 16q) across the genome exhibited some evidence of linkage (LOD >or=1.2) to symptomatic GBD. Some of these chromosomal regions corresponded with the genetic locations of Lith loci, which influence gallstone formation in mouse models. In conclusion, we found significant evidence of major genetic determinants of symptomatic GBD on chromosome 1p in Mexican Americans.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2006; 78(3):377-92. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are strong cardiovascular risk factors, and that these traits are inversely correlated. Despite the belief that these traits are correlated in part due to pleiotropy, knowledge on specific genes commonly affecting obesity and dyslipidemia is very limited. To address this issue, we first conducted univariate multipoint linkage analysis for body mass index (BMI) and HDL-C to identify loci influencing variation in these phenotypes using Framingham Heart Study data relating to 1702 subjects distributed across 330 pedigrees. Subsequently, we performed bivariate multipoint linkage analysis to detect common loci influencing covariation between these two traits.
We scanned the genome and identified a major locus near marker D6S1009 influencing variation in BMI (LOD = 3.9) using the program SOLAR. We also identified a major locus for HDL-C near marker D2S1334 on chromosome 2 (LOD = 3.5) and another region near marker D6S1009 on chromosome 6 with suggestive evidence for linkage (LOD = 2.7). Since these two phenotypes have been independently mapped to the same region on chromosome 6q, we used the bivariate multipoint linkage approach using SOLAR. The bivariate linkage analysis of BMI and HDL-C implicated the genetic region near marker D6S1009 as harboring a major gene commonly influencing these phenotypes (bivariate LOD = 6.2; LODeq = 5.5) and appears to improve power to map the correlated traits to a region, precisely.
We found substantial evidence for a quantitative trait locus with pleiotropic effects, which appears to influence both BMI and HDL-C phenotypes in the Framingham data.