[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs 125a and 125b are predicted to be able to bind to the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1) and IFN regulatory protein-4 (IRF-4) transcription factors, which are essential for plasma cell differentiation. A computational survey of the human and mouse genomes revealed that miR-125a and miR-125b are members of a multigene family located in paralogous clusters. The miR-125a cluster on chromosome 19 in humans includes miR-99b and let-7e, whereas the miR-125b cluster on chromosome 21 includes miR-99a and miR-let-7c. Our analysis of the expression profiles for these six miRs during B lineage differentiation indicated that mature miR-125a, miR-125b, miR-99b and let-7e transcripts are preferentially expressed by the actively dividing centroblasts in germinal centers (GC). However, miR-99b and let-7e are not predicted to bind BLIMP-1 or IRF-4 transcripts, and binding to the untranslated region of BLIMP-1 and IRF-4 messenger RNAs could be confirmed only for miR-125b. When the effect of miR-125b over-expression on terminal B cell differentiation was evaluated in an LPS-responsive B cell line, the induction of BLIMP-1 expression and IgM secretion was inhibited in this model system. Furthermore, miR-125b over-expression inhibited the differentiation of primary B cells and compromised the survival of cultured myeloma cells. These findings suggest that miR-125b promotes B lymphocyte diversification in GC by inhibiting premature utilization of essential transcription factors for plasma cell differentiation.
International Immunology 05/2010; 22(7):583-92. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FcRH4 transmembrane molecule, a member of the Fc receptor homologue family, can potently inhibit B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. We show that cell surface expression of this immunoregulatory molecule is restricted to a subpopulation of memory B cells, most of which lack the classical CD27 marker for memory B cells in humans. The FcRH4+ and FcRH4- memory B cells have undergone comparable levels of immunoglobulin isotype switching and somatic hypermutation, while neither subpopulation expresses the transcription factors involved in plasma cell differentiation. The FcRH4+ memory cells are morphologically distinctive large lymphocytes that express the CD69, CD80, and CD86 cell activation markers. They are also shown to be poised to secrete high levels of immunoglobulins in response to stimulation with T cell cytokines, but they fail to proliferate in response either to BCR ligation or Staphylococcus aureus stimulation. A heightened expression of the CCR1 and CCR5 chemokine receptors may facilitate their preferential localization in lymphoid tissues near epithelial surfaces. Cell surface FcRH4 expression thus marks a unique population of memory B cells with distinctive morphology, functional capabilities, and tissue localization.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2005; 202(6):783-91. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A surprising number of Fc receptor (FcR) relatives have been recognized recently with the potential capacity to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. The six human FcR homologs (FcRH1-6), which belong to a phylogenetically conserved gene family, have variable numbers of extracellular immunoglobulin domains of five different subtypes. FcRH immunoregulatory potential is implicated by the presence of consensus tyrosine-based activation or inhibition motifs in their cytoplasmic tails. All but one of these new receptors, FcRH6, are expressed on B cells at different stages in differentiation. Their ligands, function, and prospective roles as diagnostic B cell markers and therapeutic targets are topics of intense interest.
European Journal of Immunology 04/2005; 35(3):674-80. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B-cell activation and differentiation is regulated through the coordinated function of a dynamic array of cell surface receptors. At different stages in their differentiation, human B cells may express one or more members of a large family of immunoglobulin Fc receptor homologs (FcRH) with regulatory potential. Among these newly identified transmembrane molecules, FcRH1 is unique in having 2 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like motifs in its intracellular domain. Here we used the Fab fragments of new monoclonal anti-FcRH1 antibodies and mRNA analysis to evaluate FcRH1 expression and function during B-cell differentiation. FcRH1 expression begins in pre-B cells, reaches peak levels on naive B cells, and is down-regulated after B cells are activated to begin to form germinal centers. This FcRH1 down-regulation coincides with dramatic enlargement of the pre-germinal center cells, cell cycle entry, and other overt signs of activation that include CD80 and CD86 up-regulation and immunoglobulin D (IgD) down-regulation. In vitro analysis indicates that ligation of FcRH1 leads to its tyrosine phosphorylation and to modest B-cell activation and proliferation. Concomitant FcRH1 ligation enhances B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-induced Ca(2+) mobilization and proliferation. FcRH1 thus has the potential to serve as an activating coreceptor on B cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fc receptor homolog 4 (FcRH4) is a B cell-specific member of the recently identified family of FcRHs whose intracellular domain contains three potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). The signaling potential of this receptor, shown here to be preferentially expressed by memory B cells, was compared with the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb in B cells expressing either WT FcgammaRIIb or chimeric proteins in which the intracellular domain of FcRH4 was fused to the transmembrane and extracellular domains of FcgammaRIIb. Coligation of the FcgammaRIIb/FcRH4 chimeric protein with the B cell receptor (BCR) led to tyrosine phosphorylation of the two membrane-distal tyrosines and profound inhibition of BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, whole cell tyrosine phosphorylation, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase activation. Mutational analysis of the FcRH4 cytoplasmic region indicated that the two membrane-distal ITIMs are essential for this inhibitory potential. Phosphopeptides corresponding to these ITIMs could bind the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, which associated with the WT FcRH4 and with mutants having inhibitory capability. These findings indicate the potential for FcRH4 to abort B cell receptor signaling by recruiting SHP-1 and SHP-2 to its two membrane distal ITIMs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2003; 100(23):13489-94. · 9.74 Impact Factor