[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language regions. To investigate this, we performed a comprehensive assessment of language and academic abilities in a group of adolescents born prematurely, some of whom had evidence of brain injury at birth (n = 50, mean age: 16 years, mean gestational age: 27 weeks) and compared them to a term-born control group (n = 30). Detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tractography analyses of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric white matter bundles were performed. Analysis of intrahemispheric pathways included the arcuate fasciculus (dorsal language pathway) and uncinate fasciculus/extreme capsule (ventral language pathway). Analysis of interhemispheric pathways (in particular, connections between the temporal lobes) included the two major commissural bundles: the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. We found language impairment in 38% of adolescents born preterm. Language impairment was not related to abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus (or its subsegments), but was associated with bilateral volume reductions in the ventral language pathway. However, the most significant volume reduction was detected in the posterior corpus callosum (splenium), which contains interhemispheric connections between the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Diffusion tractography showed that of the three groups of interhemispheric fibres within the splenium, only those connecting the temporal lobes were reduced. Crucially, we found that language impairment was only detectable if the anterior commissure (a second temporal lobe commissural pathway) was also small. Regression analyses showed that a combination of anatomical measures of temporal interhemispheric connectivity (through the splenium of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure) explained 57% of the variance in language abilities. This supports recent theories emphasizing the importance of interhemispheric connections for language, particularly in the developing brain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess speech abilities in adolescents born preterm and investigate whether there is an association between specific speech deficits and brain abnormalities.
Fifty adolescents born prematurely (<33 weeks' gestation) with a spectrum of brain injuries were recruited (mean age, 16 years). Speech examination included tests of speech-sound processing and production and speech and oromotor control. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired in all adolescents born preterm and 30 term-born control subjects. Radiological ratings of brain injury were recorded and the integrity of the primary motor projections was measured (corticospinal tract and speech-motor corticobulbar tract [CST/CBT]).
There were no clinical diagnoses of developmental dysarthria, dyspraxia, or a speech-sound disorder, but difficulties in speech and oromotor control were common. A regression analysis revealed that presence of a neurologic impairment, and diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities in the left CST/CBT were significant independent predictors of poor speech and oromotor outcome. These left-lateralized abnormalities were most evident at the level of the posterior limb of the internal capsule.
Difficulties in speech and oromotor control are common in adolescents born preterm, and adolescents with injury to the CST/CBT pathways in the left-hemisphere may be most at risk.
The Journal of pediatrics 03/2012; 160(3):402-408.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In preterm infants, white matter (WM) abnormalities detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-age are associated with early developmental delay. We set out to study this association in adolescents born pre-term, by examining intellectual outcome in relation to markers of brain injury, focusing on the effects of WM reduction.
Seventy-nine participants were recruited and assessed at a mean age of 16 years: 49 adolescents born preterm (<32 weeks' gestation) with a wide spectrum of brain injuries (including 22 with no identifiable brain injury at birth) and 30 term-born controls. Data collected included: brain MRI scans, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, educational attainments, and behavioral scores. Measures of WM reduction included total volume, cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum (CC), and ventricular dilatation. Cerebellar volumes and neuroradiological ratings were also included.
WM volume and IQ were reduced in the preterm groups (both with and without brain injury). Total WM volume and CC area jointly explained 70% of IQ variance in the adolescents born preterm, irrespective of the presence or severity of brain abnormalities detected at birth or on follow-up MRI. This relationship was not seen in controls. Importantly, correlations were also found with real-world measures of academic achievement and behavioral difficulties.
Preterm birth has a long-term effect on cognition, behavior, and future academic success primarily as a consequence of global brain WM reduction. This emphasizes the need for early therapeutic efforts to prevent WM injury and promote or optimize its development in preterm neonates.
Annals of Neurology 03/2011; 69(4):702-11. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies report chronic deficits in visual processing in children born preterm. We investigated whether functional abnormalities in visual processing exist in children born preterm but without major neuromotor impairment (i.e. cerebral palsy). Twelve such children (< 33 weeks gestation or birthweight < 1000 g) without major neuromotor impairment and 12 born full-term controls were assessed at 8-12 years of age by means of ophthalmological assessment (visual acuity, colour vision, stereopsis, stereoacuity, visual fields, ocular motility, motor fusion), cognitive tests of visual-motor, visual-perceptual and visual-spatial skills and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEPs). All participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and neuromotor assessments. No significant differences were found between the groups on the ophthalmological, visual cognitive, neurological, neuromotor or MRI measures. The P100 component of the PR-VEP showed a significantly shorter latency in the preterm compared with the full-term participants. Whilst this P100 finding suggests that subtle abnormalities may exist at the neurophysiological level, we conclude that visual dysfunction is not systematically associated with preterm birth in the context of normal neurological status.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is the first effective neuroprotective intervention for newborns who are critically ill following a life-threatening asphyxial insult. It is not surprising that it has raised complex and controversial ethical dilemmas for investigators and clinicians. Given the history of iatrogenic disasters in neonatology, there has been an understandable reluctance to incorporate hypothermia into routine clinical practice until there is persuasive evidence from high quality randomised trials. This article reviews ethical issues that arose during the design of the original clinical trials, the implications of accumulating evidence of safety and efficacy, and the problems of ensuring informed parental participation in treatment decisions.
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 04/2010; 15(5):299-304. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2007 Cochrane review of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy (NE) indicates a significant reduction in adverse outcome. UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines are awaited.
To benchmark current opinion and practice to inform future strategies for optimal knowledge transfer for therapeutic hypothermia.
A web based questionnaire (30 sections related to opinion and practice of management of NE) sent to the clinical leads of Level I, II and III neonatal units throughout the UK in November/December 2007.
One hundred and twenty-five (out of 195) UK neonatal units responded (response rate 66%). Ten percent, 37.5% and 51.5% responses were from level I, II and III units respectively. Twenty eight percent of all units provided therapeutic hypothermia locally (52% of level III units), however 80% of responders would offer therapeutic hypothermia if there was the facility. Overall, 57% of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective or very effective - similar for all unit levels; 43% considered more data are required. Regional availability of therapeutic hypothermia exists in 55% of units and 41% of units offer transfer to a regional centre for therapeutic hypothermia.
In the UK in 2007, access to therapeutic hypothermia was widespread although not universal. More than half of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective. Fifty-five percent of perinatal networks have the facility to offer therapeutic hypothermia. The involvement of national bodies may be necessary to ensure the adoption of therapeutic hypothermia according to defined protocols and standards; registration is important and will help ensure universal neurodevelopmental follow up.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS) often reveals apparently normal brain metabolism in the first hours after intrapartum hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at a time when conventional clinical assessment of injury severity is problematic. We aimed to elucidate very-early, injury-severity biomarkers. Twenty-seven newborn piglets underwent cerebral HI: (31)P-MRS measures approximately 2 h after HI were compared between injury groups defined by secondary-energy-failure severity as quantified by the minimum nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) observed after 6 h. For severe and moderate injury versus baseline, [Pi]/[total exchangeable high-energy phosphate pool (EPP)] was increased (p < 0.001 and < 0.02, respectively), and [NTP]/[EPP] decreased (p < 0.03 and < 0.006, respectively): severe-injury [Pi]/[EPP] was also increased versus mild injury (p < 0.04). Mild-injury [phosphocreatine]/[EPP] was increased (p < 0.004). Severe-injury intracellular pH was alkaline versus baseline (p < 0.002). For severe and moderate injury [total Mg]/[ATP] (p < 0.0002 and < 0.02, respectively) and [free Mg] (p < 0.0001 and < 0.02, respectively) were increased versus baseline. [Pi]/[EPP], [phosphocreatine]/[Pi] and [NTP]/[EPP] correlated linearly with injury severity (p < 0.005, < 0.005 and < 0.02, respectively). Increased [Pi]/[EPP], intracellular pH and intracellular Mg approximately 2 h after intrapartum HI may prognosticate severe injury, whereas increased [phosphocreatine]/[EPP] may suggest mild damage. In vivo(31)P MRS may have potential to provide very-early prognosis in neonatal encephalopathy.
Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2008; 107(4):1027-35. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess survival and neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely preterm infants over a 20-year period at a single tertiary neonatal centre.
All infants between 22 and 25(+6) weeks of gestation admitted to a single UK neonatal centre between 1981 and 2000 were enrolled prospectively. Infants in the same gestational age range who were born alive at the hospital but not admitted to the neonatal unit were also identified over the period 1991-2000. All surviving infants received neurological and developmental assessment at a corrected age of 1 year.
There was a progressive increase in survival at all gestational ages over the 20-year period. Overall survival rose from 32% to 71% as a proportion of all admissions. The proportion of survivors with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year of age showed no consistent change over the same period.
In this single centre cohort study, marked improvements in survival over a 20-year period were not accompanied by a significant increase in neurodevelopmental morbidity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The absence of cerebral autoregulation in preterm infants has been associated with adverse outcome, but its bedside assessment in the immature brain is problematic. We used spatially resolved spectroscopy to continuously measure cerebral oxygen saturation (expressed as a tissue-oxygenation index) and used the correlation of tissue-oxygenation index with spontaneous fluctuations in mean arterial blood pressure to assess cerebral autoregulation.
The tissue-oxygenation index and mean arterial blood pressure were continuously measured in very premature infants (n = 24) of mean (+/-SD) gestational age of 26 (+/-2.3) weeks at a mean postnatal age of 28 (+/-22) hours. The correlation between mean arterial blood pressure and tissue-oxygenation index in the frequency domain was assessed by using cross-spectral analysis techniques (coherence and transfer-function gain). Values of coherence reflect the strength of linear correlation, whereas transfer-function gain reflects the amplitude of tissue-oxygenation index changes relative to mean arterial blood pressure changes.
High coherence (coherence > or = 0.5) values were found in 9 infants who were of lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and lower mean arterial blood pressure than infants with coherence of < 0.5; high-coherence infants also had higher median Clinical Risk Index for Babies scores and a higher rate of neonatal deaths. Coherence of > or = 0.5 predicted mortality with a positive predictive value of 67% and negative predictive value of 100%. In multifactorial analysis, coherence alone was the best predictor of mortality and Clinical Risk Index for Babies score alone was the best predictor of coherence.
High coherence between mean arterial blood pressure and tissue-oxygenation index indicates impaired cerebral autoregulation in clinically sick preterm infants and is strongly associated with subsequent mortality. Cross-spectral analysis of mean arterial blood pressure and tissue-oxygenation index has the potential to provide continuous bedside assessment of cerebral autoregulation and to guide therapeutic interventions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether therapeutic hypothermia alters the prognostic value of clinical grading of neonatal encephalopathy.
This study was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of 234 term infants with neonatal encephalopathy randomized to head cooling for 72 hours starting within 6 hours of birth, with rectal temperature maintained at 34.5 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C, followed by re-warming for 4 hours, or standard care at 37.0 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C. Severity of encephalopathy was measured pre-randomization and on day 4, after re-warming, in 177 infants; 31 infants died before day 4, and data were missing for 10 infants. The primary outcome was death or severe disability at 18 months of age.
Milder pre-randomization encephalopathy, greater improvement in encephalopathy from randomization to day 4, and cooling were associated with favorable outcome in multivariate binary logistic regression. Hypothermia did not affect severity of encephalopathy at day 4, however, in infants with moderate encephalopathy at day 4, those treated with hypothermia had a significantly higher rate of favorable outcome (31/45 infants, 69%, P = .006) compared with standard care (12/33, 36%).
Infants with moderate encephalopathy on day 4 may have a more favorable prognosis after hypothermia treatment than expected after standard care.
The Journal of pediatrics 02/2008; 152(1):55-8, 58.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in obstetric and neonatal medical care have led to marked improvements in the chances of survival for extremely preterm and low birth weight babies. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neurological injury in extremely preterm and critically ill infants and discusses current progress in therapeutic strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For optimal neuroprotection following transient perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), therapy should start before overt secondary energy failure and its irreversible neurotoxic cascade. Hypothermia is a promising neuroprotective intervention that also prolongs the therapeutic time window ("latent-phase"; the period between re-establishment of apparently normal cerebral metabolism after HI, and the start of secondary energy failure). The influences of HI severity on latent-phase duration and regional neuroprotection are unclear. Under normothermia and delayed whole-body cooling to 35 and 33 degrees C we aimed to assess relationships between HI severity and: (i) latent-phase duration; (ii) secondary-energy-failure severity; and (iii) neuronal injury 48 h following HI.
Newborn piglets were randomized to: (i) HI-normothermia (n=12), (ii) HI-35 degrees C (n=7), and (iii) HI-33 degrees C (n=10). HI-35 degrees C and HI-33 degrees C piglets were cooled between 2 and 26 h after HI. Insult and secondary-energy-failure severity and latent-phase duration were evaluated using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared with neuronal death in cortical-grey and deep-grey matter.
More severe HI was associated with shorter latent-phase (p=0.002), worse secondary energy failure (p=0.023) and more cortical-grey-matter neuronal death (p=0.016).
Latent-phase duration is inversely related to insult severity; latent-phase brevity may explain the apparently less effective neuroprotection following severe cerebral HI.
Brain Research 07/2007; 1154:173-80. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of factors that may determine the efficacy of treatment with delayed head cooling and mild systemic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy.
A total of 218 term infants with moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy plus abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic recordings, assigned randomly to head cooling for 72 hours, starting within 6 hours after birth (with the rectal temperature maintained at 34.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C), or conventional care, were studied. Death or severe disability at 18 months of age was assessed in a multicenter, randomized, controlled study (the CoolCap trial).
Treatment, lower encephalopathy grade, lower birth weight, greater amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic amplitude, absence of seizures, and higher Apgar score, but not gender or gestational age, were associated significantly with better outcomes. In a multivariate analysis, each of the individually predictive factors except for Apgar score remained predictive. There was a significant interaction between treatment and birth weight, categorized as > or =25th or <25th percentile for term, such that larger infants showed a lower frequency of favorable outcomes in the control group but greater improvement with cooling. For larger infants, the number needed to treat was 3.8. Pyrexia (> or =38 degrees C) in control infants was associated with adverse outcomes. Although there was a small correlation with birth weight, the adverse effect of greater birth weight in control infants remained significant after adjustment for pyrexia and severity of encephalopathy.
Outcomes after hypothermic treatment were strongly influenced by the severity of neonatal encephalopathy. The protective effect of hypothermia was greater in larger infants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goals were to develop safe 4.7-T MRI examination protocols for newborn infants and to explore the advantages of this field strength in neonatal encephalopathy.
Nine ventilated newborn infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy were studied at 4.7 T, with ethical approval and informed parental consent. The custom-made, 4.7-T-compatible, neonatal patient management system included acoustic noise protection and physiologic monitoring. An adult head coil was used. Acquisition parameters for T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI and a variety of T1-weighted methods were adapted for MRI of neonatal brain at 4.7 T. The pulse sequences used had a radiofrequency specific absorption rate of <2 W/kg.
Physiologic measures were normal throughout each scan. T2-weighted fast spin echo imaging provided better anatomic resolution and gray/white matter contrast than typically obtained at 1.5 T; T1-weighted images were less impressive.
With appropriate safety precautions, MRI of newborn infants undergoing intensive care is as feasible at 4.7 T as it is at 1.5 T; our initial studies produced T2-weighted fast spin echo images with more detail than commonly obtained at 1.5 T. Although T1-weighted images were not adequately informative, additional pulse sequence optimization may be advantageous. A smaller neonatal head coil should also permit greater flexibility in acquisition parameters and even more anatomic resolution and tissue contrast. In neonatal encephalopathy, interpretation of the T2-weighted pathologic detail in combination with comprehensive neurodevelopmental follow-up should improve prognostic accuracy and enable more patient-specific therapeutic interventions. In addition, more precise relationships between structural changes and functional impairment may be defined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothermia was not neuroprotective in low body weight (BW) infants on subgroup analysis in a recent clinical trial of selective head cooling (SHC) in neonatal encephalopathy (CoolCap Trial).
The BW dependence of regional cerebral temperature was investigated in 14 newborn piglets under normothermia (38.5 degrees C), whole-body cooling (WBC; 36.5, 34.5, 32.5, and 30.5 degrees C), or SHC (20, 15, and 10 degrees C).
Normothermia: Lower BW led to lower superficial brain temperature (p < 0.01). Deep to superficial brain and rectal to superficial brain temperature gradients increased with decreasing BW (both p < 0.05). WBC: Lower BW led to lower superficial brain temperature and higher rectal to superficial brain temperature gradient (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). SHC: For lower BW, superficial and deep brain temperatures decreased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), whereas rectal to deep, rectal to superficial, and deep to superficial brain temperature gradients increased (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively). Compared with SHC alone, superimposition of WBC (34.5 degrees C) reduced all regional temperatures (all p < 0.001); gradients were unaffected.
Brain cooling (under normothermia, WBC, or SHC) was more efficient with lower BW due to greater head surface area-to-volume ratios. In the CoolCap Trial, low BW infants might have been excessively cooled. WBC and SHC may require BW adjustment to accomplish consistent regional temperatures and optimal neuroprotection.
Annals of Neurology 12/2006; 60(5):578-85. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to compare the prognostic utilities of early MRI spin-spin relaxometry and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in neonatal encephalopathy.
Twenty-one term infants with neonatal encephalopathy were studied at a mean age of 3.1 days (range: 1-5). Basal ganglia, thalamic and frontal, parietal, and occipital white matter spin-spin relaxation times were determined from images with echo times of 25 and 200 milliseconds. Metabolite ratios were determined from an 8-mL thalamic-region magnetic resonance spectroscopy voxel (1H point-resolved spectroscopy; echo time 270 milliseconds). Outcomes were assigned at age 1 year as follows: (1) normal, (2) moderate (neuromotor signs or Griffiths developmental quotient of 75-84), (3) severe (functional neuromotor deficit or developmental quotient <75 or died). Predictive efficacies for differentiation between normal and adverse (combined moderate and severe) outcomes were compared by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression.
Thalamic and basal ganglia spin-spin relaxation times correlated positively with outcome and predicted adversity. Although thalamic and basal ganglia spin-spin relaxation times were prognostic of adversity, magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite ratios were better predictors, and, of these, lactate/N-acetylaspartate was most accurate.
Deep gray matter spin-spin relaxation time was increased in the first few days after birth in infants with an adverse outcome. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was more prognostic than spin-spin relaxation time, with lactate/N-acetylaspartate the best measure. Nevertheless, both techniques were useful for early prognosis, and the potential superior spatial resolution of spin-spin relaxometry may define better the precise anatomic pattern of injury in the early days after birth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little information is available on long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with unilateral cerebral lesions detected by neonatal cranial ultrasound. This study aims to investigate the long-term outcome in a cohort of very preterm infants with unilateral cerebral lesions acquired in the perinatal period.
A prospective cohort study of 668 preterm infants (<33 weeks gestation; birth years 1985-1991) at a single tertiary perinatal centre in the UK. All infants had serial cranial ultrasound examination in the neonatal period. Outcome was assessed at age 8 years with the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-R), Test of Visuo-motor Integration (VMI) and the Test of Motor Impairment (TOMI).
Of the 668 infants, 369 infants had normal ultrasound scans. Two hundred and ninety nine children had bilateral parenchymal or non-parenchymal lesions (57 left-sided, 41 right-sided, 201 bilateral). Five hundred and thirty four (79%) children attended follow-up at age 8 years. Mean Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was 101 (SD+/-16), 93 (SD+/-17), 102 (SD+/-17) and 91 (SD+/-21) for normal, left-sided, right-sided and bilateral lesion groups respectively. In all groups verbal IQ (VIQ) was higher than performance IQ (PIQ). Scores of FSIQ, VIQ and PIQ, VMI and TOMI were significantly different between the groups. After exclusion of children with parenchymal lesions, however, the difference was only significant for the TOMI scores. In all tests, children with left-sided lesions performed poorer than children with right-sided lesions.
In this cohort of preterm infants with unilateral cerebral lesions, verbal function was preserved over non-verbal function independently of the side of lesion. Furthermore, the results suggest that the neurodevelopmental outcome of children with left-sided lesions is less favourable than that of children with right-sided lesions.
Early Human Development 10/2006; 82(10):655-61. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results from cerebral proton (1)H-MR spectroscopy studies of neonates with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury have generally been presented as metabolite peak-area ratios, which are T1- and T2-weighted, rather than absolute metabolite concentrations. We hypothesized that compared with (1)H-MR spectroscopy peak-area ratios, calculation of absolute metabolite concentrations and relaxation times measured within the first 4 days after birth (1) would improve prognostic accuracy and (2) enhance the understanding of underlying neurochemical changes in neonates with neonatal encephalopathy.
Seventeen term infants with neonatal encephalopathy and 10 healthy controls were studied at 2.4T at 1 (1-3) and 2 (2-4) (median [interquartile range]) days after birth, respectively. Infants with neonatal encephalopathy were classified into 2 outcome groups (normal/mild and severe/fatal), according to neurodevelopmental assessments at 1 year. The MR spectroscopy peak-area ratios, relaxation times, absolute concentrations, and concentration ratios of lactate (Lac), creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and choline-containing compounds (Cho) from a voxel centered on the thalami were analyzed according to outcome group.
Comparing the severe/fatal group with the controls (significance assumed with P < 0.05), we found that Lac/NAA, Lac/Cho, and Lac/Cr peak-area ratios increased and NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho decreased; Lac, NAA, and Cr T2s were increased; [Lac] was increased and [Cho], [Cr], and [NAA] decreased; and among the concentration ratios, only [Lac]/[NAA] was increased. Comparison of the normal/mild group with controls revealed no differences in peak-area ratios, relaxation times, or concentration ratios but decreased [NAA], [Cho], and [Cr] were observed in the infants with normal/mild outcome. Comparison of the normal/mild and severe/fatal groups showed increased Lac/NAA and Lac/Cho and decreased NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho peak-area ratios, reduced [NAA], and increased Lac T2 in the infants with the worse outcome.
Metabolite concentrations, in particular [NAA], enhance the prognostic accuracy of cerebral (1)H-MR spectroscopy-[NAA] was the only measurable to discriminate among all (control, normal/mild, and severe/fatal outcome) groups. However, peak-area ratios are more useful prognostic indicators than concentration ratios because they depend on metabolite concentrations and T2s, both of which are pathologically modulated. Concentration ratios depend only on the concentrations of the constituent metabolites. Increased Cr T2 may provide an indirect marker of impaired cellular energetics, and similarly, NAA T2 may constitute an index of exclusively neuronal energy status. Our recommendation is to collect data that enable calculation of brain metabolite concentrations. However, if time constraints make this impossible, metabolite peak-area ratios provide the next best method of assigning early prognosis in neonatal encephalopathy.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 09/2006; 27(7):1546-54. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optical methods provide a means of monitoring cerebral oxygenation in newborn infants at risk of brain injury. A 32-channel optical imaging system has been developed with the aim of reconstructing three-dimensional images of regional blood volume and oxygenation. Full image data sets were acquired from 14 out of 24 infants studied; successful images have been reconstructed in 8 of these infants. Regional variations in cerebral blood volume and tissue oxygen saturation are present in healthy preterm infants. In an infant with a large unilateral intraventricular haemorrhage, a corresponding region of low oxygen saturation was detected. These results suggest that optical tomography may provide an appropriate technique for investigating regional cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation at the cotside.