[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 10-week trial was conducted to determine the response of juvenile jade perch Scortum barcoo on the replacement of dietary fish oil (FO) in a fishmeal free diet. Three iso-nitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic diets were formulated, each containing a different primary fat source: FO, linseed oil (LO), and a mixture of Schizochytrium and LO. The substitution of FO with the mixture of Schizochytrium and LO did not cause a difference in growth. However, there was an 8% reduction in weight gain in fish fed dietary LO, indicating that juvenile jade perch do require a minimal concentration of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Fish fed the Schizochytrium diet stored more efficient n-3 HUFA and in particular DHA in their flesh, and retained a higher fillet recovery compared to fish fed FO. In addition, we demonstrated that jade perch are able to produce both n-3 HUFA and n-6 HUFA when dietary PUFA are present. Fish fed the LO diet for 10 weeks contained the lowest amount of n-3 HUFA in fillets among dietary treatment groups. However, feeding these fish the Schizochytrium diet for an additional 4 weeks increased the n-3 HUFA content towards the same concentration of n-3 HUFA found in the flesh of fish fed FO, without affecting the sensory properties of the fillets. In contrary, feeding the Schizochytrium diet for a continuous period of 14 weeks lowered overall sensory property scores.
Aquaculture Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/are.12631 · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate if immunization with the ferri-siderophore receptors FepA, FhuE, IroN and IutA could protect chickens against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection. The antigens were administered as recombinant proteins in the outer membrane (OM) of E. coli strain BL21 Star DE3. In a first immunization experiment, live E. coli expressing all 4 recombinant ferri-siderophore receptors (BL21(L)) were given intranasally. In a second immunization experiment, a mixture of E. coli ghosts containing recombinant FepA and IutA and ghosts containing recombinant FhuE and IroN was evaluated. For both experiments non-recombinant counterparts of the tentative vaccines were administered as placebo. At the time of challenge, the IgG antibody response for BL21(L) and a mixture of E. coli ghosts containing recombinant FepA and IutA and ghosts containing recombinant FhuE and IroN was significantly higher in all immunized groups as compared to the negative control groups (LB or PBS) confirming successful immunization. Although neither of the tentative vaccines could prevent lesions and mortality upon APEC infection, immunization with bacterial ghosts resulted in a decrease in mortality from 50% (PBS) to 31% (non-recombinant ghosts) or 20% (recombinant ghosts) and these differences were not found to be significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute-phase serum amyloid A (SAA) protein family comprises two main circulating (systemic) isoforms, SAA1 and SAA2, synthesised in liver and one local isoform, SAA3, produced in extrahepatic tissues. Systemic and local SAA show structural differences, which suggests different functions. In the pig, AA-amyloidosis is extremely uncommon, and the structural protein in swine has characteristics of systemic SAA. The only pig SAA sequences published so far, either derived form hepatic or extrahepatic sites have been designated SAA2, but the translated protein shows the properties of SAA3 proteins. The aim of this study was to characterise all the porcine SAA isoforms by sequencing from cDNA and genomic DNA obtained form multiple porcine tissues. Primer pairs were designed to amplify presumably all isoforms of SAA firstly and then specifically for each isotype. Results show that the only isotype isolated and sequenced both from hepatic and extrahepatic tissues correspond to a SAA3-like amino acid sequence. No SAA1-like sequences were identified, which could be indicative of the gene being very rare and consistent with the observed resistance to AA-amyloidosis. Finally, it is concluded that the pig is unique among other species in that the main circulating hepatic SAA isotype shows the characteristics of local highly alkaline SAA. This likely precludes a function as apolipoprotein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The native Belgian draught horse (BTP) was bred as a large and well-muscled horse to serve in agriculture and transportation. The reduction in population size after 1950 and the unequal usage of stallions may have reduced the breed’s diversity. Genetic diversity was assessed using both pedigree data and molecular marker genotypes, making a comparison between inbreeding and multilocus heterozygosity feasible
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the swine breeding industry, two economical traits are of particular importance in sires, namely, muscle growth and average daily gain (ADG). These traits are quantitative, which implies that they are under the control of multiple genes. Mutations in these genes, associated with either muscularity or growth, are useful quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) for unraveling genetic variation of these traits and can be used in marker-assisted selection. Until now, QTN involved in muscle growth and/or ADG in pigs were identified in porcine ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). Recently, a fourth possible QTN was found in porcine myostatin (MSTN). All four QTN have an influence on muscle growth and/or somatic growth, so an influence of one mutation on one or more of the other mutations should not be excluded. However, although the polymorphisms in the RYR1 and the MC4R gene affect the function of the respective protein, the polymorphisms of the IGF-2 and MSTN gene influence the mRNA expression of the respective gene. Therefore, this study investigated possible interactions between the genotypes of MSTN, IGF-2, and MC4R (population 1) or the RYR1, IGF-2, and MSTN QTN (population 2) on IGF-2 and MSTN expression in different muscle types in pigs. In both skeletal muscle and heart muscle growth, the IGF-2:MSTN ratio seems to play an important role. Also, the RYR1 genotype had a significant effect on IGF-2 expression in m. longissimus dorsi. No effect of the MC4R QTN could be seen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member, is an essential factor for the growth and development of muscle mass. The protein functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth and is related to the so-called double-muscling phenotype in cattle, where a series of mutations renders the gene inactive. One particular breed of pigs, the Belgian Piétrain, also shows a heavily muscled phenotype. The similarity of muscular phenotypes between the double-muscled cattle and Piétrain pigs indicated that MSTN may be a candidate gene for muscular hypertrophy in pigs. In this study, we sequenced and analysed the complete MSTN gene from 45 pigs of five different breeds, including the heavily muscled Piétrain breed at one extreme and the Meishan and Wild boar breeds at the other extreme. In total, 7626 bp of the porcine MSTN gene were sequenced, including the 5' and 3' UTR. Fifteen polymorphic loci were found, three of which were located in the promoter region, five in intron 1 and seven in intron 2. Most mutations were found when comparing the obtained MSTN sequence with porcine MSTN sequences already published. However, one polymorphism located at position 447 of the porcine MSTN promoter had a very high allele frequency in the Piétrain pig breed and disrupted a putative myocyte enhancer factor 3 binding site. Real-time PCR using Sybr Green showed that this mutation was associated with expression levels of the MSTN gene in m. longissimus dorsi at an age of 4 weeks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle growth is a complex phenomenon regulated by many factors, whereby net growth results from the combined action of synthesis and turnover. In pigs, two quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) are known to have an important influence on muscle growth and fat deposition: one QTN is located in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene (RYR1 g.1843C>T) and the other, a paternally expressed QTN, is in the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene (IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A). The mutation in IGF2 abrogates in vitro interaction with a repressor, which leads to a threefold increase of IGF2 expression in post-natal muscle. The family of the calpains, a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive muscle endopeptidases, and their specific inhibitor calpastatin play an important role in post-natal protein degradation, also influencing muscle and carcass traits. This study investigated the possible interactions between the genotypes of the RYR1 and IGF2 QTN on IGF2 expression. Samples were taken from several muscles and from pigs at several ages, and messenger RNA expression levels were measured using a real-time quantification assay. IGF2 expression in m. longissimus dorsi of animals with mutations in both IGF2 and RYR1 was significantly lower than in animals that inherited the IGF2 mutation but were homozygous wildtype for RYR1.