[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the K-ras gene were identified as a prognostic marker in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In addition, emerging data suggest that K-ras mutations are a negative predictor of clinical benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor treatment in mCRC. Previously reported data suggest that the longer overall survival (OS) observed with bevacizumab treatment in mCRC is independent of alterations in the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk pathway. We conducted additional analyses to better describe the clinical benefit of bevacizumab treatment in mCRC relative to K-ras mutation status.
Additional statistical analyses were done with data from K-ras mutation analyses in 230 patients who were treated with irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) in combination with either bevacizumab or placebo in a randomized phase III study. Following microdissection, tissue was subject to DNA sequencing to identify K-ras mutations in codons 12 and 13. Hazard ratios for the bevacizumab group relative to the control group were estimated from an unstratified Cox regression model. The median progression-free survival (PFS), OS times, and objective response rates were compared.
K-ras status was assessed in 230 patients (28.3%). The median PFS was significantly longer in bevacizumab-treated patients with wild-type (wt)- (13.5 versus 7.4 months; hazard ratio 0.44, p < .0001) and mutant (m)-K-ras (9.3 versus 5.5 months; hazard ratio 0.41, p = .0008). A significantly higher response rate for IFL plus bevacizumab was observed only in wt-K-ras patients (60.0% versus 37.3%, p = .006) compared with 43.2% versus 41.2% in the m-K-ras group.
Bevacizumab provides significant clinical benefit in patients with mCRC expressing either mutant or wild-type K-ras.
The Oncologist 01/2009; 14(1):22-8. · 4.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). In the pivotal trial in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), addition of bevacizumab to first-line irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) significantly prolonged median survival. The aim of these retrospective subset analyses was to evaluate VEGF, thrombospondin-2 (THBS-2), and microvessel density (MVD) as prognostic factors and/or predictors of benefit from bevacizumab.
In the pivotal trial, 813 patients with untreated mCRC were randomly assigned to receive IFL plus bevacizumab or placebo. Of 312 tissue samples collected (285 primaries, 27 metastases), outcome data were available for 278 (153 bevacizumab, 125 placebo). Epithelial and stromal VEGF expression were assessed by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays and whole sections. Stromal THBS-2 expression was examined by ISH on tissue microarrays. MVD was quantified by Chalkley count. Overall survival was associated with these variables in retrospective subset analyses.
In all subgroups, estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of death were < 1 for bevacizumab-treated patients regardless of the level of VEGF or THBS-2 expression or MVD. Patients with a high THBS-2 score showed a nonsignificant improvement in survival following bevacizumab treatment (HR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.51) compared to patients with a low score (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.02); interaction analysis P = .22. VEGF or THBS-2 expression and MVD were not significant prognostic factors.
These exploratory analyses suggest that in patients with mCRC addition of bevacizumab to IFL improves survival regardless of the level of VEGF or THBS-2 expression, or MVD.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2006; 24(2):217-27. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (Avastin; rhuMab VEGF), a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), significantly prolongs survival when added to intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Because antiangiogenic agents might inhibit wound healing, we assessed postoperative wound healing complications in two randomized trials of 5 mg/kg bevacizumab in CRC treatment.
We assessed the wound healing complications in patients who: (1) underwent cancer surgery 28-60 days before study treatment and (2) underwent major surgery during study treatment. Cases were reviewed for wound healing complications occurring < or = 60 days after surgery.
With cancer surgery 28-60 days before study treatment, wound healing complications occurred in 3/230 (1.3%) bevacizumab-treated patients and 1/194 (0.5%) control patients. With major surgery during study treatment, 10/75 bevacizumab-treated patients (13%) and 1/29 control patients (3.4%) had wound healing complications. Bevacizumab-treated patients experienced complications with surgery < or = 30 and 31-60 days after the last dose.
Bevacizumab administered in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-based chemotherapy 28-60 days after primary cancer surgery caused no increased risk of wound healing complications compared with chemotherapy alone. While wound healing complications were increased in patients who had major surgery during bevacizumab therapy, the majority of bevacizumab-treated patients experienced no complications.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 10/2005; 91(3):173-80. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen in vitro and an angiogenic inducer in vivo. The tyrosine kinases Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and Flk-1/KDR (VEGFR-2) are high affinity VEGF receptors. VEGF plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis and is important also for reproductive and bone angiogenesis. Substantial evidence also implicates VEGF as a mediator of pathological angiogenesis. Anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies and other VEGF inhibitors block the growth of several tumor cell lines in nude mice. Clinical trials with VEGF inhibitors in a variety of malignancies are ongoing. Recently, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab; Avastin) has been approved by the FDA as a first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with chemotherapy. Furthermore, VEGF is implicated in intraocular neovascularization associated with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2005; 333(2):328-35. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent phase III trial showed that the addition of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor-A, to first-line irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) prolonged median survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients in the trial to evaluate whether mutation status of k-ras, b-raf, or p53 or P53 expression could predict which patients were more likely to respond to bevacizumab.
Microdissected tumors from 295 patients (274 primary tumors, 21 metastases) were subject to DNA sequence analysis to identify mutations in k-ras, b-raf, and p53. Nuclear P53 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis.
In all biomarker subgroups, estimated hazard ratios for risk of death were less than 1 for bevacizumab-treated patients as compared with those for placebo-treated patients. Mutations in k-ras and/or b-raf were observed in 88 of 213 patients (41%). Hazard ratios for death among patients with tumors with wild-type k-ras/b-raf status, as compared with those of patients with mutations in one or both genes, were 0.51 (95% CI = 0.28 to 0.95) among those treated with IFL plus bevacizumab and 0.66 (95% CI = 0.37 to 1.18) among those treated with IFL plus placebo. Mutations in p53 were found in 139 of 205 patients (68%), and P53 was overexpressed in 191 of 266 patients (72%); neither p53 mutation nor P53 overexpression was statistically significantly associated with survival.
We did not find a statistically significant relationship between mutations of k-ras, b-raf, or p53 and the increase in median survival associated with the addition of bevacizumab to IFL in metastatic colorectal cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, increases survival when combined with irinotecan-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). This randomized, phase II trial compared bevacizumab plus fluorouracil and leucovorin (FU/LV) versus placebo plus FU/LV as first-line therapy in patients considered nonoptimal candidates for first-line irinotecan.
Patients had metastatic CRC and one of the following characteristics: age > or = 65 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 1 or 2, serum albumin < or = 3.5 g/dL, or prior abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to FU/LV/placebo (n = 105) or FU/LV/bevacizumab (n = 104). The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were progression-free survival, response rate, response duration, and quality of life. Safety was also assessed.
Median survival was 16.6 months for the FU/LV/bevacizumab group and 12.9 months for the FU/LV/placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; P = .16). Median progression-free survival was 9.2 months (FU/LV/bevacizumab) and 5.5 months (FU/LV/placebo); hazard ratio was 0.50; P = .0002. Response rates were 26.0% (FU/LV/bevacizumab) and 15.2% (FU/LV/placebo) (P = .055); duration of response was 9.2 months (FU/LV/bevacizumab) and 6.8 months (FU/LV/placebo); hazard ratio was 0.42; P = .088. Grade 3 hypertension was more common with bevacizumab treatment (16% v 3%) but was controlled with oral medication and did not cause study drug discontinuation.
Addition of bevacizumab to FU/LV as first-line therapy in CRC patients who were not considered optimal candidates for first-line irinotecan treatment provided clinically significant patient benefit, including statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2005; 23(16):3697-705. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a phase III trial, combining bevacizumab (BV)--a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor--with irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil (FU), and leucovorin (LV; IFL) increased survival compared with IFL alone in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Results for the parent study of IFL/BV versus IFL/placebo are reported elsewhere. Here, we describe efficacy and safety results for the third patient cohort in this trial, who received BV combined with FU/LV, and compare them with results for concurrently enrolled patients who received IFL.
Patients (N = 923) were randomly assigned to receive IFL/placebo (control), IFL/BV, or FU/LV/BV. Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA) 5 mg/kg was administered intravenously every 2 weeks. Before an interim analysis confirmed acceptable safety for IFL/BV, 313 patients were concurrently randomly assigned to these three arms; after this analysis, the FU/LV/BV arm was discontinued.
Median overall survivals were 18.3 and 15.1 months with FU/LV/BV (n = 110) and IFL/placebo (n = 100), respectively. Median progression-free survivals were 8.8 and 6.8 months, respectively. Overall response rates were 40.0% and 37.0%, and median response durations were 8.5 and 7.2 months, respectively. Adverse events consistent with those expected from FU/leucovorin- or IFL-based regimens were seen, as were modest increases in hypertension and bleeding in the bevacizumab arm, which were generally easily managed.
The FU/LV/BV regimen seems as effective as IFL and has an acceptable safety profile. FU/LV/BV is an active alternative treatment regimen for patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2005; 23(15):3502-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer.
In a phase II trial, 99 patients were randomly assigned to bevacizumab 7.5 (n = 32) or 15 mg/kg (n = 35) plus carboplatin (area under the curve = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks or carboplatin and paclitaxel alone (n = 32). Primary efficacy end points were time to disease progression and best confirmed response rate. On disease progression, patients in the control arm had the option to receive single-agent bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks.
Compared with the control arm, treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) resulted in a higher response rate (31.5% v 18.8%), longer median time to progression (7.4 v 4.2 months) and a modest increase in survival (17.7 v 14.9 months). Of the 19 control patients that crossed over to single-agent bevacizumab, five experienced stable disease, and 1-year survival was 47%. Bleeding was the most prominent adverse event and was manifested in two distinct clinical patterns; minor mucocutaneous hemorrhage and major hemoptysis. Major hemoptysis was associated with squamous cell histology, tumor necrosis and cavitation, and disease location close to major blood vessels.
Bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel improved overall response and time to progression in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with nonsquamous cell histology appear to be a subpopulation with improved outcome and acceptable safety risks.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2004; 22(11):2184-91. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has shown promising preclinical and clinical activity against metastatic colorectal cancer, particularly in combination with chemotherapy.
Of 813 patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer, we randomly assigned 402 to receive irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) plus bevacizumab (5 mg per kilogram of body weight every two weeks) and 411 to receive IFL plus placebo. The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were progression-free survival, the response rate, the duration of the response, safety, and the quality of life.
The median duration of survival was 20.3 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 15.6 months in the group given IFL plus placebo, corresponding to a hazard ratio for death of 0.66 (P<0.001). The median duration of progression-free survival was 10.6 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 6.2 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.54; P<0.001); the corresponding rates of response were 44.8 percent and 34.8 percent (P=0.004). The median duration of the response was 10.4 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 7.1 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for progression, 0.62; P=0.001). Grade 3 hypertension was more common during treatment with IFL plus bevacizumab than with IFL plus placebo (11.0 percent vs. 2.3 percent) but was easily managed.
The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy results in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in survival among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2004; 350(23):2335-42. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of factors that stimulate blood vessel growth, thereby recruiting a neovascular supply to nourish a growing tumour, was postulated many decades ago, although the identification and isolation of these factors proved elusive. Now, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was identified in the 1980s, is recognized as an essential regulator of normal and abnormal blood vessel growth. In 1993, it was shown that a monoclonal antibody that targeted VEGF results in a dramatic suppression of tumour growth in vivo, which led to the development of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech), a humanized variant of this anti-VEGF antibody, as an anticancer agent. The recent approval of bevacizumab by the US FDA as a first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer validates the ideas that VEGF is a key mediator of tumour angiogenesis and that blocking angiogenesis is an effective strategy to treat human cancer.
dressNature Reviews Drug Discovery 06/2004; 3(5):391-400. · 33.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BV, a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was demonstrated to improve survival in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer when added to standard chemotherapy. Pooled data (total 4629 BV concentration from 491 subjects) from 8 Phase I to Phase III clinical trials were analyzed using NONMEM and a two-compartment structural model. Body weight and gender were the most significant covariates for both CL and Vc. The change in BV CL for extreme body weights (49 and 114 kg) was 30% around the typical value. After adjusting the weight, men had a 26% faster CL than females. In the final model, CL and Vc were 0.207 L/day and 2.66 L, respectively for the typical (female) patient. The inter-patient variability (%CV) in CL and Vc was 26% and 17%, respectively. BV terminal half-life was 19.9 and 19.3 days for a typical male and female patient. Low albumin and high alkaline phosphatase serum concentrations were associated with a faster CL (+19% and 23%, respectively). Concomitant administration of the combination irinotecan/5-fluorouracil in patients with colon cancer did not influence BV CL. The effect of various dosing regimen on bevacizumab exposure will be explored using simulations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes angiogenesis, an important mediator of growth and metastasis in human breast cancer. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, is under investigation as an anti-angiogenic agent. This phase I/II trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer. Seventy-five patients were treated with escalating doses of bevacizumab ranging from 3 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg administered intravenously every other week. Tumor response was assessed before the sixth (70 days) and 12th (154 days) doses. Safety was evaluated during every cycle. Eighteen patients were treated at 3 mg/kg, 41 at 10 mg/kg, and 16 at 20 mg/kg. Four patients discontinued study treatment because of an adverse event. Hypertension was reported as an adverse event in 17 patients (22%). The overall response rate was 9.3% (confirmed response rate, 6.7%). The median duration of confirmed response was 5.5 months (range, 2.3 to 13.7 months). At the final tumor assessment on day 154, 12 of 75 patients (16%) had stable disease or an ongoing response. The optimal dose of bevacizumab in this trial was 10 mg/kg every other week and toxicity was acceptable. These data support the initiation of trials in metastatic breast cancer combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This phase II trial investigated the safety and efficacy of two doses of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, plus fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) versus FU/LV alone in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
One hundred four previously untreated patients with measurable metastatic colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: 36 to FU (500 mg/m(2))/LV (500 mg/m(2)) alone, 35 to FU/LV + low-dose bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks), and 33 to FU/LV + high-dose bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks). FU/LV was given weekly for the first 6 weeks of each 8-week cycle.
Compared with the FU/LV control arm, treatment with bevacizumab (at both dose levels) plus FU/LV resulted in higher response rates (control arm, 17%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 7% to 34%; low-dose arm, 40%, 95% CI, 24% to 58%; high-dose arm, 24%, 95% CI, 12% to 43%), longer median time to disease progression (control arm, 5.2 months, 95% CI, 3.5 to 5.6 months; low-dose arm, 9.0 months, 95% CI, 5.8 to 10.9 months; high-dose arm, 7.2 months, 95% CI, 3.8 to 9.2 months), and longer median survival (control arm, 13.8 months; 95% CI, 9.1 to 23.0 months; low-dose arm, 21.5 months, 95% CI, 17.3 to undetermined; high-dose arm, 16.1 months; 95% CI, 11.0 to 20.7 months). After cross-over, two of 22 patients had a partial response to bevacizumab alone. Thrombosis was the most significant adverse event and was fatal in one patient. Hypertension, proteinuria, and epistaxis were other potential safety concerns.
The encouraging results of this randomized trial support further study of bevacizumab 5 mg/kg plus chemotherapy as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2003; 21(1):60-5. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of first-line, single-agent trastuzumab in women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer.
One hundred fourteen women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer were randomized to receive first-line treatment with trastuzumab 4 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 2 mg/kg weekly, or a higher 8 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 4 mg/kg weekly.
The objective response rate was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.2% to 34.4%), with seven complete and 23 partial responses. Response rates in 111 assessable patients with 3+ and 2+ HER2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were 35% (95% CI, 24.4% to 44.7%) and none (95% CI, 0% to 15.5%), respectively. The clinical benefit rates in assessable patients with 3+ and 2+ HER2 overexpression were 48% and 7%, respectively. The response rates in 108 assessable patients with and without HER2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis were 34% (95% CI, 23.9% to 45.7%) and 7% (95% CI, 0.8% to 22.8%), respectively. Seventeen (57%) of 30 patients with an objective response and 22 (51%) of 43 patients with clinical benefit had not experienced disease progression at follow-up at 12 months or later. The most common treatment-related adverse events were chills (25% of patients), asthenia (23%), fever (22%), pain (18%), and nausea (14%). Cardiac dysfunction occurred in two patients (2%); both had histories of cardiac disease and did not require additional intervention after discontinuation of trastuzumab. There was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship for response, survival, or adverse events.
Single-agent trastuzumab is active and well tolerated as first-line treatment of women with metastatic breast cancer with HER2 3+ overexpression by IHC or gene amplification by FISH.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2002; 20(3):719-26. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is inhibited by the recombinant humanized (rhu) monoclonal antibody (MAb) rhuMAbVEGF, which has synergy with chemotherapy in animal models. The present study was designed to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of weekly intravenous (IV) rhuMAbVEGF with one of three standard chemotherapy regimens.
Twelve adult patients were enrolled four on each combination. rhuMAbVEGF, 3 mg/kg IV, was administered weekly for 8 weeks with (1) doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks; (2) carboplatin at area under the curve of 6 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks; and (3) fluorouracil (5-FU) 500 mg/m(2) with leucovorin 20 mg/m(2) weekly, weeks 1 to 6 every 8 weeks.
The median number of rhuMAbVEGF doses delivered was eight (range, four to eight doses). Grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea (one 5-FU patient), thrombocytopenia (two patients on carboplatin plus paclitaxel), and leukopenia (one patient on carboplatin plus paclitaxel). These toxicities were likely attributable to the chemotherapy component of the regimen. The mean (+/- SD) peak serum level of rhuMAbVEGF was 167 +/- 46 microg/mL, and the mean terminal half-life was 13 days. Total (free plus bound) serum VEGF levels increased from 51 +/- 39 pg/mL (day 0) to 211 +/- 112 (day 49) pg/mL. Three responding patients continued treatment with rhuMAbVEGF and chemotherapy, receiving the equivalent of 36, 20, and 40 total rhuMAbVEGF doses with no cumulative or late toxicities.
rhuMAbVEGF can be safely combined with chemotherapy at doses associated with VEGF blockade and without apparent synergistic toxicity. Its contribution to the treatment of advanced solid tumors should be evaluated in randomized treatment trials.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2001; 19(3):851-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following confirmation of the appropriate dosage, safety and potential efficacy of Herceptin(trastuzumab) in small-scale phase I and II trials involving patients with refractory disease, a large trial was conducted in 222 patients with breast cancer who had relapsed after one or two chemotherapy regimens for their metastatic disease. The results showed a positive and durable overall response rate (15% according to a response evaluation committee (REC) assessment) using trastuzumab monotherapy (initial dose 4 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) followed by 2 mg/kg i.v. weekly). In another recently completed phase II trial, 113 patients were randomised to two dose levels (initial dose of 4 mg/kg i.v. dose followed by 2 mg/kg i.v. weekly, or initial dose of 8 mg/kg followed by 4 mg/kg i.v. weekly) of single-agent trastuzumab as first-line therapy for metastatic disease. The preliminary overall response rate was 23% based on investigator assessment, and tolerability was excellent as in previous trials; efficacy was similar in both dose groups, but the side-effects tended to be more frequent in the higher dose group. The preferred dosage is therefore the same as that currently recommended, i.e. an initial dose of 4 mg/kg i.v. followed by 2 mg/kg weekly i.v. until disease progression.
European Journal of Cancer 02/2001; 37 Suppl 1:S25-9. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following confirmation of the appropriate dosage, safety and potential efficacy of Herceptin(R) (trastuzumab) in small-scale phase I and II trials involving patients with refractory disease, a large trial was conducted in 222 patients with breast cancer who had relapsed after one or two chemotherapy regimens for their metastatic disease. The results showed a positive and durable overall response rate (15% according to a response evaluation committee (REC) assessment) using trastuzumab monotherapy (initial dose 4 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) followed by 2 mg/kg i.v. weekly). In another recently completed phase II trial, 113 patients were randomised to two dose levels (initial dose of 4 mg/kg i.v. dose followed by 2 mg/kg i.v. weekly, or initial dose of 8 mg/kg followed by 4 mg/kg i.v. weekly) of single-agent trastuzumab as first-line therapy for metastatic disease. The preliminary overall response rate was 23% based on investigator assessment, and tolerability was excellent as in previous trials; efficacy was similar in both dose groups, but the side-effects tended to be more frequent in the higher dose group. The preferred dosage is therefore the same as that currently recommended, i.e. an initial dose of 4 mg/kg i.v. followed by 2 mg/kg weekly i.v. until disease progression.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2001; 37 Suppl 1:25-29. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pivotal phase II and III Herceptin trials proved the efficacy and safety of second- or third-line single-agent Herceptin and first-line Herceptin in combination with chemotherapy, respectively. In the current trial, 114 patients were randomized to one of two dose groups of first-line Herceptin monotherapy: standard dose of 4 mg/ kg initial dose followed by 2 mg/kg intravenous (i.v.) weekly; or high dose of 8 mg/kg initial dose followed by 4 mg/kg i.v. weekly. The regimen was generally well tolerated. A similar incidence of adverse events was demonstrated in the two dose groups with the possible exception of acute infusion-related events such as fever and chills as well as rash and dyspnea, which appear to be more prevalent in the higher dose group. The overall response rate was 26% and response rates were similar between the two dose groups (24% for the standard Herceptin dose group and 28% for the high Herceptin dose group). Subgroup analysis determined a higher response rate in IHC 3+ patients (35%) and FISH-positive patients (41%). When women with stable disease for > or =6 months were included with responders, the clinical benefit rate in IHC 3+ patients was 47%. Median survival was 24.4 months, which is comparable with the survival rate seen in the pivotal phase III combination trial (25 months). Therefore, single-agent Herceptin is an important new option for the first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients.