[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between 2 types of emotion regulation (reactivity and inhibition) and 2 types of non-hunger-based eating (emotional eating and external eating). Although emotion regulation and eating regulation problems have both been linked to obesity in previous studies, there is little research examining the link between the two, particularly among children.
A total of 782 rural second graders (49% girls, 20% American Indian) were followed longitudinally through third grade. During both data collection points, children participated in face-to-face interviews at school using the Children's Emotion Management Scales and the revised Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire.
Correlational analyses revealed that children's emotion regulation was significantly related to both external and emotional eating within and across grades, with reactivity appearing to be more consistently related to eating regulation than was inhibition. Regression analyses showed that second to third grade increases in external and emotional eating were predicted by increases in reactivity to anger and reactivity to worry.
Given the established link in previous research between poor behavioral regulation and obesity in children, findings from this study linking child emotional reactivity and emotional and external eating (both forms of behavior dysregulation) are important in informing prevention and treatment programs. Based on these findings, targeting child emotion regulation in addition to behavior regulation skills as part of prevention and intervention programs may improve program effectiveness.
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 10/2013; 34(8):557-65. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR=0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR=1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR=2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR=0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition in addition to investigating infant behaviour within the context of changes in iron status over time. Existing research is typically limited to the investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral, and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behaviour and nutritional status may be bidirectional. The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, haemoglobin, the frequency of alertness and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month haemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared with responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, although weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia.
Maternal and Child Nutrition 01/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More-complex models than those currently available are needed to guide research about childhood obesity. This article presents an Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Risk Model of Child Obesity, a transdisciplinary model of psychosocial risk factors that is based on work in developmental, family, and nutritional sciences. Two interpersonal realms of child development identified as being potentially significant for understanding the development and maintenance of overweight include the child’s family and peer contexts. Child intrapersonal variables proposed as mediators between these contexts and weight outcomes include poor self-regulation and self-awareness, negative affect, and emotional or external eating. The article encourages developmental scientists to add their expertise to the study of childhood obesity by using models such as the one outlined here for the generation and testing of hypotheses so that future intervention efforts may be improved.
Child Development Perspectives 01/2012; 6:445-465. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in physical activity and fitness level by weight status in this sample.METHODS: Twelve schools participating in a multidisciplinary research project were randomly selected for the study. Body mass index-for-age percentile, the modified Self-administered Physical Activity Checklist, and the FITNESSGRAM battery tests were utilized to determine children's weight status, physical activity, and fitness level, respectively.RESULTS: Thirty-eight percent of the 237 participating children (9.2 ± 0.4 years) were overweight or obese. Nearly 15% were extremely obese. Children spent 91.8 ± 83.8 and 32.2 ± 47.7 minutes in moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Obese children spent less time in moderate-intensity activity (p < .01) and combined moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity more than other children (p < .05). Forty-three percent of all children failed to meet the fitness standard for muscular strength and 36% failed to meet it for flexibility.CONCLUSIONS: Rural children in this sample had higher rates of obesity compared to the national average; they had poor fitness and 30% failed to meet the minimum physical activity recommendations on the previous day. Future interventions should focus on increasing physical activity, especially of moderate-intensity, and improving physical fitness in order to reduce obesity and decrease the risk of future chronic diseases in this high-risk population.
Journal of School Health 08/2011; 81(9):536 - 544. · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI < 18.5. Anthropometric assessment of children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score < −2) and 12% to be underweight (weight-for-age z-score < −2). Mothers' education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), and visual processing (r = 0.42, P < 0.001) indices and weight-for-age z-scores were also correlated with scores of short-term memory (r = 0.41, P < 0.001) and visual processing (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) indices. Malnutrition in the community likely contributed to the cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function.
Maternal and Child Nutrition 08/2011; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity.
Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index.
Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA.
One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools.
Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers.
Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.
Public Health Nutrition 12/2009; 13(8):1237-44. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) mumol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 mumol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven's scale A, which is the simplest scale, ranged from 4 to 10 of a possible 12. Women with plasma zinc <7.6 mumol/l had significantly lower Raven's CPM scale A scores than women with plasma zinc concentrations >7.6 mumol/l. Plasma zinc and maternal age and education predicted 17% of the variation in Raven's CPM scale A scores. We conclude that zinc deficiency is a major factor affecting cognition in these pregnant women.
European journal of clinical nutrition 02/2009; 63(7):916-8. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined relations of blood lead < 10 microg/dL, iron, zinc, and parenting to Head Start children's (N = 112) scores on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III) and McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Venous whole blood and plasma samples were analyzed for lead and zinc by ICP-MS and iron status was assessed by serum transferrin receptors. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant effects of lead on MSCA perceptual scores and iron on PPVT-III and MSCA verbal scores. Children with lead > 2.5 microg/dL had significantly lower MSCA perceptual scores than children < 2.5 microg/dL. Permissive parenting significantly exacerbated negative effects of higher lead or lower iron on children's perceptual or verbal scores, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole.
To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices.
Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study.
Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools.
Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire.
Correlation and regression analyses.
Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3).
Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles are not likely to be successful.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 08/2008; 108(7):1154-61; discussion 1161-2. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 ± 1.19 SD, and length z score of -1.05 ± 1.31. The age-appropriate novelty preference was shown by only 12 infants. When age was controlled, longest look duration during familiarization was predicted by weight (sr(2) = .16, p = .001) and length (sr(2) = .05, p =.058), and mean look duration during test phases was predicted by head circumference (sr(2) = .08, p = .018) implying that growth is associated with development of VIP. These data support the validity of VIP as a measure of infant cognitive development that is sensitive to nutritional factors and flexible enough to be adapted to individual cultures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of lead, zinc, and iron levels in relation to child cognition and behavior in a small sample of Head Start children. The design was cross-sectional and correlational. Participants were 42 3- to 5-year-old children attending rural Head Start centers. Nonfasting blood samples of whole blood lead, plasma zinc, and ferritin were collected. Teachers rated children's behavior on the California Preschool Social Competency Scale, Howes' Sociability subscale, and the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire. Children were tested individually with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that zinc and ferritin jointly explained 25% of the variance in McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities verbal scores. Lead levels explained 25% of the variance in teacher ratings of girls' sociability and 20% of the variance in teacher ratings of girls' classroom competence. Zinc levels explained 39% of the variance in teacher ratings of boys' anxiety. Univariate analysis of variance revealed that the four children low in zinc and iron had significantly higher blood lead (median=0.23 micromol/L [4.73 microg/dL]) than the 31 children sufficient in zinc or iron (median=0.07 micromol/L [1.54 microg/dL]) or the 7 children sufficient in both (median=0.12 micromol/L [2.52 microg/dL]), suggesting an interaction among the three minerals. Within this small low-income sample, the results imply both separate and interacting effects of iron, zinc, and lead. They underscore the importance of studying these three minerals in larger samples of low-income preschool children to make more definitive conclusions.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 02/2007; 107(1):128-33. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We proposed a higher order latent construct of parenting young children, parenting quality. This higher-order latent construct comprises five component constructs: demographic protection, psychological distress, psychosocial maturity, moral and cognitive reflectivity, and parenting attitudes and beliefs. We evaluated this model with data provided by 199 mothers of 4-year-old children enrolled in Head Start. The model was confirmed with only one adjustment suggested by modification indices. Final RMSEA was .05, CFI .96, and NNFI .94, indicating good model fit. Results were interpreted as emphasizing the interdependence of psychological and environmental demands on parenting. Implications of the model for teachers, early interventionists, and public policy are discussed.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly 11/2006; 21(4):491-506. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate relations among measures of iron and zinc status, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes in low-income children participating in the Head Start program.
Cross-sectional correlational study with samples collected at Head Start centers in May 2003.
Forty-seven children (aged 3 to 5 years) attending Head Start centers in three rural communities.
Zinc, ferritin, CRP, and complete blood count were analyzed in nonfasting blood samples.
Correlations were computed among leukocyte levels, CRP levels, and measures of micronutrient status. Children having two abnormal measures (ie, leukocytes and CRP) were compared by univariate analysis of variance with children having zero or one abnormal measure.
Most (72%) of the children had elevated CRP levels. Four percent were anemic (hemoglobin<11.0 g/dL [<110 g/L]); 11% had low iron stores (serum ferritin<or=15 ng/mL [<or=33.7 pmol/L]); and 77% had low iron stores when a reference value that accounts for the presence of infection was used (serum ferritin<or=30 ng/mL [<or=67.4 pmol/L]). Twenty-one percent had low plasma zinc levels. Children with two measures that indicated infection had higher serum ferritin and lower plasma zinc levels than children with zero or one indicator of infection.
The link between measures of infection and serum ferritin levels suggests low-income preschool children with low iron stores are not identified by the <or=15 ng/mL (<or=33.7 pmol/L) criterion. The link between zinc and infection suggests possible overestimations of zinc deficiency in low-income children. Thus, in this population, the presence of infection (as indicated by CRP levels and leukocyte counts) should be determined to assess micronutrient status.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 04/2006; 106(3):376-82. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Systematic research evaluating the separate and interacting impacts of neurotoxicants, micronutrients, and social environments on children's cognition and behavior has only recently been initiated. Years of extensive human epidemiologic and animal experimental research document the deleterious impact of lead and other metals on the nervous system. However, discrepancies among human studies and between animal and human studies underscore the importance of variations in child nutrition as well as social and behavioral aspects of children's environments that mitigate or exacerbate the effects of neurotoxicants.In this monograph, we review existing research on the impact of neurotoxic metals, nutrients, and social environments and interactions across the three domains. We examine the literature on lead, mercury, manganese, and cadmium in terms of dispersal, epidemiology, experimental animal studies, effects of social environments, and effects of nutrition.Research documenting the negative impact of lead on cognition and behavior influenced reductions by the Center for Disease Control in child lead-screening guidelines from 30 micrograms per deciliter (g/dL) in 1975 to 25 g/dL in 1985 and to 10 g/dL in 1991. A further reduction is currently being considered. Experimental animal research documents lead's alteration of glutamate-neurotransmitter (particularly N-methyl-D-aspartate) activity vital to learning and memory. In addition, lead induces changes in cholinergic and dopaminergic activity. Elevated lead concentrations in the blood are more common among children living in poverty and there is some evidence that socioeconomic status influences associations between lead and child outcomes. Micronutrients that influence the effects of lead include iron and zinc. Research documenting the negative impact of mercury on children (as well as adults) has resulted in a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microgram per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day). In animal studies, mercury interferes with glutamatergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic activity. Although evidence for interactions of mercury with children's social contexts is minimal, researchers are examining interactions of mercury with several nutrients. Research on the effects of cadmium and manganese on child cognition and behavior is just beginning. Experimental animal research links cadmium to learning deficits, manganese to behaviors characteristic of Parkinson's disease, and both to altered dopaminergic functioning.We close our review with a discussion of policy implications, and we recommend interdisciplinary research that will enable us to bridge gaps within and across domains.
Psychological Science in the Public Interest 01/2005; 6(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether cumulative family risk would moderate the relation between regularity of attending Head Start and three child outcomes: receptive vocabulary, teacher ratings of social competence, and teacher ratings of following instructions. Cumulative family risk was the sum of four dichotomous measures: low income, low cognitive stimulation, intrusiveness, and depression. Participants were 94 Head Start children and their caregivers. All but 1 of the 16 classrooms attended were rated as good or better on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). Analyses revealed the relation between Head Start attendance and receptive vocabulary was moderated by cumulative risk, with children from higher risk families benefiting more. Regardless of cumulative family risk, attendance predicted teacher ratings of social competence; regardless of attendance, cumulative family risk predicted teacher ratings of following instructions. Results are interpreted as supporting a compensatory model of the impact of Head Start on children’s receptive vocabulary and the use of attendance as a measure of the “value added” by Head Start. Public policy implications are discussed.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly 01/2002; 17(4):539-558. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study examined how parental cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and intrusiveness measured during children's prekindergarten year were related to children's verbal and nonverbal abilities 1 year later. Participants were 110 Head Start children and their caregivers from primarily rural and low-income backgrounds. Analysis of children's scores on the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities confirmed the predictive utility of cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and intrusive behavior for perceptual scores (20% of the unique variance) as well as the predictive utility of emotional support and intrusive behavior for verbal scores (15% of the unique variance). Parental emotional support during guidance of problem solving (positive feedback) explained statistically significant unique variance in children's perceptual scores beyond other measures of emotional support. Cognitive stimulation moderated the relation between positive feedback and perceptual scores. Although other syntactic forms of maternal utterances such as commands did not explain statistically significant unique variance in children's scores beyond emotional support and intrusive behavior, mothers' questions did. Specific policy implications of the effects are discussed.
Child Development 01/2002; 73(1):110-31. · 4.72 Impact Factor