[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPAACT P1097 was a multicenter trial to determine washout pharmacokinetics and safety of in utero/intrapartum exposure to raltegravir in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Twenty-two mother-infant pairs were enrolled; evaluable pharmacokinetic data was available from 19 mother-infant pairs. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta, with median cord blood/maternal delivery plasma raltegravir concentration ratio 1.48 (range, 0.32-4.33). Raltegravir elimination was highly variable and extremely prolonged in some infants; [median t½ 26.6 hours (range 9.3-184 hours)]. Prolonged raltegravir elimination likely reflects low neonatal UGT1A1 enzyme activity and enterohepatic recirculation. Excessive raltegravir concentrations must be avoided in the neonate, since raltegravir at high plasma concentrations may increase the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. Sub-therapeutic concentrations, which could lead to inadequate viral suppression and development of raltegravir resistance, must be avoided as well. Two ongoing IMPAACT studies are investigating further the pharmacology of raltegravir in neonates.
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 08/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. IMPAACT P1066 is a Phase I/II open label multicenter trial to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), tolerability and efficacy of multiple raltegravir (RAL) formulations in HIV-infected youth. Methods. Dose selection for each cohort (I: 12 to <19 years; II: 6 to<12 years; and III: 2 to<6 years) was based on review of short term safety (4 weeks) and intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation. Safety data through Weeks 24 and 48, and Grade >3 or serious adverse events (AE) were assessed. The primary virologic endpoint was achieving HIV RNA<400 copies/mL or ≥1 log10 reduction between baseline and week 24. Results. The targeted PK parameters (AUC0-12 hr and C12 hr) were achieved for each cohort allowing dose selection for two formulations. Of 96 final dose subjects, there were 15 subjects with Grade 3+ clinical AEs (1 subject with drug related [DR] psychomotor hyperactivity and insomnia); 16 subjects with Grade 3+ laboratory AEs (1 with DR transaminase elevation); 15 subjects with serious clinical AEs (1 with DR rash); 2 subjects with serious laboratory AEs (1 with DR transaminase increased). There were no discontinuations due to AEs and no DR deaths. Favorable virologic responses at Week 48 were observed in 78.9%, with a mean CD4 increase of 156 cells/uL (4.6%). Conclusions. 400 mg BID of RAL film-coated tablet (6 to <19 years, and ≥25 kg) and 6 mg/kg BID (maximum dose 300 mg) of RAL chewable tablet (2 to<12 years) were well-tolerated and showed favorable virologic and immunologic responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Two randomised, placebo-controlled trials—BENCHMRK-1 and BENCHMRK-2—investigated the efficacy and safety of raltegravir, an HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitor. We report final results of BENCHMRK-1 and BENCHMRK-2 combined at 3 years (the end of the double-blind phase) and 5 years (the end of the study).
Integrase-inhibitor-naive patients with HIV resistant to three classes of drug and who were failing antiretroviral therapy were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to raltegravir 400 mg twice daily or placebo, both with optimised background treatment. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation until week 156, after which all patients were offered open-label raltegravir until week 240. The primary endpoint was previously assessed at 16 weeks. We assessed long-term efficacy with endpoints of the proportion of patients with an HIV viral load of less than 50 copies per mL and less than 400 copies per mL, and mean change in CD4 cell count, at weeks 156 and 240.
1012 patients were screened for inclusion. 462 were treated with raltegravir and 237 with placebo. At week 156, 51% in the raltegravir group versus 22% in the placebo group (non-completer classed as failure) had viral loads of less than 50 copies per mL, and 54% versus 23% had viral loads of less than 400 copies per mL. Mean CD4 cell count increase (analysed by an observed failure approach) was 164 cells per μL versus 63 cells per μL. After week 156, 251 patients (54%) from the raltegravir group and 47 (20%) from the placebo group entered the open-label raltergravir phase; 221 (47%) versus 44 (19%) completed the entire study. At week 240, viral load was less than 50 copies per mL in 193 (42%) of all patients initially assigned to raltegravir and less than 400 copies per mL in 210 (45%); mean CD4 cell count increased by 183 cells per μL. Virological failure occurred in 166 raltegravir recipients (36%) during the double-blind phase and in 17 of all patients (6%) during the open-label phase. The most common drug-related adverse events at 5 years in both groups were nausea, headache, and diarrhoea, and occurred in similar proportions in each group. Laboratory test results were similar in both treatment groups and showed little change after year 2.
Raltegravir has a favourable long-term efficacy and safety profile in integrase-inhibitor-naive patients with triple-class resistant HIV in whom antiretroviral therapy is failing. Raltegravir is an alternative for treatment-experienced patients, particularly those with few treatment options.
Merck Sharp & Dohme.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 07/2013; 13(7):587–596. · 19.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: STARTMRK, a Phase III non-inferiority trial of raltegravir-based versus efavirenz-based therapy in treatment-naïve patients, remained blinded until its conclusion at 5 years. We now report the final study results. METHODS:: Previously untreated patients without baseline resistance to efavirenz, tenofovir, or emtricitabine were eligible for a randomized study of tenofovir/emtricitabine plus either raltegravir or efavirenz. Yearly analyses were planned, with primary and secondary endpoints stipulated at Weeks 48 and 96, respectively. The primary efficacy outcome was the percentage of patients with vRNA levels <50 copies/mL counting non-completers as failures (NC=F). Changes from baseline CD4-count were computed using an observed-failure approach to missing data. No formal hypotheses were formulated for testing at Week 240. RESULTS:: Overall, 71/281 raltegravir recipients (25%) and 98/282 efavirenz recipients (35%) discontinued the study; discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 14 (5%) and 28 (10%) patients in the respective groups. In the NC=F efficacy analysis at Week 240, 198/279 (71.0%) raltegravir recipients and 171/279 (61.3%) efavirenz recipients had vRNA levels <50 copies/mL, yielding a treatment difference (Δ [95% CI]) of 9.5 [1.7, 17.3]. Generally comparable between-treatment differences were seen in both protocol-stipulated sensitivity analyses as well as in the prespecified subgroup analyses. The mean [95% CI] increments in baseline CD4-counts at Week 240 were 374 and 312 cells/mm in the raltegravir and efavirenz groups, respectively (Δ [95% CI] = 62 [22, 102]). Overall, significantly fewer raltegravir than efavirenz recipients experienced neuropsychiatric (39.1% versus 64.2%, p <0.001) or drug-related clinical adverse events (52.0% versus 80.1%, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: In this exploratory analysis of combination therapy with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naive patients at Week 240, vRNA suppression rates and increases in baseline CD4 counts were significantly higher in raltegravir than efavirenz recipients. Over the entire study, fewer patients experienced neuropsychiatric and drug-related adverse events in the raltegravir group than in the efavirenz group. Based on better virologic and immunologic outcomes after 240 weeks, raltegravir/tenofovir/emtricitabine appeared to have superior efficacy compared to efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raltegravir as initial HIV therapy was examined in a double-blind study; 160 patients were randomized to raltegravir (400 mg bid after dose-ranging), 38 to efavirenz, both with tenofovir/lamivudine. At week 240, HIV-RNA remained <50 copies per milliliter in 68.8% (raltegravir) versus 63.2% (efavirenz), and CD4 increases were 302 versus 276 cells per microliter, respectively. Early HIV-RNA decline predicted later CD4 increases in both groups. Raltegravir resistance was observed in 3 of 10 raltegravir recipients with virologic failure. Few drug-related adverse events were reported after week 48. Raltegravir had minimal effect on laboratory values, including lipids. Raltegravir with tenofovir/lamivudine showed durable efficacy and good tolerability over 5 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose of study: Safety and efficacy of raltegravir (RAL) in patients (pts) with HIV and hepatitis B and/or C (HBV/HCV) co-infection were evaluated in a double-blind fashion for 5 years in STARTMRK and 3 years in BENCHMRK-1&2. Methods: In STARTMRK, treatment-naïve pts received RAL 400 mg bid or efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg qhs, both with tenofovir+emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), for up to 240 weeks. In BENCHMRK-1&2, highly treatment-experienced pts with multidrug-resistant virus and failing other therapies received double-blind RAL 400 mg bid or placebo, both with optimized background therapy (OBT), for up to 156 weeks. Pts with stable chronic HBV/HCV could enroll if baseline AST and ALT were=5×upper limit of normal. Summary of results: 743 pts received RAL and 519 received comparator. Hepatitis co-infection was present in 6% (34/563) of treatment-naïve pts (HBV=4%, HCV=2%, HBV+HCV=0.2%) and 16% (114/699) of treatment-experienced pts (HBV=6%, HCV=9%, HBV+HCV=1%). Safety and efficacy results at the end of double-blind treatment are shown by study, treatment group and co-infection status. Liver enzyme elevations were more common in pts with HIV+HBV/HCV co-infection than in pts with HIV infection alone, in the RAL and control groups. Most liver enzyme changes occurred in the first 48 weeks of treatment, with minimal further increases (data not shown). Conclusion: RAL was efficacious and generally well tolerated for up to 5 years in pts with HIV+HBV/HCV co-infection. The majority of grade 3 and grade 4 liver enzyme elevations occurred during the first year of treatment and were more common among co-infected pts than among HIV mono-infected pts, irrespective of treatment group.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2012; 15(6):18415. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared 3 years of antiretroviral therapy with raltegravir or efavirenz as part of a combination regimen in the ongoing STARTMRK study of treatment-naive patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Eligible patients with HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) levels >5000 copies/mL and without baseline resistance to efavirenz, tenofovir, or emtricitabine were randomized in a double-blind, noninferiority study to receive raltegravir or efavirenz, each combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine. Outcomes included viral suppression, adverse events, and changes from baseline metabolic parameters. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were obtained on a convenience sample of patients at prespecified time points to assess changes in body fat composition.
At week 156 counting noncompleters as failures, 212 (75.4%) of 281 versus 192 (68.1%) of 282 had vRNA levels <50 copies/mL in the raltegravir and efavirenz groups, respectively [Δ (95% CI) = 7.3% (-0.2, 14.7), noninferiority P < .001]. Mean changes from baseline CD4 count were 332 and 295 cells/mm³ in the raltegravir and efavirenz arms, respectively [Δ (95% CI) = 37 (4, 69)]. Consistent virologic and immunologic efficacy was maintained across prespecified demographic and baseline prognostic subgroups for both treatment groups. Fewer drug-related clinical adverse events (49% vs 80%; P < .001) occurred in raltegravir than efavirenz recipients, with discontinuations due to adverse events in 5% and 7%, respectively. Elevations in fasting lipid levels (including LDL- and HDL-cholesterol) were consistently lower in the raltegravir than efavirenz group (P < .005). Fat gain was 19% in 25 raltegravir recipients and 31% in 32 efavirenz recipients at week 156.
When combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naive patients, raltegravir produced durable viral suppression and immune restoration that was at least equivalent to efavirenz through 156 weeks of therapy. Both regimens were well tolerated, but raltegravir was associated with fewer drug-related clinical adverse events and smaller elevations in lipid levels. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00369941.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to examine the long-term safety and efficacy of raltegravir in patients with HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection in three double-blind, randomized, controlled Phase III studies.
In STARTMRK, treatment-naïve patients received raltegravir 400 mg twice a day (bid) or efavirenz 600 mg at bedtime, both with tenofovir/emtricitabine. In BENCHMRK-1 and -2, highly treatment-experienced patients with multi-drug resistant virus and prior treatment failure received raltegravir 400 mg bid or placebo, both with optimized background therapy. Patients with chronic HBV and/or HCV coinfection were enrolled if baseline liver function tests were ≤5 times the upper limit of normal. HBV infection was defined as HBV surface antigen positivity for all studies; HCV infection was defined as HCV RNA positivity for STARTMRK and HCV antibody positivity for BENCHMRK.
Hepatitis coinfection was present in 6% (34 of 563) of treatment-naïve patients (4% HBV only, 2% HCV only and 0.2% HBV+HCV) and 16% (114 of 699) of treatment-experienced patients (6% HBV only, 9% HCV only and 1% HBV+HCV). The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar in raltegravir recipients with and without hepatitis coinfection in both STARTMRK (50 vs. 47%) and BENCHMRK (34 vs. 38.5%). Grade 2-4 liver enzyme elevations were more frequent in coinfected vs. monoinfected patients, but were not different between the raltegravir and control groups. At week 96, the proportion of raltegravir recipients with HIV RNA <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL was similar between coinfected and monoinfected patients (93 vs. 90% in STARTMRK; 63 vs. 61% in BENCHMRK).
Raltegravir was generally well tolerated and efficacious up to 96 weeks in HIV-infected patients with HBV/HCV coinfection.
HIV Medicine 05/2011; 13(2):127-31. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raltegravir is the first integrase strand transfer inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. As the first agent in this new class of antiretroviral therapies, raltegravir has demonstrated safety and efficacy in treatment-naive as well as heavily pretreated HIV-infected patients failing therapy with multidrug-resistant virus. Raltegravir has a favorable drug interaction profile that permits both administration to a wide, demographically diverse patient population and coadministration with many other therapeutic agents, including antiretroviral agents and supportive medications, without restrictions or dose adjustment. Data through 96 weeks of follow-up in three phase III studies, protocol 021 (STARTMRK) in treatment-naive patients, and protocols 018 (BENCHMRK-1) and 019 (BENCHMRK-2) in treatment-experienced patients, demonstrated the potent and durable antiretroviral and immunologic effects and the favorable long-term safety profile of raltegravir in both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients. Raltegravir represents an important addition to the current armamentarium for the treatment of HIV infection.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 03/2011; 1222:83-9. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raltegravir has demonstrated potent and durable efficacy and a favorable safety profile in 3 phase III studies in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 infection. This manuscript provides a review of the raltegravir safety profile using data from these and other studies in the clinical development program.
Comprehensive 96-week safety data from STARTMRK (raltegravir versus efavirenz, each with tenofovir/emtricitabine) and BENCHMRK (raltegravir versus placebo, each with optimized background therapy) are summarized. A cumulative meta-analysis of raltegravir 400 mg bid was conducted across the entire development program.
In STARTMRK, drug-related adverse events (AEs) occurred less frequently with raltegravir than efavirenz. In BENCHMRK, the most common drug-related AEs occurred at generally similar frequencies in both groups. Drug-related serious AEs were uncommon. Rash was observed in raltegravir-treated patients at a higher frequency than placebo but a lower frequency than efavirenz. Depression and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred at similar rates for raltegravir and comparators. Isolated elevations of creatine kinase were more common with raltegravir than placebo but occurred without clinical manifestations. The frequency of aminotransferase elevations was greater in patients with viral hepatitis co-infection, but similar in the raltegravir and comparator groups. The relative risk (95% CI) of cancer was 0.75 (0.30, 1.91) indicating no difference between raltegravir and comparator. Overall trends in the cumulative meta-analysis were similar to those observed in the phase III studies.
Long-term data from the phase III clinical trials demonstrate that raltegravir was generally well-tolerated in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection.
Current HIV research 01/2011; 9(1):40-53. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the 96-week results in the overall population and in prespecified subgroups from the ongoing STARTMRK study of treatment-naive HIV-infected patients.
Eligible patients with HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) levels >5000 copies per milliliter and without baseline resistance to efavirenz, tenofovir, or emtricitabine were randomized in a double-blind noninferiority study to receive raltegravir or efavirenz, each combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine.
At week 96 counting noncompleters as failures, 81% versus 79% achieved vRNA levels <50 copies per milliliter in the raltegravir and efavirenz groups, respectively [Delta (95% confidence interval) = 2% (-4 to 9), noninferiority P < 0.001]. Mean change in baseline CD4 count was 240 and 225 cells per cubic millimeter in the raltegravir and efavirenz groups, respectively [Delta (95% confidence interval) = 15 (-13 to 42)]. Treatment effects were consistent across prespecified baseline demographic and prognostic subgroups. Fewer drug-related clinical adverse events (47% versus 78%; P < 0.001) occurred in raltegravir than efavirenz recipients. Both regimens had modest effects on serum lipids and glucose levels and on body fat composition.
When combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naive patients, raltegravir exhibited durable antiretroviral activity that was noninferior to the efficacy of efavirenz through 96 weeks of therapy. Subgroup analyses were generally consistent with the overall findings. Both regimens were well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the long-term efficacy of raltegravir according to HIV-1 subtype (B and non-B) using data from three phase III studies in treatment-experienced (BENCHMRK-1 and 2) and treatment-naive (STARTMRK) HIV-infected patients.
HIV-1 subtypes were identified from baseline plasma specimens using genotypic data of the PhenoSense GT test (Monogram Biosciences, South San Francisco, California, USA). Non-B subtypes were combined for the current analyses due to small numbers of each specific subtype. An observed failure approach was used (only discontinuations due to lack of efficacy were treated as failures). Resistance evaluation was performed in patients with documented virologic failure.
Seven hundred and forty-three patients received raltegravir and 519 received comparator (efavirenz in STARTMRK; optimized background therapy in BENCHMRK). Non-B subtype virus (A, A/C, A/D, A/G, A1, AE, AG, B/G, BF, C, D, D/F, F, F1, G, and complex) was isolated at baseline in 98 (13%) raltegravir recipients and 62 (12%) comparator recipients. Subtypes AE and C were most common, isolated in 41 and 43 patients, respectively. The proportion of raltegravir recipients achieving HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml was similar between non-B and B subtypes (STARTMRK: 94.5 vs. 88.7%; BENCHMRK-1 and 2: 66.7 vs. 60.7%); change in CD4 cell count also was similar between non-B and B subtypes (STARTMRK: 243 vs. 221 cells/μl; BENCHMRK-1 and 2: 121 vs. 144 cells/μl). Phenotypic resistance to raltegravir in non-B virus was associated with integrase mutations observed previously in subtype B virus.
In phase III studies in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, raltegravir showed comparable and potent clinical efficacy against B and non-B HIV-1 subtypes.
AIDS (London, England) 04/2010; 25(11):1365-9. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BENCHMRK-1 and -2 are ongoing double-blind phase III studies of raltegravir in patients experiencing failure of antiretroviral therapy with triple-class drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. At week 96 (combined data), raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) plus optimized background therapy was generally well tolerated, with superior and durable antiretroviral and immunological efficacy, compared with optimized background therapy alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results: In total, 743 pts received RAL and 519 received comparator across the 3 studies. Hepatitis co-infection was present in 16% (114/699) of treatment-experienced pts (HBV=6 %, HCV=9 %, HBV+HCV=1 %) and in 6% (34/563) of treatment-naïve pts (HBV=4 %, HCV=2 %, HBV+HCV=0.2 %). Selected safety and efficacy results at week 96 are shown for pts with (+) HBV/HCV and those without (-) HBV/HCV co-infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of raltegravir vs efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy after 96 weeks in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 infection.
Multicenter, double-blind, randomized study of raltegravir (100, 200, 400, or 600 mg twice a day) vs efavirenz (600 mg every day), both with tenofovir/lamivudine (TDF/3TC), for 48 weeks, after which raltegravir arms were combined and all dosed at 400 mg twice a day. Eligible patients had HIV-1 RNA > or =5000 copies per milliliter and CD4 T cells > or =100 cells per microliter.
One hundred ninety-eight patients were randomized and treated; 160 received raltegravir and 38 received efavirenz. At week 96, 84% of patients in both groups achieved HIV-1 RNA <400 copies per milliliter; 83% in the raltegravir group and 84% in the efavirenz group achieved <50 copies per milliliter (noncompleter = failure). Both groups showed similar increases in CD4 T cells (221 vs 232 cells/uL, respectively). An additional 2 patients (1 in each group) met the protocol definition of virologic failure between weeks 48 and 96; no known resistance mutations were observed in the raltegravir recipient; the efavirenz recipient had nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations. Investigator reported drug-related clinical adverse events (AEs) were less frequent with raltegravir (51%) than efavirenz (74%). Drug-related AEs occurring in >10% of patients in either group were nausea in both groups and dizziness and headache in the efavirenz group. Laboratory AEs remained infrequent. Raltegravir had no adverse effect on total or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or on triglycerides. Neuropsychiatric AEs remained less frequent with raltegravir (34%) than efavirenz (58%). There were no drug-related serious AEs in patients receiving raltegravir.
In antiretroviral therapy-naive patients, raltegravir with TDF/3TC had potent antiretroviral activity, which was similar to efavirenz/TDF/3TC and was sustained to week 96. Raltegravir was generally well tolerated; drug-related AEs were less frequent in patients treated with raltegravir compared with efavirenz.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raltegravir, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitor, has pH-dependent solubility. Raltegravir plasma concentration increases with omeprazole coadministration in healthy subjects; this is likely secondary to an increase in bioavailability attributable to increased gastric pH. Increased gastric pH has been reported in HIV-1-infected individuals, and the effects of omeprazole in this intended population may be diminished. Further investigation is necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raltegravir is a novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitor with potent in vitro activity (95% inhibitory concentration of 31 nM in 50% human serum). This article reports the results of an open-label, sequential, three-period study of healthy subjects. Period 1 involved raltegravir at 400 mg twice daily for 4 days, period 2 involved tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) at 300 mg once daily for 7 days, and period 3 involved raltegravir at 400 mg twice daily plus TDF at 300 mg once daily for 4 days. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined in HIV-1-infected patients dosed with raltegravir monotherapy versus raltegravir in combination with TDF and lamivudine. There was no clinically significant effect of TDF on raltegravir. The raltegravir area under the concentration time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC(0-12)) and peak plasma drug concentration (C(max)) were modestly increased in healthy subjects (geometric mean ratios [GMRs], 1.49 and 1.64, respectively). There was no substantial effect of TDF on raltegravir concentration at 12 h postdose (C(12)) in healthy subjects (GMR [TDF plus raltegravir-raltegravir alone], 1.03; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 1.45), while a modest increase (GMR, 1.42; 90% CI, 0.89 to 2.28) was seen in HIV-1-infected patients. Raltegravir had no substantial effect on tenofovir pharmacokinetics: C(24), AUC, and C(max) GMRs were 0.87, 0.90, and 0.77, respectively. Coadministration of raltegravir and TDF does not change the pharmacokinetics of either drug to a clinically meaningful degree. Raltegravir and TDF may be coadministered without dose adjustments.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2008; 52(9):3253-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of raltegravir and the development of viral resistance in two identical trials involving patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with triple-class drug resistance and in whom antiretroviral therapy had failed.
We conducted subgroup analyses of the data from week 48 in both studies according to baseline prognostic factors. Genotyping of the integrase gene was performed in raltegravir recipients who had virologic failure.
Virologic responses to raltegravir were consistently superior to responses to placebo, regardless of the baseline values of HIV-1 RNA level; CD4 cell count; genotypic or phenotypic sensitivity score; use or nonuse of darunavir, enfuvirtide, or both in optimized background therapy; or demographic characteristics. Among patients in the two studies combined who were using both enfuvirtide and darunavir for the first time, HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter were achieved in 89% of raltegravir recipients and 68% of placebo recipients. HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter were achieved in 69% and 80% of the raltegravir recipients and in 47% and 57% of the placebo recipients using either darunavir or enfuvirtide for the first time, respectively. At 48 weeks, 105 of the 462 raltegravir recipients (23%) had virologic failure. Genotyping was performed in 94 raltegravir recipients with virologic failure. Integrase mutations known to be associated with phenotypic resistance to raltegravir arose during treatment in 64 patients (68%). Forty-eight of these 64 patients (75%) had two or more resistance-associated mutations.
When combined with an optimized background regimen in both studies, a consistently favorable treatment effect of raltegravir over placebo was shown in clinically relevant subgroups of patients, including those with baseline characteristics that typically predict a poor response to antiretroviral therapy: a high HIV-1 RNA level, low CD4 cell count, and low genotypic or phenotypic sensitivity score. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00293267 and NCT00293254.)
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2008; 359(4):355-65. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs.
We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy of raltegravir, as compared with placebo, in combination with optimized background therapy, in patients infected with HIV-1 that has triple-class drug resistance in whom antiretroviral therapy had failed. Patients were randomly assigned to raltegravir or placebo in a 2:1 ratio.
In the combined studies, 699 of 703 randomized patients (462 and 237 in the raltegravir and placebo groups, respectively) received the study drug. Seventeen of the 699 patients (2.4%) discontinued the study before week 16. Discontinuation was related to the study treatment in 13 of these 17 patients: 7 of the 462 raltegravir recipients (1.5%) and 6 of the 237 placebo recipients (2.5%). The results of the two studies were consistent. At week 16, counting noncompletion as treatment failure, 355 of 458 raltegravir recipients (77.5%) had HIV-1 RNA levels below 400 copies per milliliter, as compared with 99 of 236 placebo recipients (41.9%, P<0.001). Suppression of HIV-1 RNA to a level below 50 copies per milliliter was achieved at week 16 in 61.8% of the raltegravir recipients, as compared with 34.7% of placebo recipients, and at week 48 in 62.1% as compared with 32.9% (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Without adjustment for the length of follow-up, cancers were detected in 3.5% of raltegravir recipients and in 1.7% of placebo recipients. The overall frequencies of drug-related adverse events were similar in the raltegravir and placebo groups.
In HIV-infected patients with limited treatment options, raltegravir plus optimized background therapy provided better viral suppression than optimized background therapy alone for at least 48 weeks. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00293267 and NCT00293254.)
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2008; 359(4):339-54. · 54.42 Impact Factor