[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by bovine mammary isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Enterotoxin secretion was detected by immunodiffusion using specific polyclonal antisera. Of 262 isolates examined, 75 (28.6%) produced one or more toxins. The most common pattern was secretion of both SEC and SED and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. No isolates secreted SEE, one produced SEA, and seven secreted SEB.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/1993; 31(3):706-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of three different agar concentrations in the tampon sac method resulted in slightly higher fluid uptake by the tampons when a 0.5% agar concentration was used. However, there was essentially no difference in the total amount of toxin produced. The largest amount of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 was produced with brain heart infusion agar, followed closely by 3% NZ-amine NAK-1% yeast extract medium. The addition of plasma and serum to the inoculum resulted in increases (62 and 73%, respectively) in toxin production. The addition of whole blood to the inoculum had a variable effect on toxin production, with an increase in the amount of toxin produced with some tampons and not with others. Over fivefold differences in the amount of toxin produced were obtained when duplicate experiments were done on successive days, whereas the differences were less than twofold for experiments done on the same day. This was related to the effect of small changes in the parameters on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/1989; 26(12):2672-4. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A chromatofocusing procedure for the purification of staphylococcal enterotoxin D was developed. The purification included the removal of the toxic protein from culture supernatant fluids of Staphylococcus aureus 1151m by batch adsorption with CG-50 resin, chromatofocusing on Polybuffer Exchanger 94, and gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The purity of the staphylococcal enterotoxin D obtained was approximately 98%.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/1988; 26(6):1236-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children have frequent staphylococcal infections, and many lack antibody to TSST-1, a toxin associated with the toxic shock syndrome (TSS). To determine why there have been no nonmenstrual cases of TSS reported in children in Utah, the authors tested S. aureus isolated from children for TSST-1 by radial immunodiffusion and sera from other hospitalized children by radioimmunoassay for antibody to TSST-1. TSST-1 was produced by 25% of S. aureus. Fifty-two children had infections with toxin producing strains. None had TSS. The prevalence of presumably protective levels of antibody (greater than or equal to 1:100) was high in newborns (80%), declined until age 2 years and then gradually increased with age. Therefore, there may have been about 20 children with toxigenic infection who lacked protective antibody but did not show the usual features of TSS. We conclude that the rarity of TSS in children is not caused by misdiagnosis, underreporting, or the absence of toxigenic strains or susceptible patients. Additional factors, such as local conditions or duration of carriage, may influence the clinical presentation of infection with TSST-1 producing staphylococci.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 01/1988; 294(6):403-7. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All types of four brands of tampons were tested in triplicate by a tampon sac method for their effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). In this method the available air is limited to that which is in the tampon sac. Tampons were weighed and inserted into dialysis sacs inoculated with a TSST-1-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain; the sacs were submerged into brain heart infusion agar, which was allowed to harden around the sacs, and were incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C. The tampons were removed, weighed, and extracted; the CFU of staphylococci and the amount of toxin present in the extracts were determined. Glass wool was used in place of the tampons as one control, and inoculated empty sacs were used as a second control. The total CFU were consistently greater than 2 X 10(11) for the tampons and glass wool and less than or equal to 10(11) for the empty sac control. Total toxin production for all tampons tested and the glass wool was 2 to 10 times higher than the toxin produced with the empty sac control. These results indicate that tampons provide increased surface area for the staphylococci to grow and adequate oxygen for toxin production. No significant inhibition of growth of the staphylococci or TSST-1 production by any of the tampons tested was noted.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/1987; 25(8):1450-2. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of 17 commercially available tampons on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by using a tampon disk method. Filter membranes overlaying agar medium (with or without blood) in small petri dishes were spread inoculated with a TSST-1-producing strain of S. aureus. Disks cut from unrolled tampons were pressed and laid on the inoculated membranes; incubation was for 19 h at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 in air. CFU on the membranes and in the disks were enumerated, and the presence of TSST-1 in the disks and in the agar layers was determined. Tampons made of different materials supported characteristic levels of cell growth and toxin production in the tampon. Colonization of the interface surface of the tampon disks was heavy. The number of CFU extracted from the tampon disks ranged from 5 X 10(10) to 82 X 10(10). There was little variation in the CFU recovered from the membranes ([1.9 +/- 0.4] X 10(11)). Sixty to 170 micrograms of TSST-1 was recoverable from the agar, with an additional 10 to 90 micrograms recoverable from tampon disks, depending on the type of tampon disk. The amount of toxin in the agar layer from the various tampon disks was relatively constant and indicated an important contribution of toxin from vaginal S. aureus cells not growing in the tampon. The main role of tampons in toxic shock syndrome may be that of providing a fibrous surface for heavy colonization and sufficient air for TSST-1 production.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/1987; 25(8):1446-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), isolated from Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS), is known as a potent mitogen and interleukin-1 inducer. The potential of TSST-1 as an interleukin-2 (IL-2) inducer was tested on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) and murine spleen lymphocytes (MSL). These cells were incubated with TSST-1 and the supernatants analysed for IL-2 production. Preincubation of IL-2-dependent indicator cells (IC) with a monoclonal antibody specific for murine IL-2 receptors inhibited their proliferation by supernatants of TSST-1-treated MSL, thus strongly suggesting that they contain IL-2. The concentrations of TSST-1 required for HPBL or MSL to produce IL-2 ranged between 10(-1) and 10(-4) micrograms/ml. The amount of IL-2 units/ml varied little from one experiment to another. In contrast, IL-2 production by PHA-stimulated HPBL or Con A-stimulated MSL showed great variability and dependence on mitogen concentration. T-cell depleted MSL exposed to TSST-1 produced less IL-2. Experiments with germ-free mice and TSST-1-primed mice demonstrated that IL-2 production is not related to TSST-1 antigenicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From isolates of Staphylococcus aureus derived from patients suffering from toxic shock syndrome a toxin was identified by tests in monkeys and was found to be distinct from the enterotoxin responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning. When purified, this TSS toxin (TSST-1) was characterised and used to generate antibodies in rabbits. Only a small proportion of routine staphylococcal isolates produce TSST-1, though it is clear that this toxin has existed for some years. At the same time, TSST-1 producing staphylococci have been isolated in every continent, yet very few cases of toxic shock syndrome have been recognised in developing countries. Using the purified TSST-1, human sera have been examined for the presence of antibodies. Patients with the disease had either no antibodies, or low titres.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A third staphylococcal enterotoxin C (C3) has been identified, purified, and characterized. Staphylococcal enterotoxin C3 was identified from a Staphylococcus aureus isolated received from England. The purified toxin was determined by gel permeation chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be a simple protein with a molecular weight of 26,900. The isoelectric point of the major band was determined by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels to be 8.15. The reaction of enterotoxin C3 with its specific antibody was not affected by tryptic digestion at pH 8.0 or peptic digestion at pH 4.5. The enterotoxin C3 consisted of 236 amino acid residues. Serine was shown to be the NH2-terminal amino acid residue by end group analysis. The protein was highly emetic in cynomolgus monkeys both per os and intravenously.
Infection and Immunity 10/1984; 45(3):625-30. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic and animal challenge studies have suggested that SEF may play a critical role in toxic-shock syndrome . However, the pathogenic mechanism of SEF activity is not known. One means by which this toxin could elicit the widespread organ dysfunction observed in toxic-shock syndrome would be by directly promoting PMN production of toxic oxygen species and the resultant secondary endothelial cell damage . To evaluate this possibility, we assayed the effect of SEF on PMN oxidative metabolism. SEF at 0.01-100 ng/ml did not stimulate O2- release or O2 consumption by inactive PMNs. Similarly, incubation of PMNs with 10 ng of SEF/ml for 1 hr neither potentiated nor inhibited cellular O2 consumption stimulated by optimal (10 mg/ml) or suboptimal (0.1 mg/ml) concentrations of opsonized zymosan. Finally, SEF had no effect on O2- release by PMNs stimulated by PMA. PMN viability, as assessed by trypan blue exclusion, was unaffected by SEF. This study did not address the possibility that SEF might indirectly activate PMN oxidative metabolism by promoting leukocytic pyrogen production by monocytes and macrophages . SEF neither directly activated PMN oxidative activity nor potentiated the cellular oxidative response to particulate or soluble stimuli. Consequently, direct stimulation of PMN-derived, O2- mediated damage to endothelial cells is not a tenable hypothesis to explain the mechanism of SEF toxicity.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/1983; 148(4):764. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A procedure for the purification of a protein marker for the staphylococci isolated from toxic-shock syndrome patients has been developed. The purification procedure involves the removal of the toxic protein from culture supernatant fluids of toxic-shock syndrome associated Staphylococcus aureus strains FRI-1169 and FRI-1183 by batch absorption with CG-50 resin, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose CL-6B, and gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The purified toxin is a simple protein with a molecular weight of 24 000 +/- 500 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the major band is 7.0 as determined by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. The TS-toxin's reactivity with its specific antibody is not affected by tryptic digestion at pH 8.0 but is slowly reduced by treatment with pepsin at pH 4.5. The TS-toxin consists of 188 amino acid residues. Serine was shown to be the NH2-terminal amino acid residue by end-group analysis. Initial studies indicated the protein was emetic; thus tentatively it was called staphylococcal enterotoxin F. In this paper it is called TS-toxin because the emetic action in monkeys has not been confirmed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in foods. The "double-antibody sandwich" protocol combines parts of several procedures reported previously. Horseradish peroxidase was conjugated to antibody specific for an enterotoxin, and the antibody-enzyme conjugate was assayed with a 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid)-H2O2 substrate solution. Enterotoxins were added to a variety of foods that were representative of those implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. Extracts of the foods were assayed by the ELISA and radioimmunoassay. Enterotoxin levels below 1 ng/g of food were consistently detectable by the ELISA. These results compared favorably with those of the radioimmunoassay. Experiments confirmed the interference of protein A in double-antibody sandwich ELISAs. Although protein A interference has not been demonstrated to be a problem in food extracts, we suggest a screen for protein A interference in which immunoglobulin G from nonimmunized rabbits is used. All of the known staphylococcal enterotoxins could be detected by this method. Analysis of a food product for entertoxin by the ELISA can be completed in an 8-h working day.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 01/1983; 44(6):1349-55. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enterotoxin-like protein, tentatively labeled enterotoxin F, was isolated from Staphylococcus aureus strains taken from patients with toxic shock syndrome. Antibodies specific for enterotoxin F were prepared in rabbits. Use of these antibodies showed that 130 (91.5%) of 142 S. aureus strains from patients with toxic shock syndrome produced enterotoxin F. Strains from toxic shock patients in eight other countries were identified as enterotoxin F producers. Only a small number of S. aureus strains from sources other than patients with toxic shock syndrome were found to produce enterotoxin F. Twenty-one of 111 controls had low antibody titers (less than 1:100) to enterotoxin F whereas 86 of 92 toxic shock patients had low acute phase antibody titers (less than 1:100) to enterotoxin F. Eight of 52 patients had serum conversion as shown by an increase in antibody titer to enterotoxin F in sera taken 21 to 60 days after onset of the illness. It may be possible to identify persons susceptible to toxic shock syndrome by measuring their antibody titer to enterotoxin F.
Annals of internal medicine 07/1982; 96(6 Pt 2):969-71. · 13.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 612 (93.8%) of 65 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 65 patients with toxic-shock syndrome (TSS) produced an enterotoxin-like protein, tentatively identified as staphylococcal enterotoxin F (SEF). One of the other strains produced staphylococcal enterotoxin B and another exterotoxin C. In two blind studies all 34 TSS-associated S. aureau strains examined and 3 (11.5%) of 26 control S. aureau strains produced SEF. 2 of the latter strains were isolated from the vaginas of women who had no history of TSS. SEF was purified, and specific antibodies to it were prepared. Only 4 (4.6%) of 87 S. aureau strains from other sources were found to produce SEF. 5 (17.2%) of 29 TSS patients whose acute sera were available had anti-SEF antibody present in titres of greater than or equal to 1:100 as determined by radioimmunoassay, compared with 44 (78.6%) of 56 controls--demonstrating a greater serosusceptibility of TSS patients to SEF. It is suggested that staphylococcal enterotoxin, particularly SEF, may be a cause of the signs and symptoms of TSS.
The Lancet 06/1981; 1(8228):1017-21. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxins C1 and C2 elicit the production of antibodies in rabbits that give precipitin reactions with both toxins and gel diffusion plates. These enterotoxins also elicit the production of antibodies that are specific for each of the enterotoxins. Enterotoxin B elicits the production of antibodies in some rabbits that react with enterotoxins B, C1, and C2 in gel diffusion plates and in radioimmunoassay. Antibodies specific for enterotoxin B are produced also. Enterotoxin C1 elicits the production of antibodies that cross-react weakly with enterotoxin B, indicating that the antigenic sites involved in the cross-reactions are not identical in the two toxins. The antibodies have been isolated by affinity chromatography.
Infection and Immunity 03/1980; 27(2):431-4. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sensitive radioimmunoassay utilizing Staphylococcus aureus cells containing protein A as a coprecipitant was developed for the detection and quantitation of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C, D, and E in a variety of foods. The enterotoxins were extracted from the foods by a simple and rapid procedure. The sensitivity of the assay is 1.0 ng or less of enterotoxin per g of food.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/1978; 36(3):421-6. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) to the endothelium of human umbilical cord veins and arteries was studied. Radiolabeled TSST-1, perfused through a segment of human umbilical cord vein, bound to the vessel at 4 degrees C, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 6.5 X 10(-10) M. A pre-embedding electron-microscopic immunogold technique revealed that TSST-1 was located in the veins and arteries on the surface of endothelial cells and in the area of cell contacts. Umbilical cord vein segments filled with TSST-1 were incubated for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C, fixed by perfusion and embedded in hydrophilic resin (Lowicryl K4M). Postembedding immunogold staining of ultrathin sections showed TSST-1 in the vesicles crossing the cytoplasm of the veins' endothelial cells and entering underlying elastic and collagen layers.
Reviews of infectious diseases 11 Suppl 1:S282-7; discussion S287-8.