[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar microtubular spindles are seen infrequently in Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites while monopolar or radial microtubular assemblies are common. Additionally, heterogeneity in nuclear DNA content and multi-nucleation is found in amoeba cells growing in axenic culture. Taken together these observations indicate that genome segregation is irregular in these cells. In order to identify proteins involved in regulating genome segregation, we have focused on studying E. histolytica homologues of kinesin motor proteins that are known to affect stability of bipolar mitotic spindles. We have demonstrated earlier that increased levels of the kinesin--Eh Klp5--led to increased frequency of bipolar spindles accompanied with a reduction in the heterogeneity of genome content, showing that bipolar spindle frequency was inversely linked to genome content in E. histolytica. In this study, we have investigated the role of E. histolytica kinesins (Eh KlpA1, 2-4) in regulating bipolar spindle frequency and genome content. While downregulation of Eh Klp3, 4 and A1 showed no effect, downregulation of Eh Klp2 led to increased frequency of bipolar spindles and homogenization of genome content, similar to the effect of increased expression of Eh Klp5. In addition to microtubules, Eh Klp2-4 associated with F-actin in the cytoplasm, suggesting that these kinesins are multi-functional.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterogeneity of genome content is commonly observed in axenic cultures of Entamoeba histolytica. Cells with multiple nuclei and nuclei with heterogenous genome contents suggest that regulatory mechanisms that ensure alternation of DNA synthesis and mitosis are absent in this organism. Therefore, several endo-reduplicative cycles may occur without mitosis. The data also shows that unlike other endo-reduplicating organisms, E.histolytica does not undergo a precise number of endo-reduplicative cycles. We propose that irregular endo-reduplication and genome partitioning lead to heterogeneity in the genome content of E.histolytica trophozoites in their proliferative phase. The goal of future studies should be aimed at understanding the mechanisms that are involved in (a) accumulation of multiple genome contents in a single nucleus; (b) genome segregation in nuclei that contain multiple genome contents and (c) maintenance of genome fidelity in E. histolytica.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have established two unusual features in the cell division cycle of Entamoeba histolytica. First, microtubules form a radial assembly instead of a bipolar mitotic spindle, and second, the genome content of E. histolytica cells varied from 1x to 6x or more. In this study, Eh Klp5 was identified as a divergent member of the BimC kinesin family that is known to regulate formation and stabilization of the mitotic spindle in other eukaryotes. In contrast to earlier studies, we show here that bipolar microtubular spindles were formed in E. histolytica but were visible only in 8-12% of the cells after treatment with taxol. The number of bipolar spindles was significantly increased in Eh Klp5 stable transformants (20-25%) whereas Eh Klp5 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transformants did not show any spindles (< 1%). The genome content of Eh Klp5 stable transformants was regulated between 1x and 2x unlike control cells. Binucleated cells accumulated in Eh Klp5 dsRNA transformants and after inhibition of Eh Klp5 with small molecule inhibitors in control cells, suggesting that cytokinesis was delayed in the absence of Eh Klp5. Taken together, our results indicate that Eh Klp5 regulates microtubular assembly, genome content and cell division in E. histolytica. Additionally, Eh Klp5 showed alterations in its drug-binding site compared with its human homologue, Hs Eg5 and this was reflected in its reduced sensitivity to Eg5 inhibitors - monastrol and HR22C16 analogues.