S A Counter

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Are you S A Counter?

Claim your profile

Publications (34)65.3 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the neurological integrity and physiological status of the auditory brainstem tracts and nuclei in children with chronic lead (Pb) exposure using non-invasive acoustic stapedius reflex (ASR) measurements of afferent and efferent-neuromuscular auditory function. Following audiological examinations, uncrossed (ipsilateral) and crossed (contralateral) brainstem ASR responses were evoked by pure tone (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz), and broadband noise (bandwidth: 125-4000 Hz) stimulus activators. The ASR threshold (ASRT), amplitude growth, and decay/fatigue were measured by conventional clinical middle ear immittance methods in a group of Andean children (age range: 2-18 years) with a history of chronic environmental Pb exposure from occupational Pb glazing. Blood lead (PbB) levels of the study group (n=117) ranged from 4.0 to 83.7 μg/dL with a mean PbB level of 33.5 μg/dL (SD: 23.6; median: 33.0: CDC III Classification). The PbB distribution data indicated that 77.8% (n=91) of the children had PbB levels greater than the CDC action line of 10 μg/dL. Repeatable, normal ASRTs were elicited for ipsilateral (mean: ≤90 dB HL) and contralateral (mean: ≤97 dB HL) stimulation for each acoustic activator. Spearman Rho correlation analysis indicated no significant association between PbB level and ipsilateral or contralateral ASRT for any of the stimulus activators. The ASR amplitude growth results showed typical growth functions with no Pb-associated aberrations. No statistical association was found between ASR decay/adaptation (ASRD) and PbB level for any of the stimulus activators. The results of stapedius muscle reflex testing using several stimulus activators showed no significant relationship between PbB level and the physiological integrity of the auditory brainstem mediated ASR responses in children with chronic Pb exposure and elevated PbB levels.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 07/2011; 306(1-2):29-37. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2011.04.003 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Hearing research 01/2010; 259(1-2):118. DOI:10.1016/j.heares.2009.12.026 · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • S A Counter, E Borg
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The influence of the solitary avian middle ear muscle, the m. stapedius, on auditory sensitivity and sound transmission was investigated in the domestic chicken, Gallus gallus. Electrophysiological recordings of inner ear microphonic potentials (MP) were made in order to determine the effects of calibrated, mechanically induced stapedius muscle (SM) tension changes on sounds reaching the auditory receptor cells. The maximum MP responses recorded during the pre-tension measurements were on the order of 200 microV and were linear (on a log-log scale) over a range of 40-100 dB SPL. Tension levels of 50-400 mN in the SM caused a reduction of up to 20 dB in the MP at frequencies throughout the auditory spectrum. It is concluded that the SM of Aves serves to protect the inner ear receptor cells against overstimulation. In addition to attenuating the amplitude of the MP response, SM tension changes caused significant changes in the phase of the signals reaching the inner ear. The magnitude of attenuation in the ipsilateral MP response to 200-400 mN of tension was found to be similar to the interaural attenuation that occurs when sound is transmitted to the ipsilateral ear from the contralateral ear via the intracranial passageway. The similarity in MP amplitude changes resulting from SM tension and intracranial transmission suggests that the SM may be involved in interaural interaction and thereby may aid in sound localization.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 07/2009; 94(3-4):267-74. DOI:10.3109/00016488209128913 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the last decade, there have been numerous interesting findings regarding the roles of neurotrophins, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, glutamate receptors, and shock protein in the auditory system. These findings have provided a scientific basis for the development of techniques to protect the auditory system against trauma as well as for the treatment of peripheral hearing disorders. This review focuses on recent advances in experimental prevention and treatment of hearing impairment which are expected to be of clinical value in the near future. Viral vector and non-viral vector gene therapy and transplantation of stem cells are discussed as potential treatments of irreversible sensorineural inner ear damage.
    Hearing Research 08/2002; 169(1-2):169-78. DOI:10.1016/S0378-5955(02)00484-7 · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • S. Allen Counter, Leo H. Buchanan, Fernando Ortega
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A field study of the prevalence of lead (Pb) intoxication was conducted in 158 adults (67 men and 91 women) living at 2,500-2,800 meters in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination from local small-scale Pb-glazing cottage industries. Venous blood samples showed mean blood lead (PbB) levels of 34.5 microg/dL (SD 22.2) for men and 27.0 microg/dL (SD 18.4) for women; this difference was significant (t-test, p = 0.022; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.044). An ANOVA showed no significant main effect for gender (F = 0.118, p = 0.782) or age (F = 2.479, p = 0.117), and no significant gender-by-age interaction (F = 0.273, p = 0.602). In the Pb-glazing study group, 39% of the men had PbB levels > or = 40 microg/dL, while 41% of the women had PbB levels > or = 30 microg/dL (the WHO health-based biological limits). A reference group of 39 adults (24 men and 15 women) had a mean PbB level of 5.9 microg/dL (SD 2.8; range: 1.8-16.8), significantly different from that of the 158 subjects in the study group (t-test, p < 0.0001). The difference in mean PbB levels of men (6.8 microg/dL) and women (4.7 microg/dL) in the reference group was significant (t-test, p = 0.026; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.019). The mean altitude-corrected hemoglobin levels in the study group were lower than normal, 11.3 g/dL for men and 10.9 g/dL for women.
    International journal of occupational and environmental health 04/2001; 7(2):113-8. DOI:10.1179/oeh.2001.7.2.113 · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MRI with a T1 contrast agent was used to investigate the normal and noise-damaged cochlea. The time course and distribution of the in vivo uptake of the gadodiamide chelate bound paramagnetic Gd ion (GdDTPA-BMA) throughout the membranous labyrinth of normal and impulse noise-damaged guinea pig cochleae were measured by MRI at 4.7T. Simultaneous signal enhancement of the basal, medial and apical scala tympani (ST) and scala vestibuli (SV) was observed within 10 min following i.v. injection, reaching maximum levels at around 100 min. ANOVA and post hoc paired t-tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels and rates of Gd uptake-enhancement between the scalae. The ST revealed the most rapid and extensive enhancement throughout the period of active Gd uptake, while the SV showed comparatively slower and less enhancement, and the intact scala media (SM) indicated insignificant enhancement. The in vivo Gd penetration and enhancement of the membranous SM increased significantly in the noise-damaged cochlea, suggesting lesioning of the cochlear membranes.
    Neuroreport 01/2001; 11(18):3979-83. DOI:10.1097/00001756-200012180-00015 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High intensity acoustic noise is an undesirable side-effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can cause discomfort and hearing loss in patients and may be an impediment in functional MRI (fMRI) studies of the auditory system. Experimental MRI systems with high magnetic field strengths may generate acoustic noise of higher sound pressure levels (SPLs) than conventional 1.0 and 1.5 T clinical systems. We measured the SPL and spectral content of the acoustic noise generated by the Bruker Biospect 47/40 4.7 T experimental MRI system during scanning sequences commonly used in animal testing. Each sequence generated acoustic noise of high SPL, rapid pulse rates, amplitude-modulated pulse envelopes and multi-peaked spectra. The rapid acquisition with enhancement sequence with a 0.25 mm slice thickness generated SPLs of up to 129 dB peak SPL and 130 dB (A). Fourier analysis of the spectral content of the acoustic noise generated by each MRI sequence showed a wide band of acoustic energy with spectral peaks from 0.2-5 kHz. The intense MRI acoustic impulse noise generated by the 4.7 T system may cause masking of stimuli used in fMRI of the auditory cortex, reduce the hearing acuity of experimental animals and present a risk for unprotected human ears.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 10/2000; 120(6):739-43. · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • S A Counter, L H Buchanan, F Ortega, N Rifai
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin (HbB) levels in 88 children (42 females and 46 males; ages: 2-15 years; mean age: 7.2) with chronic Pb exposure, living in a highly Pb-contaminated Andean village at above 2800 meters. The mean PbB level for 88 venous blood samples was 43.2 microg/dl (SD: 25.1; range: 6.2 - 128.2 microg/dl) measured by ICP-MS, and 42.0 microg/dl (SD: 26.0; range: 5.0 - 130.0 microg/dl) by GFAAS analysis. The mean PbB level for the 42 females was 41.0 microg/dl and for 46 males, 45.0 microg/dl. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant gender by age interaction (R2 = 0.099; F = 4.173, p = 0.044), indicating a relationship between age and PbB level for males, but not for females. Simple regression analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation between PbB levels and age for males (r = 0.416, p = 0.004), but not for females (r = -0.042, p = .793). The measured mean HbB level for the 88 children was 12.6 g/dl (12.5 g/dl for females and 12.8 g/dl for males) and lower than expected for children living in the Ecuadorian Andes. The mean altitude-corrected HbB level was 10.9 g/dl (10.8 g/dl for females and 11.1 g/dl for males). A significant inverse correlation between PbB and HbB levels was observed for the group of 88 children (r = -0.292, p = 0.006). Multiple regression analyses indicated no significant age and gender interaction (R2 = 0.014; F = 0.025, p = 0.876) for HbB levels. In conclusion, the results of this investigation indicate that the children in this Pb-contaminated, high altitude study area had chronic elevated PbB levels, which increased with age for males, and probable Pb-induced anemia.
    NeuroToxicology 07/2000; 21(3):301-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The membranous labyrinth of the guinea pig cochlea and retrocochlear neural structures were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an experimental system with a field strength of 4.7T and a single turn surface coil 25 mm in diameter, or standard resonators of 34 or 70 mm in diameter and gradient field strengths of 950 mTm and 200 mTm. High-resolution 2-D and 3-D images of 0.3-1.0 mm slice thickness were acquired by a rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) sequence and a standard multi-echo technique. Structural and dimensional aspects of the cochlea were resolved in vitro and in vivo down to <50 microm, showing the scala vestibule, scala media, scala tympani, spiral ganglia and the cochlear (eighth) nerve. In vivo perfusions with the gadodiamide (GdDTPA-BMA) chelate-bound paramagnetic gadolinium ion resulted in dynamic temporal enhancement of the scala vestibule and scala tympani, but did not penetrate the scala media.
    Neuroreport 02/1999; 10(3):473-9. DOI:10.1097/00001756-199902250-00006 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blood lead (PbB) levels were investigated in chronically lead (Pb) exposed Andean children and adults living in a highly Pb contaminated area of Ecuador where Pb glazing of ceramics is prevalent. A comparative study was made of the PbB levels of Pb-glazing and non-Pb-glazing families living in close proximity, using three PbB analysis techniques. Fifty-one, 50-microl blood samples from children and adults were analyzed in the field by a finger-stick capillary screening technique using the portable ESA LeadCare Blood Lead Testing System (LCS). Venous blood samples of 2-4 ml were collected from the same 51 participants and analyzed in the laboratory by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The median PbB levels for the Pb-glazing group as determined by the ICP-MS, AAS and LCS techniques were 37.2 microg/dl (range 11.6-101.0), 32.0 microg/dl (range 8.0-70.0 microg/dl) and 44.0 microg/dl (range 19.0-105.0), respectively. The median PbB levels for the non-Pb-glazing group were 9.2 microg/dl (range 5.0-21.7) with ICP-MS, 9.0 microg/dl (range 4.3-32.0) with AAS, and 11.3 microg/dl (range 7.3-21.1) with LCS. The differences in PbB levels between the Pb glazing and non-Pb glazing groups were statistically significant (p = < .0001) for each PbB analysis method. Correlations between paired samples were: LCS and ICP-MS: r = 0.913, LCS and AAS: r = 0.829, and ICP-MS and AAS: r = 0.905. The results suggest that neighboring Pb glazing and non-Pb glazing families have significantly different PbB levels, and that the portable LCS field technique may be useful for screening and periodic monitoring of relatively low and high PbB levels of persons in remote high altitude Andean areas.
    NeuroToxicology 01/1999; 19(6):871-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroauditory disorders and sensory-neural hearing loss have been suggested as possible etiologic factors in the neurodevelopmental learning disabilities attributed to lead (Pb) intoxication. However, studies relating hearing loss to Pb poisoning have presented disparate results, suggesting that auditory sensitivity may not be a reliable marker of Pb intoxication. Oto-acoustic emissions, sounds that can be recorded non-invasively from the ear canal and are preneural responses of the outer hair cells of the inner ear, have been found to be diminished in ears exposed to some toxic agents. In the current study, distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were obtained from 28 ears of 14 children and 10 ears of 5 adults living in a highly Pb-contaminated environment in remote villages in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador. Blood lead (PbB) levels for the children (ages: 5-14 years) ranged from 33.4 to 118.2 microg/dl (mean: 51.5; SD: 22.9 microg/dl), or 3-12 times higher than the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's toxic level of 10 microg/dl. The PbB levels for the adults ranged from 19.2 to 55.7 microg/dl. Despite the high PbB levels, the children had normal hearing thresholds, and DPOAEs were present for the children at the following f2 frequencies: 1187, 1500, 1906, 2406, 3031, 3812, 4812 and 6031 Hz. Although there was a tendency for the children to have diminished DPOAEs, no consistent correlation of DPOAEs with PbB level was found. The adults had diminished DPOAEs that were consistent with their observed, probably noise-related hearing loss. Contrary to some reports in the literature, the current results show no unequivocal clinical or subclinical evidence that high PbB levels have a toxic effect on the cochlea.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 01/1999; 119(6):652-8. · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lead (Pb) intoxication in children has been associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities which may result in motor and cognitive impairment. We conducted blood lead (PbB) measurements, neurological examinations and cognitive tests on children living in Ecuadorian villages where Pb is used extensively in the glazing of ceramics. Group I consisted of 55 children with a mean PbB level of 48.0 microg/dl (SD: 26.4, range: 9.2-119.1 microg/dl) who received PbB tests and complete neurological examinations. An appreciable number of the children with elevated PbB levels were normal on specific components of the neurological examination. Among the children who showed neurological deficits, higher PbB levels were associated with abnormal tendon reflexes, finger tapping, visual pursuit, size discrimination, draw-a-person, and math calculation skills. Group II consisted of 41 children with a mean PbB level of 47.4 microg/dl (SD: 22.0, range: 6.6-84.7 microg/dl) who were administered Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) non-verbal reasoning test. Performance on RCPM was abnormal in 22 (53.7%) of 41 children. Children with abnormal RCPM scores had higher PbB levels (t-test: P=0.030). There was a significant inverse correlation between RCPM scores and PbB levels for children ages 9 years and older (r=-0.618, P=0.011). Males had higher mean PbB levels as a function of age than females (t-test: P=0.037), and more males showed neurocognitive deficits. The results demonstrate a range of neurological responses in children with chronically elevated PbB levels from apparent exceptional neuro-physiological tolerance of PbB intoxication, to some fine motor and cognitive deficits.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 10/1998; 160(1):47-53. DOI:10.1016/S0022-510X(98)00180-4 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated blood mercury (B-Hg) levels and the auditory neuro-sensory status of children and adults in the remote Andean settlement of Nambija, Ecuador where Hg is used in the extensive gold mining operations. The mean B-Hg level in 75 Nambija (Study Area) inhabitants (36 children and 39 adults) was 17.5 micrograms/L (SD = 11.0) vs 3.0 micrograms/L (SD = 1.6) in a second group of 34 subjects (15 children and 19 adults) in a non-gold mining area (Reference Area), the difference being statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Neuro-otological examinations revealed 34 subjects (45%) with complaints of headaches and/or memory loss, 3 cases of severe neurological impairment and 4 cases of middle ear pathology. Audiological tests on 40 persons in the Study Area (21 children and 19 adults) showed hearing thresholds ranging from normal to mildly abnormal at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz for children, and normal to severely abnormal for adults. Correlation coefficients showed a significant relationship between B-Hg level and hearing level in children at 3 kHz in the right ear, and at no frequency for adults. Auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR) on subjects in the Study Area showed a significant correlation between B-Hg and the I-III interpeak latency on the right side. The results indicated that the study population of the Nambija gold mining area had abnormally elevated B-Hg levels, and may be at neurological risk from exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) from the consumption of contaminated food and possibly from elemental Hg vapors inhaled during amalgam burning in the gold extraction process.
    NeuroToxicology 04/1998; 19(2):185-96. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lead (Pb) intoxication in children has been associated with encephalopathy, sensory and cognitive impairments. We investigated the prevalence and neuro-sensory effects of Pb exposure in children living in Andean villages of Ecuador with high Pb contamination from discarded automobile batteries used in the local ceramics glazing industry. Venous blood samples were collected from 107 children in the Pb glazing area and from 39 children living in a geographically distant area with no known Pb contamination and measured for blood lead (PbB) levels. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and audiological/otological tests were conducted on children in the Pb-Glazing Group. The median PbB level for children in the Pb-Glazing Group was 40.0 microg per dl (range: 6.2-128.2 microg per dl) and for the non Pb-Glazing Group 6.0 microg per dl (1.9-18.0 microg per dl). The differences in PbB levels for children in the study and control areas were statistically significant (t-test, P<0.0001). ABR tests on the Pb-Glazing Group indicated normal wave latencies and neural transmission times, and no statistical correlation between PbB level and interpeak latencies. Audiological tests showed normal cochlear function and no statistical relation between auditory thresholds and PbB level. Contrary to prevailing assumptions, elevated PbB levels in children do not invariably impair auditory brainstem neural transmission or sensory-neural cochlear function, both of which have been implicated as significant contributors to the neurodevelopmental disabilities associated with childhood plumbism.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 12/1997; 152(1):85-92. DOI:10.1016/S0022-510X(97)00149-4 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated blood lead (B-Pb) and mercury (B-Hg) levels and auditory sensory-neural function in 62 Andean school children living in a Pb-contaminated area of Ecuador and 14 children in a neighboring gold mining area with no known Pb exposure. The median B-Pb level for 62 children in the Pb-exposed group was 52.6 micrograms/dl (range 9.9-110.0 micrograms/dl) compared with 6.4 micrograms/dl (range 3.9-12.0 micrograms/dl) for the children in the non-Pb exposed group; the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Auditory thresholds for the Pb-exposed group were normal at the pure tone frequencies of 0.25-8 kHz over the entire range of B-Pb levels, Auditory brain stem response tests in seven children with high B-Pb levels showed normal absolute peak and interpeak latencies. The median B-Hg levels were 0.16 micrograms/dl (range 0.04-0.58 micrograms/dl) for children in the Pb-exposed group and 0.22 micrograms/dl (range 0.1-0.44 micrograms/dl) for children in the non-Pb exposed gold mining area, and showed no significant relationship to auditory function. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/1997; 105(5):522-6. DOI:10.1289/ehp.97105522 · 7.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    S A Counter, B Canlon, E Borg, H Aldskogius
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to analyze the distribution of efferent 8th nerve synaptic endings in a surface preparation of the guinea pig cochlea using synaptophysin antibodies. Employing light and confocal microscopy synaptophysin immunoreactivity was found exclusively at the base of the outer hair cells (OHCs) and the inner hair cells (IHCs) axosomatic efferent synapses. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the OHCs and the IHCs immunoreactivity. Efferent nerve endings innervating IHCs were comparatively smaller, more numerous and densely packed. Efferent terminals demonstrated a longitudinal gradient for the IHCs and a longitudinal and radial gradient for the OHCs. Quantitative analysis of synaptophysin immunofluorescence demonstrated a higher percentage of efferent terminals innervating the IHCs and the OHCs in the mid and basal segments of the cochlea than in the apical regions. In addition, a radial gradient from the 1st to 3rd row of OHCs was evident. The results from the present study show that the analysis of synaptophysin immunoreactivity on cochlear surface preparations allows the efferent innervation to be determined throughout the entire cochlea. This technique allows for a rapid assessment of the normal cochlea as well as after cochlear insult.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/1997; 222(3):199-203. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3940(97)13364-X · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • S A Counter, E Borg, G Bredberg, G Linde, M Vainio
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electromagnetically induced auditory perception was investigated in 18 deaf patients who were candidates for cochlear implants. In the extracranial magnetic stimulation (EMS) procedure, patients were stimulated with time-varying magnetic field brief pulses from a coil positioned at the i) auricle, ii) the mastoid, and iii) the temporal lobe area. EMS elicited auditory sensations in 26 ears (of 14 patients/subjects). The lowest threshold of auditory sensation (TAS) was found to be at the 20% EMS level, with a range of 20-50% of the maximum level (2.0 Tesla), and approximately equal sensitivity in each coil position. Eleven of the subjects hearing EMS-induced sound perceived changes in pitch while 6 heard "clicks" or clicks and tones. Spearman Rho correlation analysis showed a mild negative correlation between the EMS/TAS and the pre-implant FFA, best tone threshold (BTT), and direct promontorial electrical stimulation (ES) thresholds at 250 Hz and 500 Hz. No correlation was found between EMS or ES and performance on the pre-implant or post-implant psychacoustic tests (MAC VIII or 3-Digit speech tests) or the measurements of the thickness of cutaneous and osseous tissue from the stimulation sites at the mastoid and ear canal to the cochlear and 8th nerve. A fair positive correlation was found between the EMS/TAS and the post-implant (6 months) ES threshold when the electrodes allocated the 500 Hz frequency range were stimulated. A mild positive correlation between the pre-cochlear-implant promontorial electrical stimulation (ES) at 250 Hz and the four frequency tone average (FFA: 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) was also found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 10/1994; 114(5):501-9. DOI:10.3109/00016489409126094 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • S A Counter
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The long term effects of transcranial electromagnetic stimulation (TEMS) on auditory brainstem and cortical evoked responses and on neuroanatomical structures in the auditory tract were investigated over a 12 month period in rabbits exposed to 1000 stimuli at 100% maximum stimulation level (2.0 tesla instrument output) with a clinical magnetic coil positioned over the cranium. (1) The tone and click audiograms of the pre and post TEMS-exposed plugged ears were normal and did not differ significantly, suggesting that the protected cochlea is unaffected by TEMS. (2) The mean absolute and interwave latencies of auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR) and the peak amplitudes of the vertex positive waves P1, P3, and P4 in the exposed rabbits were within normal limits, and comparable those of the normal, pre-exposed animals. Wave P5 in the exposed animals was more variable and significantly different from the normal data in mean latency and amplitude. (3) The mean latencies and amplitudes of the post exposed cortical (late) auditory evoked responses (CAER) were not significantly different from the non-exposed ears. Light microscopic examination of sections of the cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus, possible sources of waves P2 and P5, respectively, of the ABR, showed no EMS-related changes in cellular organization or histological damage. In conclusion, no deleterious effects of TEMS were observed on the protected ear or the peripheral and central auditory system of rabbits after extensive exposure to long term, high intensity, low frequency time-varying magnetic field stimulation with a clinical instrument.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/1994; 124(2):163-70. DOI:10.1016/0022-510X(94)90322-0 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • S A Counter, E Borg, A Olofsson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The brief impulse noise artifacts of 1.0 ms or less generated by some magnetic coils used in extracranial magnetic stimulation may induce acoustic trauma. We investigated the effects of these magnetic coil acoustic artifacts (MCAA) on the inner ear by exposing rabbits to computer stimulated impulse noise designed to mimic the impulse noise of the coil in spectrum and acoustic energy. The simulated impulse noise stimuli (50 impulses) were varied in maximum peak sound pressure (160, 157, and 155 dB re: 20 muPascal), rise-time (100 microseconds and 1,000 microseconds) and duration. The frequency spectrum of the simulated impulse noises were kept constant at 0.5 kHz to 7 kHz with peak energy in the 2-5 kHz range. The results indicated that the simulated magnetic coil impulse noise caused extensive cochlear damage and permanent threshold shifts largely equal to those induced by the MCAA. The MCAA created slightly greater PTS than the simulated impulse of the same peak sound pressure. Each of the 3 experimental stimuli induced similar PTS in the auditory range of 0.5 to 16 kHz, with the higher peak sound pressure stimuli (157 and 160 dB) causing greatest hearing loss. Increasing the rise-time of the simulated brief impulse noise from 100 microseconds to 1,000 microseconds did not reduce the level of PTS significantly. The results suggest that for brief acoustic signals of around 1 ms or less, the peak pressure and spectral content rather than the rise-time and duration were the important factors in the development of noise-induced hearing loss.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 12/1993; 113(6):699-705. DOI:10.3109/00016489309135888 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • S A Counter
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of transcranial electromagnetic stimulation (TEMS) on the cellular morphology of the cortex, cerebellum, and brain-stem were systematically investigated in rabbits exposed to 1000 pulsed stimuli at 100% maximum stimulation level (2.0 Tesla at the skull) over a 12 month period with a 5 cm circular magnetic coil positioned over the cranium. Also, the acute effects of TEMS on heart rate and respiration were examined. (1) T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 1-3 mm sections in both sagittal and axial planes revealed no evidence of gross morphological changes or subtler tissue damage to the cerebrum, cerebellum, or brain-stem. (2) Light microscopic examination of 60 microns hematoxylin-eosin/Cresyl Violet Luxol Fast Blue stained sections of the brain-stem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex showed no TEMS-related changes in cellular organization or histological damage. (3) Autonomic activity as reflected by heart rate was also unaffected by high intensity TEMS. Normal heart rate was maintained during repeated TEMS at 100% of maximum. (4) Respiration rate was briefly altered at the time of the stimulus, but returned to normal immediately after the stimulus. These findings in experimental animals revealed no biohazardous effects on the brain following extensive exposure to high intensity, low frequency time-varying magnetic field stimulation from the coil of a clinical instrument.
    Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 11/1993; 89(5):341-8. DOI:10.1016/0168-5597(93)90074-Y

Publication Stats

532 Citations
65.30 Total Impact Points


  • 1987–2011
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989–2001
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1981–1982
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden