M B Grisham

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport, Shreveport, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (208)1015.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anti-adhesion therapies that target α4 integrins (e.g., natalizumab) are thought to work by blocking T-cell recruitment to the intestinal tissues in patients with Crohn's disease (CD); however, little direct evidence is available to confirm this contention. We wished to evaluate the importance of T cell-associated α4 integrins in a chronic colitis model in mice and to determine the effect of natalizumab treatment on intestinal tissue T-cell accumulation in human CD. Adoptive transfer of T cells lacking α4 (α4(-/-)) but not β1 integrin into immunodeficient mice produced significantly attenuated disease. This was correlated with reduced numbers of colon CD4 T cells compared with the control mice; however, tissue distribution of T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) was not affected by the lack of α4. Furthermore, α4(-/-) T cells demonstrated defective homing to the chronically inflamed small intestines and colons. Finally, patients treated with natalizumab showed significant reduction in mucosal CD4 T cells and no skewing in the foxp3(+) Treg or T-bet(+)Th1 fractions thereof. These results demonstrate a direct role for T cell-associated α4β7 but not α4β1 integrins during initiation and perpetuation of chronic colitis. Moreover, our data demonstrated that natalizumab treatment reduced mucosal CD4 T-cell accumulation in CD patients.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 9 April 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.22.
    Mucosal Immunology 04/2014; · 7.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) represent the first line of lymphocyte defense against the intestinal bacteria. Although previous studies have demonstrated a protective role of IELs in the development of colitis, the data supporting a regulatory role for IELs are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the suppressive activity of IELs in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model of chronic small and large bowel inflammation. Adoptive transfer of CD8α(+) IELs isolated from small intestines of wild-type (WT) mice into TCR βxδ-deficient (TCR βxδ(-/-)) recipients did not prevent or delay the onset of the disease induced by WT CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. On the contrary, we observed a more rapid onset of wasting and clinical signs of intestinal inflammation when compared with animals injected with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells alone. Histopathological scores of small and large bowel did not differ significantly between the two groups. Transfer of IELs alone did not produce any pathological changes. Real-time PCR analysis of intestinal tissues showed up-regulation of message for T(h)1- and macrophage-derived cytokines in colon and small bowel. Using Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, we were unable to detect any Foxp3(+) cells within the CD8α(+) IELs but did find a small population of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) IELs in the small and large bowel. Using in vitro suppression assay, we found that neither TCRαβ(+)CD8αα(+), TCRαβ(+)CD8αβ(+) nor TCRγδ(+)CD8αα(+) IELs were capable of suppressing CD4(+) T-cell proliferation. Taken together, our data do not support an immunoregulatory role for CD8α(+) IELs in a mouse model of small and large bowel inflammation.
    International Immunology 11/2010; 22(12):927-39. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mobilization and recruitment of blood and lymphatic vasculatures are widely described in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Although angiogenesis contributes to intense gut inflammation, it remains unclear whether and when lymphangiogenesis amplifies or protects in IBD. The prolonged maintenance of lymphatic (over blood vessels) in inflammation indicates that lymphatic-blood vessel interactions may regulate IBD pathogenesis and restitution. Although lymphatic expansion helps to restore fluid balance and clear cytokines and immune cells, lymphatic failure results in accumulation of these factors and exacerbates IBD. Lymphatic obstruction and remodeling may impair lymphatic pumping, leading to repeated rounds of lymphangiogenesis. Early descriptions of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis describe colon lymphatic congestion, remodeling, expansion, and many other features that are recapitulated in experimental IBD and also by intestinal lymphatic obstruction, supporting lymphangitis as a cause and consequence of IBD. Growth factors, cytokines, gut flora, Toll receptors, and leukocytes all regulate inflammation and gut lymphatic remodeling in IBD. This review summarizes the importance of lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in IBD etiology that may be useful in diagnosis and therapy of gut inflammation.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 1207 Suppl 1:E75-85. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    H Urakami, D V Ostanin, T Hünig, M B Grisham
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    ABSTRACT: Donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) has been shown to effectively induce tolerance to certain allografts. In addition, it is well known that blockade of costimulatory signals reduces the ability of T cells to respond to alloantigens, prolonging allograft survival in some transplant models. We assessed the effects of single or multiple DSTs in the absence or presence of anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on graft function and host survival in rat liver transplantation (LTx). Fully MHC-mismatched adult male Dark Agouti (DA) and Lewis (LEW) rats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. Heparinized DA blood was administered to naïve LEW rats 7 days before LTx [DST(-7d)], 14 and 7 days before LTx [DST(1 x 2)], twice a week for 2 weeks prior to LTx [DST(2 x 2)] and once a week for 4 weeks prior to LTx [DST(1 x 4)]. For some experiments, two different monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to rat CD28 (JJ316 and JJ319) were administered in combination with some DST treatments. We found that DST administration induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in host survival. Treatment of LEW rats with JJ316 or JJ319 mAb alone failed to prolong graft survival over untreated rats; however, the combination of DST(1 x 2) with JJ316 or JJ319 mAb induced indefinite survival at 100 days following surgery. We found that this protective effect was associated with increased numbers of splenic CD4+ CD45RC- but not CD4+ CD25+ foxp3+ T-cells in long-term survivors. Our data suggest that the combination of suboptimal DST with CD28 mAb induces donor-specific tolerance that correlates with enhanced numbers of regulatory T-cells.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2007; 38(10):3244-6. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several transcription factors have been proposed to regulate IBD including the signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT-6). The role of STAT-6 was examined in the 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of colitis using STAT-6 and wildtype mice. The disease activity index (DAI) revealed a significant increase in DAI in STAT-6 mice over STAT-6 mice given DSS. Both STAT-6 and wildtype mice displayed severe inflammation and crypt damage. Additionally, STAT-6 mice showed significant injury to the proximal colon compared with their littermate controls. Furthermore, STAT-6 mice receiving DSS had dramatically higher levels of serum nitrite/nitrate than all other groups. STAT-6 animals also displayed higher levels of inteferon-gamma than wildtype mice. Because STAT-6 has been reported to regulate the expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), our data suggest that, in DSS colitis, STAT-6 may modulate iNOS, to limit NO formation and control the extent of inflammation in the colon. We conclude that STAT-6 may normally play an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, possibly through modulation of iNOS and interferon-gamma.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 11/2005; 11(10):883-9. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Several transcription factors have been proposed to regulate IBD including the signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT-6).Methods:The role of STAT-6 was examined in the 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of colitis using STAT-6−/− and wildtype mice.Results:The disease activity index (DAI) revealed a significant increase in DAI in STAT-6−/− mice over STAT-6+/+ mice given DSS. Both STAT-6−/− and wildtype mice displayed severe inflammation and crypt damage. Additionally, STAT-6−/− mice showed significant injury to the proximal colon compared with their littermate controls. Furthermore, STAT-6−/− mice receiving DSS had dramatically higher levels of serum nitrite/nitrate than all other groups. STAT-6−/− animals also displayed higher levels of inteferon-γ than wildtype mice.Conclusions:Because STAT-6 has been reported to regulate the expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), our data suggest that, in DSS colitis, STAT-6 may modulate iNOS, to limit NO formation and control the extent of inflammation in the colon. We conclude that STAT-6 may normally play an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, possibly through modulation of iNOS and interferon-γ.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2005; 11(10):883-889. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%) produces experimental colitis with many features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), (leukocyte extravasation, cachexia, and histopathology). Previous studies suggest that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in blood cells or in the endothelium contribute to this injury. However, until now no study has been performed to directly evaluate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in IBD. We compared disease activity in wild-type (eNOS+/+) and eNOS-deficient (eNOS-/-) mice in the DSS model of colitis. Administration of DSS induced weight loss, stool blood, and overt histopathology in both mouse strains. Disease activity was dramatically increased in eNOS-/- mice compared to wild types. Histologically, eNOS-deficient mice had greater leukocyte infiltration, gut injury, and expressed higher levels of the mucosal addressin, MAdCAM-1. These results demonstrate that eNOS plays an important role in limiting injury to the intestine during experimental colitis and altered eNOS content and/or activity may contribute to human IBD.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2004; 35(12):1679-87. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Free radicals play an important role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, the reduction or elimination of adverse oxidant effects can provide novel therapy for IBD. Here, the antioxidant capacity and protective effects of a new class of chemically modified hetastarch (polynitroxyl starch, or PNS) plus 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (Tempol or TPL) (PNS/TPL) were assessed in a model of colitis. The superoxide scavenging capacity of PNS/TPL-that is, the inhibition of the reduction of cytochrome c in the presence of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO)-was evaluated in vitro. The effects of PNS/TPL on X/XO-induced neutrophil endothelial adhesion in vitro were investigated. Also, this study tested the protection produced by PNS/TPL in a mouse model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. PNS/TPL was given intravenously immediately before (< 30 min) and intraperitoneally at 24 and 72 hr after TNBS induction. The body weight and survival rate of the mice were checked daily. Colonic mucosal damage was assessed on the 7th day by measuring intestinal permeability to Evans blue (EB) in vivo. The ability of PNS to reoxidize bioreduced TPL was documented by whole-body electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detection. We found that PNS or TPL exhibits superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, with approximately 2% of SOD activity occurring on a molar basis. The endothelial-neutrophil adherence induced by X/XO was significantly inhibited by PNS/TPL but not by TPL alone. PNS/TPL protected against cachexia and mortality, both usually induced by TNBS. Epithelial permeability was increased significantly in TNBS mice but was ameliorated by the administration of PNS/TPL. In conclusion, PNS/TPL may be beneficial in the treatment or prevention of IBD through its antioxidant effects, which inhibit oxidant-mediated leukocyte adhesion and injury to endothelial cells.
    Inflammation 02/2002; 26(1):1-11. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing clinical evidence suggesting that certain secondary lymphoid tissues (e.g., appendix and spleen) contribute to the initiation and/or perpetuation of ulcerative colitis. In this study, the importance of secondary lymphoid tissues in inducing colitis was assessed experimentally by removing the spleen and/or appendix (or sham operation) prior to inducing colitis in mice. Feeding 2.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water over 7 days induced colitis. Clinical disease activity was assessed based on weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of blood in stools. Additional measurements included white blood cell count and hematocrit, and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) in colon samples. Colonic injury was assessed by histology and computerized image analysis. DSS treatment in sham-operated mice produced colitis associated with weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and mucosal ulceration. Clinical assessment of DSS-treated mice subjected to appendectomy or combined appendectomy/splenectomy exhibited a delayed onset and course of disease activity. Histomorphologic examination revealed significantly lower damage scores and a reduction in ulcerated mucosal surface area. Colonic MPO activity, which correlated with tissue injury and disease activity, was lowest in appendectomized mice. No beneficial effects of splenectomy were observed after 7 days of colitis. These findings support the hypothesis that appendicular lymphoid tissue, but not the spleen, contributes to the development of colitis.
    Journal of Surgical Research 01/2002; 101(2):166-75. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • News in physiological sciences 01/2002; 16:272-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic resection with concomitant periods of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a common occurrence in resectional surgery as well as reduced-size liver transplantation (e.g., split liver or living donor transplantation). However, the I/R induced by these types of surgical manipulations may impair liver regeneration, ultimately leading to liver failure. The objectives of the study were to develop a murine model of reduced-size liver I/R and assess the role of gender in this model of hepatocellular injury. We found that 100% of female mice survived the surgery indefinitely, whereas all male mice had greater initial liver injury and died within 5 days after surgery. The protective effect observed in females appeared to be due to ovarian 17beta-estradiol, as ovariectomy of females or administration of a selective estrogen antagonist to female mice resulted in enhanced liver injury and greater mortality following reduced-size liver I/R. Conversely, 17beta-estradiol-treated male mice exhibited less hepatocellular damage and survived indefinitely. Taken together, these data demonstrate an estrogen-mediated protective pathway(s) that limits or attenuates hepatocellular injury induced by reduced-size liver I/R.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2002; 91(6):2816-22. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several reports have implicated reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites (RONS) in the initiation and/or progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We have investigated the role of three key RONS-metabolizing enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS], superoxide dismutase [SOD], nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADPH] oxidase) in a murine model of IBD. Mice genetically deficient ((-/-)) in either iNOS or the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress SOD, and their respective wild-type (WT) littermates were fed dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. In addition, the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W was used in DSS-treated WT and p47phox(-/-) mice. WT mice responded to DSS feeding with progressive weight loss, bloody stools, elevated serum NO(X) and colonic mucosal injury with neutrophil infiltration. Both the onset and severity of colitis were significantly attenuated in iNOS(-/-) and 1400W-treated WT mice. While the responses to DSS did not differ between WT and p47phox(-/-) mice, enhanced protection was noted in 1400W-treated p47phox(-/-) mice. Interestingly, SOD(Tg) mice exhibited more severe colitis than their WT littermates. These findings reveal divergent roles for superoxide and iNOS-derived NO in intestinal inflammation.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2001; 194(9):1207-18. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have revealed that the expression of several endothelial cell adhesion molecules [e.g., intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1)] is dramatically elevated in the chronically inflamed colonic vasculature of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice reconstituted with congenic CD4+, CD45RB(high) T lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to define the contribution of different endothelial cell adhesion molecules to the lymphocyte-endothelial cell (L/E) adhesion observed in the colonic microvasculature in this experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease. Fluorescently labeled T lymphocytes, isolated from spleens of normal BALB/C mice, were injected intravenously into SCID mice that had been reconstituted with CD4+, CD45RB(high) T lymphocytes either before (3 wk after reconstitution) or after (7 wk postreconstitution) the onset of clinical signs of colitis (i.e., diarrhea, loss of body wt). Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to quantify L/E adhesion in different-sized venules of the colonic submucosa during the development of colitis. L/E adhesion was noted in some segments of the vasculature in precolitic SCID mice (3 wk after reconstitution) but not in similar-sized vessels of control (wild type and SCID) mice. L/E adhesion was observed in a greater proportion of venules and occurred with greater intensity in the mucosa of colitic mice (7 wk postreconstitution). Pretreatment with a blocking monoclonal antibody against MAdCAM-1, but not ICAM-1 or VCAM-1, significantly and profoundly reduced L/E adhesion in colitic mice. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed the localization of T cells on colonic endothelial cells expressing MAdCAM-1. These findings indicate that MAdCAM-1 is largely responsible for recruiting T lymphocytes into inflamed colonic tissue.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 12/2001; 281(5):G1309-15. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is a 60-kDa endothelial cell adhesion glycoprotein that regulates lymphocyte trafficking to Peyer's patches and lymph nodes. Although it is widely agreed that MAdCAM-1 induction is involved in chronic gut inflammation, few studies have investigated regulation of MAdCAM-1 expression. We used two endothelial lines [bEND.3 (brain) and SVEC (high endothelium)] to study the signal paths that regulate MAdCAM-1 expression in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha using RT-PCR, blotting, adhesion, and immunofluorescence. TNF-alpha induced both MAdCAM-1 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This induction was tyrosine kinase (TK), p42/44, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B/poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) dependent. Because MAdCAM-1 is regulated via MAPKs, we examined mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)-1/2 activation in SVEC. We found that MEK-1/2 is activated by TNF-alpha within minutes and is dependent on TK and p42/44 MAPKs. Similarly, TNF-alpha activated NF-kappa B through TK, p42/44, p38 MAPKs, and PARP pathways in SVEC cells. MAdCAM-1 was also shown to be frequently distributed to endothelial junctions both in vitro and in vivo. Cytokines like TNF-alpha stimulate MAdCAM-1 in high endothelium via TK, p38, p42/22 MAPKs, and NF-kappa B/PARP. MAdCAM-1 expression requires NF-kappa B translocation through both direct p42/44 and indirect p38 MAPK pathways in high endothelial cells.
    AJP Cell Physiology 11/2001; 281(4):C1096-105. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • F S Laroux, M B Grisham
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the intestine and/or colon of unknown etiology in which patients suffer from severe diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Active episodes of IBD are characterized by vasodilation, venocongestion, edema, infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory cells, and erosions and ulcerations of the bowel. It is becoming increasingly apparent that chronic gut inflammation may result from a dysregulated immune response toward components of the normal intestinal flora, resulting in a sustained overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators. Many of these Th1 and macrophage-derived cytokines and lipid metabolites are known to activate microvascular endothelial cells, thereby promoting leukocyte recruitment into the intestinal interstitium. This review discusses the basic immune mechanisms involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the gut and describes how a breakdown in this protective response initiates chronic gut inflammation.
    Microcirculation 11/2001; 8(5):283-301. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of laboratories have sought to elucidate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. It is now well appreciated that NO can influence many aspects of the inflammatory cascade ranging from its own expression to recruitment of leucocytes to the effected tissue. With the advent of mice selectively deficient in the various isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the role that NO may play in various disease states can now be examined in vivo. One such syndrome that has gained much attention in recent years is ischaemia and reperfusion-induced tissue injury. Ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important clinical consideration in situations such as transplantation, trauma, liver or bowel resection and haemorrhagic shock. A hallmark of I/R is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the reperfusion phase and it is thought that the production of ROS mediate much of the post-ischaemic tissue injury. This review will examine the current state of knowledge regarding the regulatory mechanisms by which NO can influence various aspects of the inflammatory cascade as well as its role in a model of I/R injury in vivo.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 10/2001; 173(1):113-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced MAdCAM-1 (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1) expression is associated with the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease, but little is known about MAdCAM-1: regulation, or how inflammatory bowel disease therapies modulate MAdCAM-1. To examine how agents currently used to treat inflammatory bowel disease affect MAdCAM-1: induced by tnf-alpha in an in vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease. Endothelial monolayers were pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX): 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), sulfasalazine or interleukin-10: (IL-10: prior to TNF-alpha (20 ng/mL), and MAdCAM-1: measured by Western blotting, RT-PCR, EMSA and lymphocyte adhesion assays. MAdCAM-1: was induced dose- and time-dependently by TNF-alpha on endothelial cells. Either dexamethasone or IL-10: reduced TNF-alpha-induced MAdCAM-1: protein, mRNA and lymphocyte adhesion. However, neither 5-ASA, sulfasalazine nor 6-MP blocked MAdCAM-1 induction. Our data indicate that dexamethasone or IL-10 can exert therapeutic activity in inflammatory bowel disease through MAdCAM-1 inhibition. 5-ASA, sulfasalazine and 6-MP, while beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease, do not directly control MAdCAM-1, and are beneficial through inhibition of other inflammatory processes.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 09/2001; 15(8):1211-8. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)/ONOOH), the product of the diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide (*NO) with superoxide (O(-*)(2)), has been implicated as an important mediator of tissue injury during conditions associated with enhanced *NO and O(-*)(2) production. Although several groups of investigators have demonstrated substantial oxidizing and cytotoxic activities of chemically synthesized peroxynitrite, others have proposed that the relative rates of *NO and production may be critical in determining the reactivity of peroxynitrite formed in situ (Miles, A. M., Bohle, D. S., Glassbrenner, P. A., Hansert, B., Wink, D. A., and Grisham, M. B. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 40-47). In the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which excess O(-*)(2) or *NO production inhibits peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation reactions. Peroxynitrite was generated in situ by the co-addition of a chemical source of *NO, spermineNONOate, and an enzymatic source of O(-*)(2), xanthine oxidase, with either hypoxanthine or lumazine as a substrate. We found that the oxidation of the model compound dihydrorhodamine by peroxynitrite occurred via the free radical intermediates OH and NO(2), formed during the spontaneous decomposition of peroxynitrite and not via direct reaction with peroxynitrite. The inhibitory effect of excess O(-*)(2) on the oxidation of dihydrorhodamine could not be ascribed to the accumulation of the peroxynitrite scavenger urate produced from the oxidation of hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidase. A biphasic oxidation profile was also observed upon oxidation of NADH by the simultaneous generation of *NO and O(-*)(2). Conversely, the oxidation of glutathione, which occurs via direct reaction with peroxynitrite, was not affected by excess production of *NO. We conclude that the oxidative processes initiated by the free radical intermediates formed from the decomposition of peroxynitrite are inhibited by excess production of *NO or O(-*)(2), whereas oxidative pathways involving a direct reaction with peroxynitrite are not altered. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2001; 276(31):28799-805. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • K Kilinc, A Kilinc, R E Wolf, M B Grisham
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    ABSTRACT: The nitration of tyrosine residues in protein to yield 3-nitrotyrosine derivatives has been suggested to represent a specific footprint for peroxynitrite formation in vivo. However, recent studies suggest that certain hemoproteins such as peroxidases catalyze the H(2)O(2)-dependent nitration of tyrosine to yield 3-nitrotyrosine in a peroxynitrite-independent reaction. Because 3-nitrotyrosine has been shown to be present in the postischemic myocardium, we wished to assess the ability of myoglobin to catalyze the nitration of tyrosine in vitro. We found that myoglobin catalyzed the oxidation of nitrite and promoted the nitration of tyrosine. Both nitrite oxidation and tyrosine nitration were H(2)O(2)-dependent and required the formation of ferryl (Fe(+4)) myoglobin. In addition, nitrite oxidation and tyrosine nitration were pH-dependent with a pH optimum of approximately 6.0. Taken together, these data suggest that the acidic pH and low oxygen tension produced during myocardial ischemia will facilitate myoglobin-catalyzed, peroxyntrite-independent formation of 3-nitrotyrosine.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2001; 285(2):273-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NO-derived intermediates formed under aerobic conditions may engage in complex chemical reactions with biologically important molecules. The outcomes of these reactions and their ultimate effect on biological systems depend on the selectivity of the species and the concentrations of different substances present and whether the reaction takes place in the gas or aqueous phase. In this unit conversion of two different compounds to fluorescent products is used to distinguish between oxidative and nitrosative chemistry of different reactive nitrogen oxide species.
    Current protocols in toxicology 05/2001; Chapter 10:Unit 10.8.

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,015.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2007
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport
      • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • Albany Medical College
      • Center for Cardiovascular Sciences
      Albany, NY, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Radiation Biology Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Radiation Biology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • Louisiana State University
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1990–2001
    • Louisiana State University in Shreveport
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Medicine
      Tucson, AZ, United States
  • 1993–2000
    • Overton Brooks VA Medical Center
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
  • 1988–2000
    • LSU Medical Center
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      Columbia, MO, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Wyoming
      Laramie, Wyoming, United States
  • 1995
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 1992
    • The University of Calgary
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1981–1987
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Medicine
      El Paso, Texas, United States
  • 1983
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1978
    • University of South Alabama
      • Department of Pathology
      Mobile, Alabama, United States