[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-adhesion therapies that target α4 integrins (e.g., natalizumab) are thought to work by blocking T-cell recruitment to the intestinal tissues in patients with Crohn's disease (CD); however, little direct evidence is available to confirm this contention. We wished to evaluate the importance of T cell-associated α4 integrins in a chronic colitis model in mice and to determine the effect of natalizumab treatment on intestinal tissue T-cell accumulation in human CD. Adoptive transfer of T cells lacking α4 (α4(-/-)) but not β1 integrin into immunodeficient mice produced significantly attenuated disease. This was correlated with reduced numbers of colon CD4 T cells compared with the control mice; however, tissue distribution of T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) was not affected by the lack of α4. Furthermore, α4(-/-) T cells demonstrated defective homing to the chronically inflamed small intestines and colons. Finally, patients treated with natalizumab showed significant reduction in mucosal CD4 T cells and no skewing in the foxp3(+) Treg or T-bet(+)Th1 fractions thereof. These results demonstrate a direct role for T cell-associated α4β7 but not α4β1 integrins during initiation and perpetuation of chronic colitis. Moreover, our data demonstrated that natalizumab treatment reduced mucosal CD4 T-cell accumulation in CD patients.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 9 April 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) represent the first line of lymphocyte defense against the intestinal bacteria. Although previous studies have demonstrated a protective role of IELs in the development of colitis, the data supporting a regulatory role for IELs are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the suppressive activity of IELs in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model of chronic small and large bowel inflammation. Adoptive transfer of CD8α(+) IELs isolated from small intestines of wild-type (WT) mice into TCR βxδ-deficient (TCR βxδ(-/-)) recipients did not prevent or delay the onset of the disease induced by WT CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. On the contrary, we observed a more rapid onset of wasting and clinical signs of intestinal inflammation when compared with animals injected with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells alone. Histopathological scores of small and large bowel did not differ significantly between the two groups. Transfer of IELs alone did not produce any pathological changes. Real-time PCR analysis of intestinal tissues showed up-regulation of message for T(h)1- and macrophage-derived cytokines in colon and small bowel. Using Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, we were unable to detect any Foxp3(+) cells within the CD8α(+) IELs but did find a small population of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) IELs in the small and large bowel. Using in vitro suppression assay, we found that neither TCRαβ(+)CD8αα(+), TCRαβ(+)CD8αβ(+) nor TCRγδ(+)CD8αα(+) IELs were capable of suppressing CD4(+) T-cell proliferation. Taken together, our data do not support an immunoregulatory role for CD8α(+) IELs in a mouse model of small and large bowel inflammation.
International Immunology 11/2010; 22(12):927-39. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxq447 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mobilization and recruitment of blood and lymphatic vasculatures are widely described in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Although angiogenesis contributes to intense gut inflammation, it remains unclear whether and when lymphangiogenesis amplifies or protects in IBD. The prolonged maintenance of lymphatic (over blood vessels) in inflammation indicates that lymphatic-blood vessel interactions may regulate IBD pathogenesis and restitution. Although lymphatic expansion helps to restore fluid balance and clear cytokines and immune cells, lymphatic failure results in accumulation of these factors and exacerbates IBD. Lymphatic obstruction and remodeling may impair lymphatic pumping, leading to repeated rounds of lymphangiogenesis. Early descriptions of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis describe colon lymphatic congestion, remodeling, expansion, and many other features that are recapitulated in experimental IBD and also by intestinal lymphatic obstruction, supporting lymphangitis as a cause and consequence of IBD. Growth factors, cytokines, gut flora, Toll receptors, and leukocytes all regulate inflammation and gut lymphatic remodeling in IBD. This review summarizes the importance of lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in IBD etiology that may be useful in diagnosis and therapy of gut inflammation.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 1207 Suppl 1(s1):E75-85. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05757.x · 4.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) has been shown to effectively induce tolerance to certain allografts. In addition, it is well known that blockade of costimulatory signals reduces the ability of T cells to respond to alloantigens, prolonging allograft survival in some transplant models. We assessed the effects of single or multiple DSTs in the absence or presence of anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on graft function and host survival in rat liver transplantation (LTx). Fully MHC-mismatched adult male Dark Agouti (DA) and Lewis (LEW) rats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. Heparinized DA blood was administered to naïve LEW rats 7 days before LTx [DST(-7d)], 14 and 7 days before LTx [DST(1 x 2)], twice a week for 2 weeks prior to LTx [DST(2 x 2)] and once a week for 4 weeks prior to LTx [DST(1 x 4)]. For some experiments, two different monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to rat CD28 (JJ316 and JJ319) were administered in combination with some DST treatments. We found that DST administration induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in host survival. Treatment of LEW rats with JJ316 or JJ319 mAb alone failed to prolong graft survival over untreated rats; however, the combination of DST(1 x 2) with JJ316 or JJ319 mAb induced indefinite survival at 100 days following surgery. We found that this protective effect was associated with increased numbers of splenic CD4+ CD45RC- but not CD4+ CD25+ foxp3+ T-cells in long-term survivors. Our data suggest that the combination of suboptimal DST with CD28 mAb induces donor-specific tolerance that correlates with enhanced numbers of regulatory T-cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several transcription factors have been proposed to regulate IBD including the signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT-6).
The role of STAT-6 was examined in the 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of colitis using STAT-6 and wildtype mice.
The disease activity index (DAI) revealed a significant increase in DAI in STAT-6 mice over STAT-6 mice given DSS. Both STAT-6 and wildtype mice displayed severe inflammation and crypt damage. Additionally, STAT-6 mice showed significant injury to the proximal colon compared with their littermate controls. Furthermore, STAT-6 mice receiving DSS had dramatically higher levels of serum nitrite/nitrate than all other groups. STAT-6 animals also displayed higher levels of inteferon-gamma than wildtype mice.
Because STAT-6 has been reported to regulate the expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), our data suggest that, in DSS colitis, STAT-6 may modulate iNOS, to limit NO formation and control the extent of inflammation in the colon. We conclude that STAT-6 may normally play an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, possibly through modulation of iNOS and interferon-gamma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Several transcription factors have been proposed to regulate IBD including the signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT-6).Methods:The role of STAT-6 was examined in the 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of colitis using STAT-6−/− and wildtype mice.Results:The disease activity index (DAI) revealed a significant increase in DAI in STAT-6−/− mice over STAT-6+/+ mice given DSS. Both STAT-6−/− and wildtype mice displayed severe inflammation and crypt damage. Additionally, STAT-6−/− mice showed significant injury to the proximal colon compared with their littermate controls. Furthermore, STAT-6−/− mice receiving DSS had dramatically higher levels of serum nitrite/nitrate than all other groups. STAT-6−/− animals also displayed higher levels of inteferon-γ than wildtype mice.Conclusions:Because STAT-6 has been reported to regulate the expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), our data suggest that, in DSS colitis, STAT-6 may modulate iNOS, to limit NO formation and control the extent of inflammation in the colon. We conclude that STAT-6 may normally play an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, possibly through modulation of iNOS and interferon-γ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%) produces experimental colitis with many features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), (leukocyte extravasation, cachexia, and histopathology). Previous studies suggest that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in blood cells or in the endothelium contribute to this injury. However, until now no study has been performed to directly evaluate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in IBD. We compared disease activity in wild-type (eNOS+/+) and eNOS-deficient (eNOS-/-) mice in the DSS model of colitis. Administration of DSS induced weight loss, stool blood, and overt histopathology in both mouse strains. Disease activity was dramatically increased in eNOS-/- mice compared to wild types. Histologically, eNOS-deficient mice had greater leukocyte infiltration, gut injury, and expressed higher levels of the mucosal addressin, MAdCAM-1. These results demonstrate that eNOS plays an important role in limiting injury to the intestine during experimental colitis and altered eNOS content and/or activity may contribute to human IBD.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2004; 35(12):1679-87. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2003.09.016 · 5.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free radicals play an important role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, the reduction or elimination of adverse oxidant effects can provide novel therapy for IBD. Here, the antioxidant capacity and protective effects of a new class of chemically modified hetastarch (polynitroxyl starch, or PNS) plus 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (Tempol or TPL) (PNS/TPL) were assessed in a model of colitis. The superoxide scavenging capacity of PNS/TPL-that is, the inhibition of the reduction of cytochrome c in the presence of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO)-was evaluated in vitro. The effects of PNS/TPL on X/XO-induced neutrophil endothelial adhesion in vitro were investigated. Also, this study tested the protection produced by PNS/TPL in a mouse model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. PNS/TPL was given intravenously immediately before (< 30 min) and intraperitoneally at 24 and 72 hr after TNBS induction. The body weight and survival rate of the mice were checked daily. Colonic mucosal damage was assessed on the 7th day by measuring intestinal permeability to Evans blue (EB) in vivo. The ability of PNS to reoxidize bioreduced TPL was documented by whole-body electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detection. We found that PNS or TPL exhibits superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, with approximately 2% of SOD activity occurring on a molar basis. The endothelial-neutrophil adherence induced by X/XO was significantly inhibited by PNS/TPL but not by TPL alone. PNS/TPL protected against cachexia and mortality, both usually induced by TNBS. Epithelial permeability was increased significantly in TNBS mice but was ameliorated by the administration of PNS/TPL. In conclusion, PNS/TPL may be beneficial in the treatment or prevention of IBD through its antioxidant effects, which inhibit oxidant-mediated leukocyte adhesion and injury to endothelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic resection with concomitant periods of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a common occurrence in resectional surgery as well as reduced-size liver transplantation (e.g., split liver or living donor transplantation). However, the I/R induced by these types of surgical manipulations may impair liver regeneration, ultimately leading to liver failure. The objectives of the study were to develop a murine model of reduced-size liver I/R and assess the role of gender in this model of hepatocellular injury. We found that 100% of female mice survived the surgery indefinitely, whereas all male mice had greater initial liver injury and died within 5 days after surgery. The protective effect observed in females appeared to be due to ovarian 17beta-estradiol, as ovariectomy of females or administration of a selective estrogen antagonist to female mice resulted in enhanced liver injury and greater mortality following reduced-size liver I/R. Conversely, 17beta-estradiol-treated male mice exhibited less hepatocellular damage and survived indefinitely. Taken together, these data demonstrate an estrogen-mediated protective pathway(s) that limits or attenuates hepatocellular injury induced by reduced-size liver I/R.
Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2002; 91(6):2816-22. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have revealed that the expression of several endothelial cell adhesion molecules [e.g., intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1)] is dramatically elevated in the chronically inflamed colonic vasculature of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice reconstituted with congenic CD4+, CD45RB(high) T lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to define the contribution of different endothelial cell adhesion molecules to the lymphocyte-endothelial cell (L/E) adhesion observed in the colonic microvasculature in this experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease. Fluorescently labeled T lymphocytes, isolated from spleens of normal BALB/C mice, were injected intravenously into SCID mice that had been reconstituted with CD4+, CD45RB(high) T lymphocytes either before (3 wk after reconstitution) or after (7 wk postreconstitution) the onset of clinical signs of colitis (i.e., diarrhea, loss of body wt). Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to quantify L/E adhesion in different-sized venules of the colonic submucosa during the development of colitis. L/E adhesion was noted in some segments of the vasculature in precolitic SCID mice (3 wk after reconstitution) but not in similar-sized vessels of control (wild type and SCID) mice. L/E adhesion was observed in a greater proportion of venules and occurred with greater intensity in the mucosa of colitic mice (7 wk postreconstitution). Pretreatment with a blocking monoclonal antibody against MAdCAM-1, but not ICAM-1 or VCAM-1, significantly and profoundly reduced L/E adhesion in colitic mice. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed the localization of T cells on colonic endothelial cells expressing MAdCAM-1. These findings indicate that MAdCAM-1 is largely responsible for recruiting T lymphocytes into inflamed colonic tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is a 60-kDa endothelial cell adhesion glycoprotein that regulates lymphocyte trafficking to Peyer's patches and lymph nodes. Although it is widely agreed that MAdCAM-1 induction is involved in chronic gut inflammation, few studies have investigated regulation of MAdCAM-1 expression. We used two endothelial lines [bEND.3 (brain) and SVEC (high endothelium)] to study the signal paths that regulate MAdCAM-1 expression in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha using RT-PCR, blotting, adhesion, and immunofluorescence. TNF-alpha induced both MAdCAM-1 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This induction was tyrosine kinase (TK), p42/44, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B/poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) dependent. Because MAdCAM-1 is regulated via MAPKs, we examined mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)-1/2 activation in SVEC. We found that MEK-1/2 is activated by TNF-alpha within minutes and is dependent on TK and p42/44 MAPKs. Similarly, TNF-alpha activated NF-kappa B through TK, p42/44, p38 MAPKs, and PARP pathways in SVEC cells. MAdCAM-1 was also shown to be frequently distributed to endothelial junctions both in vitro and in vivo. Cytokines like TNF-alpha stimulate MAdCAM-1 in high endothelium via TK, p38, p42/22 MAPKs, and NF-kappa B/PARP. MAdCAM-1 expression requires NF-kappa B translocation through both direct p42/44 and indirect p38 MAPK pathways in high endothelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of laboratories have sought to elucidate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. It is now well appreciated that NO can influence many aspects of the inflammatory cascade ranging from its own expression to recruitment of leucocytes to the effected tissue. With the advent of mice selectively deficient in the various isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the role that NO may play in various disease states can now be examined in vivo. One such syndrome that has gained much attention in recent years is ischaemia and reperfusion-induced tissue injury. Ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important clinical consideration in situations such as transplantation, trauma, liver or bowel resection and haemorrhagic shock. A hallmark of I/R is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the reperfusion phase and it is thought that the production of ROS mediate much of the post-ischaemic tissue injury. This review will examine the current state of knowledge regarding the regulatory mechanisms by which NO can influence various aspects of the inflammatory cascade as well as its role in a model of I/R injury in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enhanced MAdCAM-1 (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1) expression is associated with the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease, but little is known about MAdCAM-1: regulation, or how inflammatory bowel disease therapies modulate MAdCAM-1.
To examine how agents currently used to treat inflammatory bowel disease affect MAdCAM-1: induced by tnf-alpha in an in vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease.
Endothelial monolayers were pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX): 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), sulfasalazine or interleukin-10: (IL-10: prior to TNF-alpha (20 ng/mL), and MAdCAM-1: measured by Western blotting, RT-PCR, EMSA and lymphocyte adhesion assays.
MAdCAM-1: was induced dose- and time-dependently by TNF-alpha on endothelial cells. Either dexamethasone or IL-10: reduced TNF-alpha-induced MAdCAM-1: protein, mRNA and lymphocyte adhesion. However, neither 5-ASA, sulfasalazine nor 6-MP blocked MAdCAM-1 induction.
Our data indicate that dexamethasone or IL-10 can exert therapeutic activity in inflammatory bowel disease through MAdCAM-1 inhibition. 5-ASA, sulfasalazine and 6-MP, while beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease, do not directly control MAdCAM-1, and are beneficial through inhibition of other inflammatory processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NO-derived intermediates formed under aerobic conditions may engage in complex chemical reactions with biologically important molecules. The outcomes of these reactions and their ultimate effect on biological systems depend on the selectivity of the species and the concentrations of different substances present and whether the reaction takes place in the gas or aqueous phase. In this unit conversion of two different compounds to fluorescent products is used to distinguish between oxidative and nitrosative chemistry of different reactive nitrogen oxide species.
Current protocols in toxicology 05/2001; Chapter 10:Unit 10.8. DOI:10.1002/0471140856.tx1008s03
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently fluorometric techniques have been developed to determine NO and S-nitrosothiols with improved sensitivity over spectrophotometric techniques based on similar chemistry. This unit contains protocols for detection and quantification of NO from chemical reactions and from cellular systems, and of S-nitrosothiols in chemical, biochemical, and cellular experiments.
Current protocols in toxicology 05/2001; Chapter 10:Unit10.4. DOI:10.1002/0471140856.tx1004s00
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nitroxyl anion (NO-) is a highly reactive molecule that may be involved in pathophysiological actions associated with increased formation of reactive nitrogen oxide species. Angeli's salt (Na2N2O3; AS) is a NO- donor that has been shown to exert marked cytotoxicity. However, its decomposition intermediates have not been well characterized. In this study, the chemical reactivity of AS was examined and compared with that of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and NO/N2O3. Under aerobic conditions, AS and ONOO- exhibited similar and considerably higher affinities for dihydrorhodamine (DHR) than NO/N2O3. Quenching of DHR oxidation by azide and nitrosation of diaminonaphthalene were exclusively observed with NO/N2O3. Additional comparison of ONOO- and AS chemistry demonstrated that ONOO- was a far more potent one-electron oxidant and nitrating agent of hydroxyphenylacetic acid than was AS. However, AS was more effective at hydroxylating benzoic acid than was ONOO-. Taken together, these data indicate that neither NO/N2O3 nor ONOO- is an intermediate of AS decomposition. Evaluation of the stoichiometry of AS decomposition and O2 consumption revealed a 1:1 molar ratio. Indeed, oxidation of DHR mediated by AS proved to be oxygen-dependent. Analysis of the end products of AS decomposition demonstrated formation of NO2- and NO3- in approximately stoichiometric ratios. Several mechanisms are proposed for O2 adduct formation followed by decomposition to NO3- or by oxidation of an HN2O3- molecule to form NO2-. Given that the cytotoxicity of AS is far greater than that of either NO/N2O3 or NO + O2, this study provides important new insights into the implications of the potential endogenous formation of NO- under inflammatory conditions in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is a life-threatening re-emerging disease, yet it is still not clear how bloodstage malarial parasites are killed. Nitric oxide (NO), which has potent anti-microbial activity, may represent an important killing mechanism. The production of NO during descending Plasmodium chabaudi parasitemia, a period when parasites are killed by the immune response, supports this concept. However, NOS20/0 and NOS30/0 mice as well as mice treated with NO synthase 2 (NOS2) inhibitors do not develop exacerbated malaria, indicating that NO production is not necessary for the suppression of P. chabaudi parasitemia. It is possible due to the plasticity in the immune response during malaria that Ab-mediated immunity is enhanced in the absence of NO, thereby explaining the lack of exacerbated malaria in NOS-deficient mice even though NO may function in protection. However, NOS2- and B cell-deficient mice, which cannot use Ab-mediated immunity, suppress their parasitemia with a similar time course as B cell-deficient controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with Propionibacterium acnes to elicit high levels of macrophage-derived NO have a similar time course of P. chabaudi parasitemia as P. acnes-treated NOS20/0 mice, which do not produce NO; this indicates that NO is not sufficient for parasite killing. Collectively, these results indicate that NO is not necessary or sufficient to resolve P. chabaudi malaria.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2000; 165(6):3317-23. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.165.6.3317 · 5.36 Impact Factor