[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GSK812397 is a potent entry inhibitor of X4-tropic strains of HIV-1, as demonstrated in multiple in vitro cellular assays (e.g., in peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] and a viral human osteosarcoma [HOS] assay, mean 50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s]+/-standard errors of the means were 4.60+/-1.23 nM and 1.50+/-0.21 nM, respectively). The primary in vitro potency of GSK812397 was not significantly altered by the addition of serum proteins (2.55 [+/-0.12]-fold shift in the presence of human serum albumin and alpha-acid glycoprotein in the PBMC assay). Pharmacological characterization of GSK812397 in cell-based functional assays revealed it to be a noncompetitive antagonist of the CXCR4 receptor, with GSK812397 producing a concentration-dependent decrease in both an SDF-1-mediated chemotaxis and intracellular calcium release (IC50s were 0.34+/-0.01 nM and 2.41+/-0.50 nM, respectively). With respect to the antiviral activity of GSK812397, it was effective against a broad range of X4- and X4R5-utilizing clinical isolates. The potency and efficacy of GSK812397 were dependent on the individual isolate, with complete inhibition of infection observed with 24 of 30 isolates. GSK812397 did not show any detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and was highly selective for CXCR4, as determined using a wide range of receptors, enzymes, and transporters. Moreover, GSK812397 demonstrated acceptable pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability across species. The data demonstrate that GSK812397 has antiviral activity against a broad range of X4-utilizing strains of HIV-1 via a noncompetitive antagonism of the CXCR4 receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several novel amine substituted N-(1H-benzimidazol-2ylmethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-quinolinamines were synthesized which had potent activity against HIV-1. The synthetic approaches adopted allowed for variation of the substitution pattern and resulting changes in antiviral activity are highlighted. This led to the identification of compounds with low and sub-nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GSK983, a novel tetrahydrocarbazole, inhibits the replication of a variety of unrelated viruses in vitro with EC(50) values of 5-20 nM. Both replication of the adenovirus Ad-5 and the polyoma virus SV-40, and episomal maintenance of human papillomaviruses (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are susceptible to GSK983. The compound does not inhibit all viruses; herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and lytic replication of EBV were not susceptible at concentrations below 1 microM. GSK983 does inhibit the growth of cell lines immortalized by HTLV-1, EBV, HPV, SV40 and Ad-5, with EC(50) values in the range of 10-40 nM. Depending on the cell line, the compound induces either apoptosis or cytostasis at concentrations over 20 nM. GSK983 also inhibits cell lines immortalized by non-viral mechanisms, but has little effect on primary cells. The CC(50) values for keratinocytes, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, endothelial, and bone marrow progenitor cells are all above 10 microM. The pattern of inhibition, which includes diverse viruses as well as growth of immortalized cells of varied origins, suggests the target is a host cell protein, rather than a viral protein. Preliminary mechanism studies indicate that GSK983 acts by inducing a subset of interferon-stimulated genes.
Antiviral research 02/2009; 82(1):1-11. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.12.015 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The initial event by which M-tropic HIV strains gain access to cells is via interaction of the viral envelope protein gp120 with the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and CD4. Inhibition of this event reduces viral fusion and entry into cells in vitro. The authors have employed BacMam baculovirus-mediated gene transduction to develop a cell/cell fusion assay that mimics the HIV viral/cell fusion process and allows high-throughput quantification of this fusion event. The assay design uses human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells stably transfected with cDNAs expressing CCR5, CD4, and long terminal repeat (LTR)-luciferase as the recipient host cell. An HEK-293 cell line transduced with BacMam viral constructs to express the viral proteins gp120, gp41, tat, and rev represents the virus. Interaction of gp120 with CCR5/CD4 results in the fusion of the 2 cells and transfer of tat to the HOS cell cytosol; tat, in turn, binds to the LTR region on the luciferase reporter and activates transcription, resulting in an increase in cellular luciferase activity. In conclusion, the cell/cell fusion assay developed has been demonstrated to be a robust and reproducible high-throughput surrogate assay that can be used to assess the effects of compounds on gp120/CCR5/CD4-mediated viral fusion into host cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: M-tropic HIV strains gain access to their host cell via interaction of the viral envelope protein gp120 with the CCR5 coreceptor and CD4 located on the host cell. Inhibition of this event has been shown to reduce viral fusion and entry into cells in vitro. In the present study we describe the development of a novel cell/cell fusion assay that both mimics the viral/cell fusion process and allows quantification of this event. The assay has been characterized both biochemically, using selective antibodies, and pharmacologically, using selective CCR5 antagonists, and has been shown to be selective for examining the interaction of viral gp120 with hCCR5/hCD4. In addition, compound pIC50 data obtained from this cell/cell fusion assay correlates well (r2 = 0.7274) with data obtained from an HIV-1 replication assay. Furthermore, this assay has the added ability to simultaneously determine compound toxicity, thus allowing rapid determination of active, non-toxic compounds. In conclusion, the cell/cell fusion assay developed has been demonstrated to be a suitable surrogate assay that can be used to assess the effects of compounds on gp120/CCR5/CD4 mediated viral fusion into host cells.
Receptors and Channels 02/2003; 9(2):117-23. DOI:10.1080/10606820308248